Part 1: A Code For Everyday Living (Al-Adab al-Mufrad) by Imam Al-Bukhari

I. PARENTS

1. Honouring Parents: The Words of Allah Almighty: “We have instructed man to honour his parents.” (29:8)

1. Abu ‘Amr ash-Shaybani said, “The owner of this house (and he pointed at the house of ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ud) said, “I asked the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, which action Allah loves best. He replied, ‘Prayer at its proper time.’ ‘Then what?’ I asked. He said, ‘Then kindness to parents.” I asked, ‘Then what?’ He replied, ‘Then jihad in the Way of Allah.'” He added, “He told me about these things. If I had asked him to tell me more, he would have told me more.”

2. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar said, “The pleasure of the Lord lies in the pleasure of the parent. The anger ofthe Lord lies in the anger of the parent.”

2. Dutifulness to One’s Mother

3. Bahz ibn Hakim’s grandfather said, “I asked, ‘Messenger of Allah, to whom should I be dutiful?’ ‘Your mother,’ he replied. I asked, ‘Then whom?’ ‘Your mother,’ he replied. I asked, ‘Then whom?’ ‘Your mother,’ he replied. I asked, ‘Then whom?’ ‘Your mother,’ he replied. I asked, ‘Then to whom should I be dutiful?’ ‘Your father,’ he replied, ‘and then the next closest relative and then the next.'”

4. ‘Ata’ ibn Yasar said that a man came to Ibn ‘Abbas and said, “I asked a woman to marry me and she refused to marry me. Another man asked her and she agreed to marry him. I became jealous and killed her. Is there any way for me to repent?” He asked, “Is your mother alive?” “No,” he replied. He said, “repent to Allah Almighty and try to draw near Him as much as you can.” ‘Ata’ said, “I went to Ibn ‘Abbas and asked him, ‘Why did you ask him whether his mother was alive?’ He replied, ‘I do not know of any action better for bringing a person near to Allah than dutifulness to his mother.'”

3. Dutifulness to One’s Father

5. Abu Hurayra said, “The Prophet was asked, ‘Messenger of Allah, to whom should I be dutiful?’ ‘Your mother,’ he replied. He was asked, ‘Then whom?’ ‘Your mother,’ he replied. He was asked, ‘Then whom?’ ‘Your mother,’ he replied. He was asked, ‘Then whom?’ ‘Your mother,’ he replied. He was asked, ‘Then whom?’ He replied, ‘Your father.'”

6. Abu Hurayra reported: “A man came to the Prophet of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and asked, ‘What do you command me to do?’ He replied, ‘Be dutiful towards your mother.’ Then he asked him the same question again and he replied, ‘Be dutiful towards your mother.’ He repeated it yet again and the Prophet replied, ‘Be dutiful towards your mother.’ He repeated the question a fourth time and the reply was, ‘Be dutiful towards your mother.’ Then he put the question a fifth time and the Prophet said, ‘Be dutiful towards your father.'”

4. Dutifulness to Parents, even if they are unjust

7. Ibn ‘Abbas said, “If any Muslim obeys Allah regarding his parents, Allah will open two gates of the Garden for him. If there is only one parent, then one gate will be opened. If one of them is angry, then Allah will not be pleased with him until that parent is pleased with him.” He was asked, “Even if they wrong him?” “Even if they wrong him” he replied.

5. Gentle words to Parents

8. Taysala ibn Mayyas said, “I was with the Najadites [Kharijites] when I committed wrong actions which I supposed were major wrong actions. I mentioned that to Ibn ‘Umar. He inquired, ‘What are they?” I replied, ‘Such-and-such.’ He stated, ‘These are not major wrong actions. There are nine major wrong actions. They are: associating others with Allah, killing someone, desertion from the army when it is advancing, slandering a chaste woman, usury, consuming an orphan’s property, heresy in the mosque, scoffing, and causing one’s parents to weep through disobedience.’ Ibn ‘Umar then said to me, ‘Do you wish to separate yourself from the Fire? Do you want to enter the Fire?’ ‘By Allah, yes!’ I replied. He asked, ‘Are your parents still alive?’ I replied, ‘My mother is.’ He said, ‘By Allah, if you speak gently to her and feed her, then you will enter the Garden as long as you avoid the major wrong actions.'”

9. Hisham ibn ‘Urwa related this ayat from his father, “Take them under your wing, out of mercy, with due humility.” (17:24)

6. Repaying Parents

10. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “A child cannot repay his father unless he finds him as a slave and the buys him and sets him free.”

11. Sa’id ibn Abi Burda said, “I heard my father sat that Ibn ‘Umar saw a Yamani man going around the House while carrying his mother on his back, saying, ‘I am your humble camel. If her mount is frightened, I am not frightened.’ Then he asked, ‘Ibn ‘Umar? Do you think that I have repaid her?’ He replied, ‘No, not even for a single groan.’

“Ibn ‘Umar did tawaf and came to the Maqam and prayed two rak’ats. He said, ‘Ibn Abi Musa, every two rak’ats make up for everything that has happened between them.'”

12. Marwan used to make Abu Hurayra his agent and he used to be located in Dhu’l-Hulayfa. His mother was in one house and he was in another. When he wanted to go out, he would stop at her door and say, “Peace be upon you, mother, and the mercy of Allah and His blessing.” She would reply, “And peace be upon you, my son, and the mercy of Allah and His blessing.” Then he said, “May Allah have mercy on you as you raised me when I was a child.” She answered, “May Allah have mercy on you as you were dutiful to me when I was old.” Whenever he wanted to go inside, he would do something similar.

13. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr said, “A man came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and made a pledge to him that he would do hijra. He left his parents who were in tears. The Prophet said, ‘Go back to them and make them laugh as you made them weep.'”

14. Abu Hazim reported that Abu Murra, the mawla of Umm Hani’ bint Abi Talib had told him that he rode with Abu Hurayra to his land in al-‘Aqiq. When he entered his land, he shouted out in his loudest voice, “Peace be upon you, mother, and the mercy of Allah and His blessing!” She replied, “And peace be upon you and the mercy of Allah and His blessing.” He said, “May Allah have mercy on you as you raised me when I was a child.” She replied, “My son, may Allah repay you well and be pleased with you as you were dutiful towards me when I was old.”

7. Disobedience to Parents

15. Abu Bakra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said,”Shall I tell you which is the worst of the major wrong actions?” “Yes, Messenger of Allah,” they replied. He said, “Associating something else with Allah and disobeying parents.” he had been reclining, but then he said up and said, “And false witness.” Abu Bakr said, “He continued to repeat it until I said, ‘Is he never going to stop?'”

16. Warrad, the scribe of al-Mughira ibn Shu’ba, said, “Mu’awiya wrote to al-Mughira, saying, ‘Write down for me what you heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say.'”

Warrad said, “He dictated to me and I wrote out, ‘I heard him forbid asking too many questions, wasting money and chit-chat.'”

8. “Allah curses whoever curses his parents”

17. Abu’t-Tufayl said, “‘Ali was asked, ‘Did the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, give you something special which he did not give to anyone else?’ He replied, ‘The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did not give me anything special which he did not give to everyone else except for what I have in my sword scabbard.’ He brought out a piece of paper. Written on that paper was: ‘Allah curses anyone who sacrifices an animal to something other than Allah. Allah curses anyone who steals a milestone. Allah curses anyone who curses his parents. Allah curses anyone who gives shelter to an innovator.'”

9. Being Dutiful to Parents as long as that does not entail disobedience to Allah

18. Abu’d-Darda’ said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, recommended nine things to me: ‘Do not associate anything with Allah, even if you are cut to pieces or burned. Do not abandon a prescribed prayer deliberately. Anyone who abandons it will forfeit Allah’s protection. Do not drink wine – it is the key to every evil. Obey your parents. If they command you to abandon your worldly possessions, then leave them for them. Do not contend with those in power, even if you think that you are in the right. Do not run away from the army when it is advances, even if you are killed while your companions run away. Spend on your wife out of your means. Do not raise a stick against your wife. Cause your family to fear Allah, the Almighty and Exalted.'”

19. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr said, “A man came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, ‘I have come to make you a pledge that will do hijra although I have left my parents in tears.”

The Prophet said, ‘Go back to them and make them laugh as you made them cry.'”

20. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr said, “A man came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, wanting to do jihad. The Prophet asked, ‘Are your parents alive?’ ‘Yes,’ he replied. he said, ‘Then exert yourself on their behalf.'”

