Last Part: A Code For Every Living (Al-Adab al-Mufrad) By Imam Al-Bukhari

Topics

I. Parents
II. Ties of Kinship
III. Mawlas
IV. Looking After Girls
V. Looking After Children
VI. Neighbours
VII. Generosity and Orphans
VIII. Children Dying
IX. Being a Master
X. Responsibility
XI. Correctness
XII. Dealing with people cheerfully
XIII. Consulation
XIV. Dealings with people and good character
XV. Cursing and Defamation
XVI. Praising People
XVII. Visiting and Guests
XVIII. The Elderly
XIX. Children
XX. Mercy
XXI. Social Behaviour
XXII. Separation
XXII. Advice
XXIII. Defamation
XXIV. Extravagance in Building
XXV. Compassion
XXVI. Attending to this world
XXVII. Injustice
XXVIII. Illness and Visiting those who are ill
XXIX. General Behaviour
XXX. Supplication
XXXI. Guests and Spending
XXXII. Speech
XXXIII. Names
XXXIV. Kunyas
XXXV. Poetry
XXXVI. Words
XXXVII. General Behaviour
XXXVIII. Omens
XXXIX. Sneezing and Yawning
XD. Gestures
XDI. Greeting
XDII. Asking Permission to Enter
XDIII. People of the Book
XDIV. Letters and greetings
XDIV. Gatherings
XDV. Behaviour with people
XDVI. Sitting and lying down
XDVII. Mornings and evenings
XDVIII. Sleeping and going to bed
XDIX. Animals
D. Midday Naps
DI. Circumcision
DII. Betting and similar pastimes
DIII. Various
DIV. Aspects of Behaviour
DV. Anger

XDII. ASKING PERMISSION TO ENTER

481. How was the Ayat of Veiling revealed?

1051. Anas said that he was ten years old when the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came to Madina. He said, “My mothers decided that I would serve him and I served him for ten years. He died when I was twenty. I am the person who knows best about the business of the veil. The first instance that was revealed occurred when the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, built a room for Zaynab bint Jahsh. He celebrated the wedding there, invited the people who came, ate and then left. A group remained with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. They stayed for a long time and then the Prophet went out and I went out hoping that they would leave. He walked and I walked with him until he came to the threshold of ‘A’isha’s room. Then, thinking that they would have left, he returned and I returned with him. He went to Zaynab but they were still sitting there. He left again and I left with him until he once more reached the threshold of ‘A’isha’s room. When he thought that they would have gone, he went back again and I went back with him. This time they had indeed left. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, then put up a curtain between me and him, and the veil was revealed.”

482. Three times of nakedness

1052. Tha’laba ibn Abi Malik al-Qurazi reported that he rode to ‘Abdullah ibn Suwayd, one of the Banu Haritha ibn al-Harith, to ask him about the three times of nakedness. ‘Abdullah used to observe these times.

Tha’laba said, “‘Abdullah asked, ‘What do you want?’ I replied, ‘I want to observe them.’

He said, ‘When