10. The One who Fails his Parents will not enter the Garden

21. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Disgrace! Disgrace! Disgrace!” They said, “Messenger of Allah, who?” He said, “The one who fails his parents or one of them when they are old will enter the Fire.”

11. Allah prolongs the life of someone who is dutiful towards his parents

22. Mu’adh said, “Bliss belongs to someone who is dutiful towards his parents. Allah Almighty will prolong his life.”

12. One does not ask forgiveness for his father if he is an idolater

23. Ibn ‘Abbas mentioned the words of the Almighty, “When one or both of them reach old age with you, do not say ‘Ugh!’ to them out of irritation and do not be harsh with them but speak to them with gentleness and generosity. Take them under your wing, out of mercy, with due humility and say: ‘Lord, show mercy to them as they did in looking after me when I was small.” (17:23-24) He said, “This was abrogated in Surat at-Tawba: ‘It is not right for the Prophet and those who have iman to ask forgiveness for the mushrikun even if they are close relatives after it has become clear to them that they are the Companions of the Blazing Fire.’ (9:113)”

13. Dutifulness towards a parent who is an idolater

24. Sa’id ibn Abi Waqqas said: “Four ayats were revealed about me. The first was when my mother swore she would neither eat nor drink until I left Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. Allah Almighty revealed, ‘But if they try to make you associate something with Me about which you have no knowledge, do not obey them. Keep company with them correctly and courteously in this world’ (31:15) The second was when I took a sword that I admired and said, ‘Messenger of Allah, give me this!’ Then the ayat was revealed: ‘They will ask you about booty.’ (8:1) The third was when I was ill and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came to me and I said, ‘Messenger of Allah, I want to divide my property. Can I will away a half?’ He said, ‘No.’ ‘A third?’ I asked. He was silent and so after that it was allowed to will away a third. The fourth was when I had been drinking wine with some of the Ansar. One of them hit my nose with the jawbone of a camel. I went to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and Allah Almighty revealed the prohibition of wine.”

25. Asma’ bint Abi Bakr said, “In the time of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, my mother came to me hoping (I would be dutiful). I asked the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, ‘Do I have to treat her well?’ ‘Yes,’ he replied.”

Ibn ‘Uyayna said, “Then Allah revealed about her, ‘Allah does not forbid you from being good to those who have not fought you in the deen.’ (60:8)”

26. Ibn ‘Umar said, “‘Umar saw a silk robe for sale. He said, ‘Messenger of Allah, would you buy this robe and wear it on Jumu’a and when delegations visit you?’ He replied, ‘Only a person who has no portion in the Next World could wear this.’ Then the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was given some robes made of the same material. He sent one of the robes to ‘Umar.

‘Umar exclaimed, ‘How can I wear it when you said what you said about it?’ The Prophet replied, ‘I did not give it to you so that you could wear it. You can sell it or give it to someone.’ ‘Umar sent it to a brother of his in Makka who had not yet become Muslim.”

14. A person should not revile his parents

27. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr said that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Reviling one’s parents is one of the great wrong actions.” They asked, “How could he revile them?” He said, “He reviles a man who then in turn reviles his mother and father.”

28. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr said, “A man’s reviling his father is one of the major wrong actions in the sight of Allah Almighty.”

15. The punishment for disobeying parents

29. Abu Bakra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “There is no wrong action more likely to bring punishment in this world in addition to what is stored up in the Next World than oppression and severing ties of kinship.”

30. ‘Imran ibn Husayn said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘What do you say about fornication, drinking wine and theft?’ ‘Allah and His Messenger know best,’ we replied. He stated, ‘They are acts of outrage and there is punishment for them, but shall I tell you which is the greatest of the great wrong actions? Associating with Allah Almighty and disobeying parents.’ He had been reclining, but then he sat up and said, ‘and lying.'”

16. Making Parents weep

31. Ibn ‘Umar said, “Making parents weep is part of disobedience and one of the major wrong actions.”

17. The Supplication of Parents

32. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Three supplications are answered without a doubt: the supplication of someone who is oppressed, the supplication of someone on a journey, and the supplication of parents for their children.”

33. Abu Hurayra reported that he heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, “No human child has ever spoken in the cradle except for ‘Isa ibn Maryam, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and the companion of Jurayj.” Abu Hurayra asked, “Prophet of Allah, who was the companion of Jurayj?” The Prophet replied, “Jurayj was a monk who lived in a hermitage. There was a cowherd who used to come to the foot of his hermitage and a woman from the village used to come to the cowherd. “One day his mother came while he was praying and called out, ‘Jurayj!’ He asked himself, ‘My mother or my prayer?’ He concluded that he should prefer the prayer. She shouted to him a second time and he again asked himself, ‘My mother or my prayer?’ He thought that he should prefer the prayer. She shouted a third time and yet again he asked himself, ‘My mother or my prayer?’ He again concluded that he should prefer the prayer. When he did not answer her, she said, ‘Jurayj, may Allah not let you die until you have looked at the faces of the beautiful women.’ Then she left.

“Then the village woman was brought before the king after she had given birth to a child. He asked, ‘Whose is it?’ ‘Jurayj’s,’ she replied. He asked, ‘The man in the hermitage?’ ‘Yes,’ she answered. He ordered, ‘Destroy his hermitage and bring him to me.’ They hacked at his hermitage with axes until it collapsed. They bound his hand to his neck with a rope and took him along to the king. When he passed by the beautiful women, he saw them and smiled. They were looking at him along with the people.

“The king asked, ‘Do you know what this woman claims?’ ‘What does she claim?’ he asked. He replied, ‘She claims that you are the father of her child.’ He asked her, ‘Where is the child?’ They replied, ‘It is in her room.’ He went to the child and said, ‘Who is your father?’ ‘The cowherd,’ he replied. The king said, ‘Shall we build your hermitage out of gold?’ ‘No,’ he replied. He asked, ‘Of silver?’ ‘No,’ he replied. The king asked, ‘What shall we build it with?’ He said, ‘Put it back the way you found it.’ Then the king asked, ‘What made you smile.’ ‘Something I recognised,’ he replied, ‘The supplication of my mother overtook me.’ Then he told him about it.”

18. Offering Islam to a Christian mother

34. Abu Hurayra said, “Neither Jew nor Christian has heard me and then not loved me. I wanted my mother to become Muslim, but she refused. I told her about it and she still refused. I went to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, ‘Pray to Allah for me.’ He did so and I went to her. She was inside the door of the house and said, ‘Abu Hurayra, I have become Muslim.’ I told the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and I asked, ‘Make supplication to Allah for me and my mother.’ He said, ‘O Allah, make people love Abu Hurayra and his mother.'”

19. Dutifulness towards Parents after their Death

35. Abu Usayd said, “We were with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, when a man asked, ‘Messenger of Allah, is there any act of dutifulness which I can do for my parents after their death?’ He replied, ‘Yes. There are four things: Supplication for them, asking forgiveness for them, fulfilling their pledges, and being generous to friends of theirs. You only have ties of kinship through your parents.”

36. Abu Hurayra said, “The dead person can be raised a degree after his death. He said, ‘My Lord, how is this?’ He was told, ‘Your child can ask for forgiveness for you.'”

37. Ibn Sirin said, “We were with Abu Hurayra one night and he said, ‘O Allah, forgive Abu Hurayra and his mother and whoever asks for forgiveness for both of them.'” Muhammad said, “We used to ask for forgiveness for them so that we would be included in Abu Hurayra’s supplication.”

38. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “When a person dies, all action is cut off for him with the exception of three things: sadaqa which continues, knowledge which benefits, or a righteous child who makes supplication for him.”

39. Ibn ‘Abbas reported that a man said, “Messenger of Allah, my mother died without a will. Will it help her if I give sadaqa on her behalf?” “Yes,” he replied.

20. The Dutifulness of someone who maintains what his father loved

40. ‘Abdullah ibn Dinar reported that Ibn ‘Umar passed by a bedouin during a journey. The bedouin’s father had been a friend of ‘Umar’s. The bedouin said, “Am I not the son of so-and-so?” He said, “Yes, indeed.” Ibn ‘Umar ordered that he be given a donkey which was following him. He also took off his turban and gave it to him, One of the men with him said, “Wouldn’t two dirhams be enough for him?”

He replied, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘Maintain what your father loved. Do not cut it off so that Allah puts out your light.”

41. Ibn ‘Umar reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The strongest form of dutifulness is when a man maintains relations with the people his father loved.”

21. Do not cut off someone with whom your father maintained ties

42. Sa’d ibn ‘Ubada az-Zurqi reported that his father said, “I was sitting in the mosque in Madina with ‘Amr ibn ‘Uthman when ‘Abdullah ibn Salam walked by, leaning on his nephew. ‘Amr left the assembly and showed his concern for him.” Then Ibn Salam returned to them and said, “Do what you like, ‘Amr ibn ‘Uthman,” (and he said it two or three times) By the One who sent Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, with the Truth, it is in the Book of Allah Almighty (and he said it twice), ‘Do not cut off those your father has joined so that that extinguishes your light.'”

22. Love is inherited

43. Abu Bakr ibn Hazm reported that one of the Companions of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “It is enough that I tell you that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘Love is inherited.'”

23. A man should not call his father by his name nor sit down before him nor walk in front of him

44. Abu Hurayra saw two men and said to one of them, “Who is this man in relation to you?” He is my father,” he replied. He said, “Do not call him by his own name nor walk in front of him nor sit down before him.”

24. Can a man call his father by his kunya?

45. Shahr ibn Hawshab said, “We went out with Ibn ‘Umar and Salim said to him, ‘Peace, Abu ‘Abdu’r-Rahman.'”

46. ‘Abdullah ibn Dinar said reported that Ibn ‘Umar said, “But Abu Hafs ‘Umar decided…”

II. TIES OF KINSHIP

25. The Duty of maintaining ties of kinship

47. Kulayb ibn Manfa’a reported that his grandfather asked, “Messenger of Allah, towards whom should I be dutiful?” He replied, “Your mother, your father, your sister and your brother. Then your mawla (client) has the next right against you and then your relatives who are connected.”

48. Abu Hurayra said, “When the following ayat was revealed (‘Warn your near relatives’ (26:214)), the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, stood up and called out, saying, ‘Banu Ka’b ibn Lu’ayy! Save yourselves from the Fire! Banu ‘Abdu Manaf! Save yourselves from the Fire! Banu Hashim! Save yourselves from the Fire! Banu ‘Abdu’l-Muttalib! Save yourselves from the Fire!

Fatima, daughter of Muhammad! Save yourselves from the Fire! I do not have anything for you in respect to Allah except for the fact that you have ties of kinship.'”

26. Maintaining ties of kinship

49. Abu Ayyub al-Ansari told him that a bedouin came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, while he was travelling. He asked, “Tell me what will bring me near to the Garden and keep me far from the Fire.” He replied, “Worship Allah and do not associate anything with Him, perform the prayer, pay zakat, and maintain ties of kinship.”

50. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Allah Almighty created creation. When He had finished it, ties of kinship rose up. Allah said, ‘Stop!’

They said, ‘This is the place for anyone seeking refuge with You from being cut off’ Allah said, ‘Are you not content that I should maintain connections with the one who maintains connection with you and I should cut off the one who cuts you off?’ It replied, ‘Yes indeed, my Lord.’ He said, ‘You have that.'”

Then Abu Hurayra said, “If you wish, you can recite, ‘Is it not likely that, if you did turn away, you would cause corruption in the earth and sever your ties of kinship?’ (47:22)”

51. Ibn ‘Abbas spoke about the ayat, “Give your relatives their due, and the very poor and travellers” (17:26), and said, “He begins by commanding the most pressing of the obligatory dues and He directs us to the best action if we have any money. He says: ‘Give your relatives their due, and the very poor and travellers.’ He also teaches us what we can say if we have nothing. He says, ‘But if you do turn away from them, seeking the mercy you hope for from your Lord, then speak to them with words that bring them ease’ (17:28) in the form of an excellent promise. Things are as they are, but they might change if Allah wills. ‘Do not keep your hand chained to your neck’ and not give anything, ‘but do not extend it either to its full extent’ and give all you have, ‘so that you sit there blamed’ as those who come to you later and find you have nothing will blame you, ‘and destitute.’ (17:29)” He said, “The person to whom you have given everything has made you destitute.”

27. The excellence of maintaining ties of kinship

52. Abu Hurayra said, “A man came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, ‘Messenger of Allah! I have relatives with whom I maintain ties while they cut me off. I am good to them while they are bad to me. They behave foolishly towards me while I am forbearing towards them.’ The Prophet said, ‘If things are as you said, it is as if you were putting hot ashes on them and you will not lack a supporter against them from Allah as long as you continue to do that.'”

53. ‘Abdu’r-Rahman ibn ‘Awf heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, “Allah, the Almighty and Exalted, said, ‘I am the Merciful (ar-Rahman). I have created ties of kinship and derives a name for it from My Name. If anyone maintains ties of kinship, I maintain connection with him, and I shall cut off anyone who cuts them off.'”

54. Abu’l-‘Anbas said, “I visited ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr at al-Waht (some land of his in Ta’if). He said, ‘The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, pointed his finger towards us and said, “Kinship (rahim) us derived from the All-Merciful (Rahman). When someone maintains the connections of ties of kinship, they maintain connection with him. If someone cuts them off, they cut him off. They will have an unfettered, eloquent tongue on the Day of Rising.”‘”

55. ‘A’isha reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Kinship (rahim) is derived from Allah. If anyone maintains ties of kinship Allah maintains ties with him. If anyone cuts them off, Allah cuts him off.”

28. Maintaining ties of kinship will prolong life

56. Anas ibn Malik reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Anyone who wants to have his provision expanded and his term of life prolonged should maintain ties of kinship.”

57. Abu Hurayra heard that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, “Anyone who wants to have his provision expanded and his term of life lengthened should maintain ties of kinship.”

29. Allah loves the one who maintains ties of kinship

58. Ibn ‘Umar said, “If someone fears his Lord and maintains ties of kinship, his term of life will be prolonged, he will have abundant wealth and his people will love him.”

59. Ibn ‘Umar said, “If someone his Lord and maintains ties of kinship, his term of life will be prolonged, his wealth will be abundant and his family will love him.”

30. Being dutiful to the closest relative and then the next closest

60. It is reported that al-Miqdam ibn Ma’dikarib heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, “Allah enjoins you to be dutiful to your mothers. Then He enjoins you to be dutiful to your mothers. Then He enjoins you to be dutiful to your fathers. Then He enjoins you to be dutiful to your next closest relative and then to your next closest relative.”

61. Abu Ayyub Sulayman, the mawla of ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan, said, “Abu Hurayra came to us on a Thursday evening, the night before Jumu’a. He said, ‘Every individual who severs ties of kinship is constricted when he leaves us. No one left until he had said that three times. Then a young man went to one of his paternal aunts with whom he had severed ties two years previously. He went to her and she asked him, ‘Nephew! What has brought you?’ He replied, ‘I heard Abu Hurayra say such-andsuch.’

She said, ‘Go back to him and ask him why he said that.’ Abu Hurayra said, ‘I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, “The actions of the children of Adam are presented before Allah Almighty on Thursday evening, the night before Jumu’a. He does not accept the actions of someone who has severed ties of kinship.”‘”

62. Ibn ‘Umar said, “Nothing that a man spends on himself and his family, anticipating a reward from Allah, will fail to be rewarded by Allah Almighty. He should begin with those whose support is his responsibility. If there is something left over, he should spend it on his next nearest relative and then  the next nearest. If there is still something left over, he can give it away.”

31. Mercy will not descend on people when there is someone among them who severs ties of kinship

63. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Awfa reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Mercy does not descend on a people when there is someone among them who severs ties of kinship.”

32. The wrong action of someone who severs ties of kinship

64. Jubayr ibn Mu’tim reported that he heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, “The one who severs ties of kinship will not enter the Garden.”

65. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Ties of kinship (rahim) is derived from the All-Merciful (ar-Rahman). They say. ‘My Lord! I havebeen wronged! My Lord! I have been cut off! My Lord! I haveÉ! I have!’ Allah answers them, ‘Are you not content that I cut off the one who cuts you off and I maintain connections with the one who maintains connections with you?'”

66. Sa’id ibn Sam’an heard Abu Hurayra seeking refuge from the power of children and fools. Sa’id said, “Ibn Hasana al-Juhani told me that he asked Abu Hurayra, ‘What is the token of that?’ He replied, ‘That he severs ties of kinship, obeys someone who is in error, and disobeys the correct guide.'”

33. The punishment of someone who cuts off ties of kinship in this world

67. Abu Bakra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “There is no wrong action which Allah is swifter to punish in this world – in addition to the punishment which He has stored up for the wrongdoer in the Next World – than cutting off ties of kinship and injustice.”

34. The one who maintains ties of kinship is not the one who reciprocates

68. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Theone who maintains ties of kinship is not the one who reciprocates. The one who maintains ties of kinship is the one who, when his relatives cut him off, maintains ties of kinship.”

35. The excellence of someone who maintains relations with relatives who are unjust

69. Al-Bara’ said, “A bedouin came and said, ‘Prophet of Allah! Teach me an action which will enable me to enter the Garden.’ He said, “The question is a broad one, even though you have asked it in only a few words. Free someone. Set a slave free.’ He said, ‘Are they not the same thing?’ ‘No,’ he replied, ‘Freeing someone is setting someone free yourself. Setting a slave free is to contribute to the price of setting him free. Lend an animal for milking which has a lot of milk and treat your relatives kindly. If you cannot do that, then command the good and forbid the bad. If you cannot do that, then restrain your tongue from everything except what is good.”

36. Those who maintained ties of kinship in the Jahiliyya and then became Muslim

70. Hakim ibn Hizam said to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, “Do you think that the acts of worship which I used to do in the time of the Jahiliyya – maintaining relations with relatives, setting slaves free and sadaqa – will bring me a reward?” Hakim said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “When you become Muslim, you keep the good actions you have already done.”

37. Maintaining ties of kinship with the idolater and giving gifts

71. Ibn ‘Umar said, “‘Umar saw a silk robe for sale. He said, ‘Messenger of Allah, would you buy this robe and wear it on Jumu’a and when delegations visit you?’ He replied, ‘Only a person who has no portion in the Next World could wear this.’ Then the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was given some robes made of the same material. He sent one of the robes to ‘Umar. ‘Umar exclaimed, ‘How can I wear it when you said what you said about it?’ The Prophet replied, ‘I did not give it to you so that you could wear it. You can sell it or give it to someone.’ ‘Umar sent it to one of his half-brothers by his mother who was still an idolater.” (see 26)

38. Learn your lineages so that you can maintain ties of kinship

72. Jubayr ibn Mut’im said that he heard ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab say on the minbar, “Learn your lineages so that you can maintain ties of kinship. By Allah, if there are some bad feelings between a man and his brother and he knows that there is kinship between him and that man, that will prevent him from breaking with him.”

73. Ibn ‘Abbas said, “Keep a record of your lines of descent so that you can maintain ties of kinship. He will not make his relatives distant when they are close relatives, even if they live far away. He will not consider them to be close relatives if they are distant ones, even if they live near to him. Every time of kinship will come on the Day of Rising in front of each individual and testify on his behalf that he has maintained that tie of kinship if he did indeed maintain it. It will testify against him that he cut if off if he cut it off.”

III. MAWLAS

39. Can a mawla say, “I am from so-and-so”?

74. ‘Abdu’r-Rahman ibn Habib said, “‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar asked me, ‘Which clan are you from?’ I replied, ‘From Taym of Tamim.’ He asked, ‘One of themselves or one of their mawlas?’ ‘One of their mawlas,’ I replied. He said, ‘So why did you not say, ‘One of their mawlas’?”

40. The mawla of a people is one of them

75. Rifa’a ibn Rafi’ reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to ‘Umar, “Gather your people [the Muhajirun] for me.” He did so. When they reached the door of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, ‘Umar came to him and said, “I have gathered my people for you.” The Ansar heard that and said, “Revelation has been revealed about Quraysh.” People came to see and hear what would be said to them [the Muhajirun]. The Prophet, may Allah bless him andgrant him peace, came out and stood in the midst of them. He said, “Are there those among you who are not of you?” They replied, “Yes, there are those among us with whom we have made treaties as well as our nephews and our mawlas.” The Prophet said, “Our ally is one of us. Our nephew is one of us. Our mawla is one of us.” You who are listening: our friends among you are those who have taqwa of Allah. If you are one of them, then that is good. If that is not the case, then look out. People will bring their actions on the Day of Rising and you will come with burdens and you will be shunned.”

Then he called out, “O people!” He raised his hands and put them on the heads of Quraysh. “O people! Quraysh are the people of trustworthiness. If anyone who oppresses them (and one of the transmitters thought that he said, ‘faults them’), Allah will overturn him.” He repeated that three times.

IV. LOOKING AFTER GIRLS

41. Someone who looks after three or two daughters

76. ‘Uqba ibn ‘Amir reported that he heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, “If someone has three daughters and is patient with them and clothes them from his wealth,they will be a shield against the Fire for him.”

77. Ibn ‘Abbas reported that he heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, “There is no Muslim who has two daughters and takes good care of them but that he will enter the Garden.”

78. Jabir ibn ‘Abdullah reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Anyone who has three daughters and provides for them, clothes them and shows mercy to them will definitely enter the Garden.” A man from the people said, “And two daughters, Messenger of Allah?” He said, “And two.”

42. Someone who looks after three sisters

79. Abu Sa’id al-Khudri said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “No one has three daughters or three sisters and is good to them but that he will enter the Garden.”

43. The excellence of someone who looks after his daughter after she has been sent back home

80. Musa ibn ‘Ali reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Shall I show you the greatest sadaqa (or one of the greatest forms of sadaqa)?” He replied, “Yes, indeed, Messenger of Allah!” He went on, “To provide for your daughter when she is returned to you and you are her sole source of provision.”

81. Suraqa ibn Ju’shum reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said the like of previous hadith.

82. Al-Miqdam ibn Ma’dikarib heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, “What you feed yourself is sadaqa for you. What you feed your child is sadaqa for you. What you feed your wife is sadaqa is for you. What you feed your servant is sadaqa for you.”

44. Disliking for someone to hope for the death of daughters

83. It is reported that there was a man who had daughters who was with Ibn ‘Umar when he wished that his daughters were dead. Ibn ‘Umar became angry and said, “While you are providing for them!”

V. LOOKING AFTER CHILDREN

45. A child is a source of both honour and cowardice

84. ‘A’isha said, “Abu Bakr said, ‘By Allah, there is no man on the face of the earth that I love better than ‘Umar.’ Then he went out and came back and said, ‘How did I swear, daughter?’ I told him what he had said. Then he said, ‘He is dearer to me although one’s child is closer (to one’s heart).'”

85. Ibn Abi Nu’m said, “I was with Ibn ‘Umar when a man asked him about the blood of gnats. He asked, ‘Where are you from?’ ‘From the people of Iraq,’ he replied. He said, ‘Look at this man! He asks about the blood of gnats when they murdered the grandson of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace! I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, ‘They are my sweet basil in this world.'”

46. Carrying a child on one’s shoulders

86. Al-Bara’ said, “I saw the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, when al-Hasan was on his shoulder. He was saying, ‘O Allah, I love him, so love him.'”

47. A child is a source of joy

87. Jubayr ibn Nufayr said, “One day we were sitting when al-Miqdad ibn al-Aswad when a man passed us. The man said, ‘Blessing be to those two eyes which saw the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. By Allah, I wish that I had seen what you have seen and witnessed what you have witnessed!’ This angered al-Miqdad and that surprised me as the man had said nothing but good things. Then he turned to them and said, ‘What made the man desire to summon back what Allah has taken away? Does he not realise what his situation would be if he had seen him? By Allah, if certain people had been with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, Allah would have thrown them on their faces into Hellfire since they would neither have answered nor confirmed him? Do you not praise Allah Almighty since He brought you forth and you only know your Lord and confirm what your Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, brought? You see enough affliction in other people. By Allah, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was sent in the harshest state in which any Prophet was ever sent – in a gap (in the line of prophethood) and the time of Ignorance. They did not believe that the deen was better than worshipping idols. He brought the Discrimination by which it is possible to discriminate between the true and false, and which can part a father from his child. Then a man will think of his father, child or brother as an unbeliever. Allah has loosened the locks of his heart by faith and he knows that the other person will be destroyed in the Fire. Therefore his eye is not cool since he knows that the one he loves will be in the Fire. It is what Allah says, “Those who say, ‘Our Lord, give us joy in our wives and children.” (25:74)'”

48. A person who makes supplication that his friend will have a lot of money and many children

88. Anas said, “One day I visited the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and there was only myself, my mother and my aunt, Umm Hiram. When he came to us, he asked us, ‘Shall I pray with you?’ It was not the time of an obligatory prayer.” One of those listening to the person relating this asked, “Where did he put in Anas in relation to him?” The reply was, “He put him to his right.”

The report from Anas continues, “Then he prayed with us and made supplication for us, the people of the house, that we would have the best of the blessings of this world and the Next. My mother said, ‘Messenger of Allah, make supplication to Allah for your little servant,’ and he asked Allah to grant me every blessing. At the end of his supplication, he said, ‘O Allah, grant him a lot of money and many children and bless him!'”

49. Mothers are merciful

89. Anas ibn Malik said, “A woman came to ‘A’isha and ‘A’isha gave her three dates. She gave each of her two children a date and kept one date for herself. The children ate the two dates and then looked at their mother. She took her date and split in it two and gave each child half of it. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came and ‘A’isha told him about it. He said, ‘Are you surprised at that? Allah will show her mercy because of her mercy towards her child.'”

50. Kissing Children

90. ‘A’isha said, “A bedouin came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and asked, “Do you kiss your children? We do not kiss them.’ The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘Can I put mercy in your hearts after Allah has removed it from them?'”

91. Abu Hurayra said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, kissed Hasan ibn ‘Ali while al-Aqra’ ibn Habis at-Tamimi was sitting with him. Al-Aqra’ observed, ‘I have ten children and I have kissed any of them.’ The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, looked at him and said, ‘Whoever does not show mercy will not be shown mercy.'”

51. The parent teaching adab and his duty towards his child

92. Numayr ibn Aws said, “They used to say, ‘Correct action is a gift from Allah, but adab comes from the parents.”

93. An-Nu’man ibn Bashir said that his father had carried him to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. He said, ‘Messenger of Allah, I testify to you that I have given an-Nu’man such-and-such. (It was a slave). The Prophet asked, “Have you given each of your children the same”?” “No,” he replied. He said, “Then testify to someone other than me.” Then the Prophet asked, “Do you not want to show equal kindness to all of them?” “Indeed I do,” he replied. He said, “Then do not do it.”

52. The dutifulness of a father to his child

94. Ibn ‘Umar said, “Allah has called them the ‘dutiful’ (al-Abrar) because they are dutiful (birr) to

their parents and children. Just as you have a duty which you owe your parent, so you have a duty which you owe your child.”

53. Someone who does not show mercy will not be shown mercy

95. Abu Sa’id that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘Someone who does not show mercy will not be shown mercy.”

96. Jarir ibn ‘Abdullah said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘Allah will not show mercy to someone who does not show mercy to people.”

97. Same as 96.

98. ‘A’isha said, “Some bedouins came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. One of their men said to him, ‘Messenger of Allah, do you kiss children? By Allah, we do not kiss them.’ The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘Can I put mercy in your hearts after Allah has removed it from them?'”

99. Abu ‘Uthman reported that ‘Umar wanted to appoint a man as governor. The governor said, “I have such-and-such a number of children and I have never kissed any of them.” ‘Umar said, “Allah Almighty will only show mercy to the kindest of His slaves.”

54. Mercy consists of a hundred parts

100. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Allah Almighty has divided mercy into one hundred parts. He kept ninety-nine parts and sent down one part to earth. Because of that one single part, creatures are merciful to one another so that even the mare will lift its hooves away from its foal so that it does not trample on it.”

VI. NEIGHBOURS

55. The recommendation to be kind to neighbours

101. ‘A’isha reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Jibril, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, kept on recommending that I treat neighbours well until I thought that he would order me to treat them as my heirs.”

102. Abu Shurayh al-Khuza’i reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Anyone who believes in Allah and the Last Day should be good to his neighbours. Anyone who believes in Allah and the Last Day should be generous to his guest. Anyone who believes in Allah and the Last Day should be say what is good or be silent.”

56. The neighbour’s due

103. Al-Miqdad ibn al-Aswad reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, asked his Companions about fornication and they said, “It is unlawful. Allah and His Messenger have made it unlawful.” He said, “It is less serious for a man to fornicate with ten women than for him to fornicate with his neighbour’s wife.” Then he asked them about stealing. They replied, “It is unlawful. Allah and His Messenger have made it unlawful.” He said, “It is less serious for a man to steal from ten houses than it is for him to steal from his neighbour’s house.”

57. Begin with the neighbour

104. Ibn ‘Umar reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Jibril kept on recommending that I treat my neighbours well until I thought that he would order me to treat them as my heirs.”

105. Mujahid reported that a sheep was slaughtered for ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr. He asked his slave, ‘Have you given any to our Jewish neighbour? Have you given any to our Jewish neighbour? I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, ‘Jibril kept on recommending that I treat my neighbours well until I thought that he would order me to treat them as my heirs.'”

106. Same as 101.

58. You give to the neighbour whose door is the nearest to you

107. ‘A’isha said, “I said, ‘Messenger of Allah, I have two neighbours. To whom should I give my gifts?’ He replied, ‘To the one whose door is nearer to you.'”

108. same as 108 with a different isnad.

59. The nearest and then next nearest neighbour

109. Al-Hasan was asked about the neighbour and said, “The term ‘neighbour’ includes the forty houses in front a person, the forty houses behind him, the forty houses on his right and the forty houses on his left.”

110. Abu Hurayra said, “Do not begin with your more distant neighbours before the closer ones. Rather begin with your nearest neighbours before the most distant ones.”

60. The person who shuts his door against his neighbour

111. Ibn ‘Umar said, “There was a time when no one was more entitled to a person’s money than his Muslim brother. Now people love their dirhams and dinars more than their Muslim brother. I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, ‘How many a neighbour will be brought together with his neighbour on the Day of Rising! He will say, “Lord, this man closed his door to me and refused to show me common kindness!”‘”

61. A person should not eat his fill without seeing to his neighbour

112. Ibn ‘Abbas told Ibn az-Zubayr, “I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, ‘A man is not a believer who fills his stomach while his neighbour is hungry.'”

62. When there is a lot of stew, it is divided between the neighbours

113. It is reported that Abu Dharr said, “My dear friend, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, enjoined three things on me: ‘Hear and obey, even if the ruler is a slave with his limbs amputated. When you cook a stew, put a lot of water in it and then go and see the people of a neighbouring houseand give them a reasonable amount of it. Pray the prayers at their proper  prayers. Then if you find that the imam has already prayed, you have guarded your prayer (by already having performed it). If not, it is a supererogatory prayer (since you have done it again).”

114. Abu Dharr reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Abu Dharr! If you cook some stew, make a lot of it and fulfil your duty to your neighbours (or divide it among your neighbours).”

63. The best neighbour

115. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr ibn al-‘As reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The best of companions in the sight of Allah Almighty is the best of them towards his companion, and the best of neighbours in the sight of Allah is the best of them towards his neighbour.”

64. The righteous neighbour

116. Nafi’ ibn ‘Abdu’l-Harith reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Part of the happiness of the Muslim man includes a spacious dwelling, righteous neighbour and a good mount”

65. The bad neighbour

117. Abu Hurayra said, “Part of the supplication of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was, “Oh Allah, I seek refuge with you from an evil neighbour in the Eternal World. A neighbour in this world can be changed.

118. Abu Musa reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The Final Hour will not come until a man kills his neighbour, his brother and his father.”

66. A person should not injure his neighbour

119. Abu Hurayra said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was asked, ‘Messenger of Allah! A certain woman prays in the night, fasts in the day, acts and gives sadaqa, but injures her neighbours with her tongue.’ The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘There is no good in her. She is one of the people of the Fire.’ They said, ‘Another woman prays the prescribed prayers and gives bits of curd as sadaqa and does not injure anyone.’ The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘She is one of the people of the Garden.'”

120. ‘Umara ibn Ghurab reported that an aunt of his told him that she asked ‘A’isha, Umm al-Mu’minin, “If a woman’s husband desires her and she refuses to give herself to him either because she is angry or not eager, is there anything wrong in that?” “Yes,” she replied. “Part of his right over you is that if he desires you when you are on a saddle, you must not refuse him.” She said, “I also asked her, ‘If one of us is menstruating and she and her husband only have a single cover, what should she do?’ She replied, ‘She should wrap her wrapper around her and sleep with him. He can have what is above it. I will tell you what the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did on one of his nights with me. I had cooked some barley and made loaf for him. He came in, stopped at the door, and then went into the mosque. When he wanted to sleep, he closed the door, tied up the waterskin, turned the cup over and put out the light. I waited for him and he ate the loaf. He did not go until I fell asleep. Later he felt the cold and came and got me up. “Warm me! Warm me!” he said. I said, “I am menstruating.” He said, “Then uncover your thighs,” so I uncovered my thighs and he put his cheek and head on my thighs until he was warm. Then a pet sheep belonging to our neighbour came in. I went and took the load away. I disturbed the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he woke up, so I chased the sheep to the door. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Take what you got of your loaf and do not injure your neighbour’s sheep.”‘”

121. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “A person whose neighbours are not safe from his evil will not enter the Garden.”

67. A woman should not disdain anything which her female neighbour gives her, even if it is only the hooves of a sheep

122. ‘Amr ibn Mu’adh al-Ashhali reported that his grandmother said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘Believing women! Do not let any of you women disdain her female neighbour’s gift, even if it is only a burnt sheep’s hoof.'”

123. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Muslim women! Muslim women! A woman should not disdain her female neighbour’s gift, even if it is only a sheep’s hoof.”

68. The neighbour’s complaint

124. Abu Hurayra said, “A man said, ‘Messenger of Allah, I have a neighbour who does me harm.’ He said, ‘Go and take your things out into the road.’ He took his things out into the road. People gathered around him and asked, ‘What’s the matter?’ He replied, ‘A neighbour of mine injures me and I mentioned it to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. He told me, “Take your things out into the road.”‘ They began to say, ‘O Allah, curse him! O Allah, disgrace him!’ When the man heard that, he came out to him and said, ‘Go back to your home. By Allah, I will not harm you.'”

125. Abu Juhayfa said, “A man complained to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, about his neighbour. The Prophet said, ‘Take your bags and put them in the road and whoever passes them will curse him.’ Everyone who passed him began to curse that neighbour. Then he went to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, ‘How many people I met!’ He said, ‘The curse of Allah is on top of their curse!’ Then he told the one who had complained, ‘You have enough,’ or words to that effect.”

126. Jabir said, “A man came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, to complain to him about the enmity of his neighbour. While he was sitting between the Corner and the Maqam, the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, approached with a man who was wearing a white garment. They went to the Maqam where they were praying for the dead. He went up to the Prophet may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, ‘May my mother and my father be your ransom, Messenger of Allah! Who is this man I see with you wearing the white garment?’ ‘You saw him?’ he asked. ‘Yes,’ the man replied. He said, ‘Then you have seen much good. That was Jibril, may Allahbless him and grant him peace, the Messenger of my Lord. He kept on recommending that I treat myneighbours  well until I thought that he would order me to make them my heirs.'”

69. Someone who harms his neighbour until he forces him to leave

127. Thawban said, “When two men cut each other off for more than three days and one of them dies, then they both die while relations between them are severed and both of them are destroyed. There is no man who wrongs his neighbour to the extent that he forces him until he makes him leave his home who is not destroyed.”

70. A Jewish neighbour

128. Mujahid said, “I was with ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr while his slave was skinning a sheep. He said, ‘Boy! When you finish, start with the Jewish neighbour.’ A man there exclaimed, ‘Jewish? May Allah correct you!’ He replied, ‘I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, recommend that we treat our neighbours well until we feared (or we thought) that he would order us to make them our heirs.'”

VII. GENEROSITY AND ORPHANS

71. Generosity

129. Abu Hurayra said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was asked, ‘Which people are the most generous?” He replied, ‘The most generous of them in the sight of Allah are those with the most taqwa.’ They said, ‘That is not what we are asking about.’ He said, ‘The most generous of people was Yusuf, the Prophet of Allah, son of the Prophet of Allah, who was the son of the Intimate Friend of Allah (Ibrahim).’ They said, ‘That is not what we are asking about.’ He said, ‘Are you asking about those of Arab origin?’ ‘Yes,’ they replied. He said, ‘The best of you in the Jahiliyya is the best of you in Islam when you have understanding from Allah).”

72. Kindness to both the pious and the deviant

130. Mundhir at-Tawri reported what Muhammad ibn ‘Ali (ibn al-Hanafiyya) said about, “Is the repayment of kindness anything except kindness?” He said, “It is not denied to either the pious or the deviant.”

73. The excellence of someone who provides for an orphan

131. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The person who strives on behalf of the widows and poor is like those who strive in the way of Allah and like those who fast in the day and pray at night.”

74. The excellence of someone who provides for his orphan

132. ‘A’isha said, “A woman came to me who had two of her daughters with her. She asked me for something, but I could not find anything except for a single date which I gave her. She divided it between her daughters and then got up and left. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came in and I told him what had happened. He said, ‘Whoever looks after these girls in any way and is good to them will have them as a veil from the Fire.'”

75. The excellence of someone who provides for an orphan in the company of his parents

133. Umm Sa’id bint Murra al-Fihri related from her father that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “I and the guardian of an orphan will be in the Garden like these two.” (His two fingers)

134. Al-Hasan reported that an orphan used to eat with Ibn ‘Umar. One day he called for food and looked for this orphan but could not find him. He arrived after Ibn ‘Umar had finished. Ibn ‘Umar called for more food to be brought to him but they did not have any. So he was brought sawiq and honey. He said, “Here, have this! By Allah, you have not been cheated!” Al-Hasan said, “By Allah, Ibn ‘Umar was not cheated!”

135. Sahl ibn Sa’d reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “I and the guardian of the orphan will be in the Garden like that,” indicating his forefinger and middle finger.

136. Abu Bakr ibn Hafs reported that ‘Abdullah would not eat unless an orphan was at his table.

76. The best house is a house in which orphans are well treated

137. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The best house among the Muslims is the house in which orphans are well treated. The worst house among the Muslims is the house in which orphans are ill treated. I and the guardian of the orphan will be in the Garden like that,” indicating his two fingers.

77. Be like a merciful father to orphans

138. Dawud said, “Be like a merciful father towards the orphan. Know that you will reap as you sow. How ugly poverty is after wealth! More than that: how ugly is misguidance after guidance! When you make a promise to your friend, fulfil your promise. If you do not, it will bring about enmity between you and him. Seek refuge in Allah from a companion who, when you mention something to him, does not help you and who does not remind you when you forget.”

139. Al-Hasan said, “I remember a time among the Muslims when their men would shout (to remind their families), ‘O family! O family! (Look after) your orphan! Your orphan! O family! O family! (Look after) your orphan! Your poor person! Your poor person! O family! O family! (Look after) your neighbour! Your neighbour!’ Time has been swift in taking the best of you while every day you become baser.”

Hamza ibn Nujayh said that he heard al-Hasan say, “If you wish, you can see a deviant going 30,000 times deeper into the Fire. What is wrong with him? May Allah fight him! He has sold his portion from Allah for a price of a goat. If you like, you can see him constricted and desirous of the path of Shaytan. There is no one to warn him – neither himself nor anyone else.”

140. Asma’ bint ‘Ubayd said, “I said to Ibn Sirin, ‘I have an orphan in my care.’ He said, ‘Treat him as you would treat your own child. Beat him as you would beat your own child.'”

78. The excellence of a woman who perseveres with her child and does not re-marry

141. ‘Awf ibn Malik reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “I and a woman who is widowed and is patient with her child will be like these two fingers in the Garden.”

79. Disciplining an orphan

142. Shumaysa al-‘Atakiyya said, “The disciplining of orphans was mentioned in the presence of ‘A’isha and she said, ‘I would beat an orphan until he submits.'”

VIII. CHILDREN DYING

80. The excellence of someone whose child has died

143. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “No Muslim who has had three of his children die young will enter the Fire, except to expiate an unfulfilled oath.”

144. Abu Hurayra reported that a woman came to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, with a child. She said, “Make supplication for him. I have buried three children.” He said, “You have built a strong barrier against the Fire.”

145. Khalid al-‘Absi said, “A son of mine died and I felt intense grief over his loss. I said, ‘Abu Hurayra, have you heard anything from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, to cheer us regarding our dead?’ He replied, ‘I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him  peace, say, “Your children are roaming freely in the Garden.”‘”

146. Jabir ibn ‘Abdullah said, “I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, ‘If anyone has three of his children die young and resigns them to Allah, he will enter the Garden.’ We said, ‘Messenger of Allah, what about two?’ ‘And two,’ he said.” Mahmud ibn Labid said to Jabir, “By Allah, I think that if you had asked, ‘And one?’ he would have given a similar answer.” He said, “By Allah, I think so too.”

147. same as 144, different isnad.

148. Abu Hurayra reported, “A woman came to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, ‘Messenger of Allah! We cannot come to sit with you, so set aside a day when we can come.’ He said, ‘Your appointed place is the house of so-and-so.’ He came to the women at that time. Part of what he said to them was, ‘There is no woman among you who has three children die, resigning them to Allah, who will not enter the Garden.’ A woman said, ‘And if it is two?’ He replied, ‘And if it is two.'”

149. Umm Salim said, “While I was with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, he said, ‘Umm Salim! There is no Muslim couple who have three of their children die without Allah admitting them to the Garden by virtue of His mercy to them.’ I said, ‘And if there are two?’ He said, ‘And if there are two.'”

150. Al-Hasan reported that Sa’sa’a ibn Mu’awiya told him that he met Abu Dharr finding him alone without any relatives and asked, “Don’t you have any children, Abu Dharr?” He said, “I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, ‘There is no Muslim who has three of his children die before they reach puberty without Allah admitting him to the Garden by virtue of His mercy to them. There is no man who frees a Muslim with Allah Almighty making each of the limbs of the one who is freed a ransom for each of the emancipator’s limbs.'”

151. Anas ibn Malik reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “If someone has three children die before they reach puberty, Allah will admit him and them to the Garden by virtue of His mercy.”

81. Someone whose miscarried child dies

152. Sahl ibn al-Hanzala, who had no children, said, “I would prefer to have a miscarried child while I am a Muslim and resign that child to Allah than to have the entire world and what it contains.”

153. ‘Abdullah reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Which of you prefers the money of heirs to his own money?” “Messenger of Allah,” they replied, “there is none of us who does not prefer his own wealth to that of his heirs.” The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Know that there is not one of you who does not prefer his heirs’ money to his own. Your wealth is what you have spent (for Allah) and the wealth of your heirs is what you leave.”

154. He said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Who do you reckon to be the childless among you?” They said, “They are those who do not have any children.” No,” he said, “The childless are those who have not sent any of their children ahead (i.e. none of their children have died).”

155. He reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Who do you reckon to be the one who most often throws people down (in a fight)?” They replied, “The one whom men do not throw down.” He said, “No the one who throws people down is the person whocontrols himself when he is angry.”

IX. BEING A MASTER

82. Being a good master

156. ‘Ali ibn Talib reported that when the illness of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, deepened, he said, “‘Ali! Bring me a page on which I can write something for my community after which they will not go astray.” ‘Ali said, “I feared that he would die before I could do that, so Isaid, ‘I will remember better than the paper.’ His head was between my forearm and my leg. He recommended the prayer, zakat and kind treatment of slaves. he spoke like that until he died.” He commanded him to testify, “There is no god but Allah and Muhammad is His slave and Messenger. Anyone who testifies to that is saved from the Fire.”

157. ‘Abdullah reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Respond to invitations. Do not reject gifts. Do not beat Muslims.”

158. ‘Ali reported that the last words of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, were: “The prayer! The prayer! Fear Allah concerning your slaves!”

83. Being a bad owner

159. Abu’d-Darda’ used to say to people. “We know you better than the veterinarian knows his animals. We recognise the best of you from the worst of you. The best of you is the one whose good is hoped for and the one whose evil you are safe from. As for the worst of you, that is the person whose good is not hoped for and whose evil you are not safe from and he does not free slaves.”

160. Abu Umama said, “Ingratitude is typified by someone who refuses to give, lives alone, and beats his slave.”

161. Al-Hasan reported that a man ordered one of his slaves to draw water using one of his camels and the man fell asleep. The master came with a torch and put it in his face and the slave fell into the well. In the morning, the slave went to ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab and ‘Umar saw what had happened to his slave and therefore ‘Umar set him free.”

84. Selling a slave among the Bedouins

162. ‘Amra reported that ‘A’isha had made one of her slavegirls a mudabbar (one who would be set free after her death). Then ‘A’isha became ill and her nephews consulted a gypsy doctor. He said, “You are asking me for information about a bewitched woman. A slavegirl of hers has bewitched her.” ‘A’isha was told and asked the girl, “Have you put a spell on me?” “Yes,” she replied. “Why?’ she asked. “Because you will never free me,” she answered. Then ‘A’isha said, “Sell her to the worst masters among the Arabs.”

85. Forgiving a slave

163. Abu Umama said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came with two slaves and gave one of them to ‘Ali and said, ‘Do not beat him. I have forbidden beating the people of the prayer and I saw him praying before we came.’ He gave Abu Dharr a slave and said, “I recommend that you treat him well,’ so Abu Dharr set him free. He said, ‘What have you done?’ He replied, ‘You commanded me to treat him well, so I set him free.'”

164. Anas said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came to Madina without any servant. Abu Talha took my hand and brought me to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, ‘Prophet of Allah!’ This is Anas, a clever and intelligent boy. Let him serve him.'”

Anas said, “I served him when he was at home and on journeys from the time he came to Madina until he died, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. He never said to me about anything I had done,

‘Why did you do this?’ nor did he say to me about something I had not done, ‘Why did you not do such-and-such?'”

86. When a slave steals

165. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “When a slave steals, sell him, even for a half an awqiya.”

87. A slave who commits wrong actions

166. Laqit ibn Sabira reported that his father said, “I went to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, when a shepherd had driven a lamp into the evening pasture. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘Do not suppose that we have a hundred sheep and do not want to give you more than only a lamb. When the shepherd brought the lamb, we sacrificed a sheep in its place.'”

Laqit said, “Part of what he said is, ‘Do not beat your wife as you would beat your slavegirl. When you wash your nose, snuff up water freely unless you are fasting.'”

88. Someone who finishes something for his slave, fearing people’s bad opinion

167. Abu’l-‘Aliyya said, “We were ordered to finish off things for the servant and to measure andcount because we did not want to allow them to  accustom themselves to bad habits nor for anyone to think evil of us.”

80. Someone who counts things for his slave fearing people’s opinion

168. Salman said, “I count the soup bones for my slave, fearing people’s opinion.”

169. same as 168.

90. Disciplining the servant

170. Yazid ibn ‘Abdullah said, “‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar sent a slave of his with some gold or silver – and he changed it and deferred the exchange (i.e. he changed gold into silver or vice versa and did not take the money straightaway. This is haram.) Then he went back to Ibn ‘Umar who gave him a painful beating. He said, ‘Go and take what is mine and do not exchange it!'”

171. Abu Mas’ud said, “I was beating a slave of mine when I heard a voice behind me, ‘Know, Abu Mas’ud, that Allah is able to call you to account for this slave.’ I turned around and there was the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. I said, ‘Messenger of Allah, he is free for the sake of Allah!’ He said, ‘If you had not done that, the Fire would have touched you (or the Fire would have burned you).'”

91. Do not say, “May Allah make your face ugly”

172. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Do not say, ‘May Allah make your face ugly.'”

173. Abu Hurayra said, “Do not say, ‘May Allah make your face ugly and any face like your face.’ Allah Almighty created Adam, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in the form that He ordained.”

92. Avoid striking the face

174. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “When one of you strikes his servant, let him avoid his face.”

175. Jabir said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, passed by an animal which had been branded and its nostrils were smoking. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘Allah curses any person who does this. No one should mark the face nor strike it.'”

93. Someone who slaps his slave should free him even though he is under no obligation to do so

176. Hilal ibn Yasaf said, “We used to sell linen in the house of Suwayd ibn Muqarrin. A slavegirl came out and said something to one of the men and that man slapped her. Suwayd ibn Muqarrin asked him, ‘Did you slap her face? We were seven and we only had a single servant. Then one of us slapped her and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, ordered him to set her free.'”

177. Ibn ‘Umar said, “I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, ‘The expiation for someone who slaps his slave or beats him more than he deserves is to set him free.'”

178. Mu’awiya ibn Muqarrin said, “I slapped a mawla of mine and he fled. Then my father called me and said, ‘I will tell you a story. We, the sons of Muqarrin, were seven, and we had one servant. Then one of us slapped her and that was mentioned to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. He said, ‘Order them to set her free.’ The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was told. ‘She is the only servant they have.’ He said, ‘Then let them hire her and when they no longer need her, let her go on her way.'”

179. Shu’ba said, “Muhammad ibn al-Munkadir said to me, ‘What is your name?’ I replied, ‘Shu’ba.’ He said, ‘Abu Shu’ba related to me that when Suwayd ibn Muqarrin al-Muzani saw a man strike his slave, he said. ‘Do you not know that the face is forbidden? In the time of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, we were seven brothers and we only had one servant. Then one of us slapped him (sic.) and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, commanded that we set him free.'”

180. Abu ‘Umar Zadhan said, “We were with Ibn ‘Umar when he summoned a slave of his whom he had beaten and he uncovered his back. ‘Does it hurt?’ he asked. ‘No,’ he replied. Then he set him free.

He picked up a stick from the ground and then said, ‘I do not have a reward (for him) worth as much as this stick.’ I asked, ‘Abu ‘Abdu’r-Rahman, why do you say this?’ He replied, ‘I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, “The expiation of someone who beats a slave more than he deserves or slaps his face is that he must set him free.”‘”

94. The qisas (retaliation) of the slave

181. ‘Ammar ibn Yasir said, “None of you beats his slave unjustly without the slave receiving retaliation from him on the Day of Rising.”

182. Abu Layla said, “Salman went out and when his animal fodder fell from the manger, he told his servant, ‘If it were not that I fear retaliation, I would make you hurt (i.e. by beating you).”

183. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Give people their rights. Even the hornless sheep will take retaliation from the horned sheep.”

184. Umm Salama reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was in his house and called for a slave of his (or hers) and she was slow in coming. The anger showed in his face. Umm Salama went to the curtain and found the slavegirl playing. He had a siwak-stick with him and said, ‘”Were it not that I fear retaliation on the Day of Rising with this siwak.”

Muhammad ibn al-Haytham added: She was playing with an animal. He said, “When the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, brought her, Umm Salama said, ‘Messenger of Allah! Let her swear that she did not hear you!’ She said, ‘He had a siwak stick in his hand.'”

185. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “On the Day of Rising, retaliation will be taken from anyone who gives a beating.”

186. same as 185.

95. “Clothe them from the clothes you yourself wear.”

187. ‘Ubada ibn al-Walid said, “My father and I went out to seek knowledge from the Ansar in this area before they died. The first one we met was Abu’l-Yasar, the Companion of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, who had been one of his salves. Abu’l-Yasar was wearing one striped robe and one mu’afiri robe and his slave was also wearing one striped robe and one mu’afiri robe. I said to him, ‘Uncle! Why don’t you take your slave’s striped robe and give him your mu’afiri robe, or take his mu’afiri robe and give him your striped robe? Then he would have a complete outfit and you would have a complete outfit.’ He wiped his head and said, ‘O Allah, bless him in it! Nephew, these two eyes of mine have seen and these two ears of mine have heart and my heart has retained,’ and he pointed towards his heart, ‘that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Feed them from what you yourself eat and clothe them from the clothes you yourself wear.” It is easier for me to give him the goods of this world than to have my good actions taken away from me on the Day of Rising.'”

188. Jabir ibn ‘Abdullah said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, advised that slaves should be well-treated. He said, ‘Feed them from what you eat and clothe them from what you wear. Do not punish what Allah has created.'”

96. Insulting slaves

189. Al-Ma’rur ibn Suwayd said, “I saw Abu Dharr wearing a robe and his slave was also wearing a robe. We asked him about that and he said, ‘I insulted a man and he complained about me to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to me, ‘Did you insult him by his mother?’ ‘Yes,’ I replied. He said, ‘Your brothers are your property. Allah has put them under your authority. If someone has his brother under his authority, he should feed him from what he eats and clothe him from what he wears and not burden him with anything that will be too much for him. If you burden him with what will be too much for him, then help him.'”

97. Should a person help his slave?

190. Sallam ibn ‘Amr reported from one of the Companions of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Your slaves are your brothers, so treat him well. Ask for their help in what is too much for you and help them in what is too much for them.”

191. Abu Hurayra said, ‘Help the worker in his work. The one who works for Allah will not be disappointed,” i.e. the servant.

98. Do not burden a slave with work which he is incapable of doing

192. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The slave has his food and clothing. Do not burden a slave with work which he is incapable of doing.”

193. Same as 192.

194. Ma’rur said, “We passed by Abu Dharr and he was wearing a garment and his slave had a robe on. We said, ‘Why do you not take this and give this man something else instead of the robe?’ He replied that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘Allah has put your brothers under your authority. If someone has his brother under his authority, he should feed him from what he eats and clothe him from what he wears and not burden him with what will be too much for him. If he burdens him with what will be too much for him, he should help him.'”

99. A man’s maintenance of his slave and servant is sadaqa

195. Al-Miqdam heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, “What you feed yourself is sadaqa. What you feed your child, your wife and your servant is sadaqa.”

196. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The best sadaqa is that which leaves you free of want. The upper hand is better than the lower hand. Begin with those you look after. Your wife says, ‘Spend on me or divorce me.’ Your slave says, ‘Spend on me or sell me.’ Your child asks, ‘On whom can we rely?'”

197. Abu Hurayra said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, commanded sadaqa. A man said, ‘I have a dinar.’ He said, ‘Spend it on yourself.’ He said, ‘I have another.’ He said, ‘Spend it on your wife.’ He said, ‘I have another.’ He said, ‘Spend it on your servant and then on whomever you see fit.'”

100.When someone dislikes eating with his slave

198. Ibn Jurayj related that Abu’z-Zubayr heard him ask Jabir about when a man’s servant has finished his work and heat (i.e. cooking). Did the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, command that the servant be invited to eat? “Yes,” he replied. If one of you dislikes to have his servant eat with him, he should give him his food by his own hand.'”

101. A slave should eat from what his master eats

199. Jabir ibn ‘Abdullah said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, advised that slaves be well treated. He said, ‘Feed them from what you eat and clothe them from what you wear and do not punish Allah’s creation.'”

102. Does a man’s servant sit with him when he eats?

200. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “When one of your servants brings you food, he should sit with him. If you do not accept that, then you should give it to him.'”

201. Abu Mahdhura said, “I was sitting with ‘Umar when Safwan ibn Umayya brought him a bowl which some people were carrying in a robe. They set it down in front of ‘Umar. ‘Umar then invited some poor people and some slaves belonging to the people around him and they ate with him. Then he aid, ‘Allah will do a people or else he said, ‘Allah will curse a people’ who dislike having their slaves eat with them.’ Safwan said, ‘By Allah, we do not dislike them, but we prefer ourselves to them, and by Allah, we do not find good food which we can eat and feed it to them as well.'”

103.When a slave advises his master

202. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “When the slave advises his master and is assiduous in the worship of his Lord, he receives a double reward.”

203. Salih ibn Hayy reported that a man said to ‘Amir ash-Shu’bi, “Abu ‘Amr! We say that when a man frees his umm walad and then marries her, he is like the one who rides his camel.” ‘Amir said, “Abu Burda related to me from his father that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to them: ‘Three have a double reward: one of the People of the Book who believes in his Prophet and then believes in Muhammad has two rewards. When a slave carries out the due of Allah and the due of his master, he has a double reward. And (the third is) a man who has a slavegirl with whom he has intercourse and teaches her well and instructs her well and then sets her free and marries her. He has two rewards.'” ‘Amir said, “We have given it to you for nothing. He was on his way to Madina.

204. Abu Musa reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The slave who is excellent in the worship of his Lord and fulfils the duties of obedience and counsel which he owes to his master, has two rewards.”

205. Abu Burda reported from his father that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The slave has two rewards when he carries out Allah’s due in worship (or he said that he is excellent in his worship) and the right of his owner who owns him.”

104. The slave is a guardian

206. Ibn ‘Umar reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “All of you are shepherds and each of you is responsible for his flock. The amir of a people is a shepherd and he is responsible for his flock. A man is the shepherd of the people of his house and he is responsible for his flock. A man’s slave is the shepherd of his master’s property and he is responsible for it. Each of you is a shepherd and each of you is responsible for his flock.”

207. Abu Hurayra said, “When a slave obeys his master, he has obeyed Allah Almighty. When he rebels against his master, he rebels against Allah Almighty.”

105. The person who wished he were a slave

208. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “When the Muslim slave performs the due of Allah and the due of his master, he will have two rewards.”

Abu Hurayra said, “By the One who has the soul of Abu Hurayra in His hand! If it had not been for jihad in the Way of Allah, the hajj, and dutifulness to my mother, I would wish to die a slave!”

106. Do not say “‘abdî” (my slave)

209. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “None of you should say, ‘My slave (‘abdi)’ or ‘my slavegirl (amati)’ All of you are slaves of Allah and all of your women are slaves of Allah. Rather you should say, ‘My boy (ghulami)’, my slavegirl (jariyyati)’, ‘my lad (fatayi)’ or ‘my girl (fatati).'”

107. Does one say “my master (sayyidi)”?

210. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “None of you should say ‘my slave (‘abdi or amati)’ and a slave should not say, ‘my lord (rabbi or rabbati)’. They should say, ‘my boy’ or ‘my girl’ (fatayi and fatati) and ‘my master’ or ‘mistress’ (sayyidi and sayyidati)’. All of you are slaves, and the Lord is Allah, Almighty and Exalted.”

211. Mutarrif reported that his father said, “I went in the delegation of the Banu ‘Amir to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. They said, ‘You are our master.’ He said, ‘The Master is Allah.’ They said, ‘The best of us in excellence and the greatest of us in generosity.’ He said, ‘Say what you like, but do not let Shaytan provoke you.'”

to be continue to Part 2

Source : Book “Al-Adab al-Mufrad” Imam Al-Bukhari

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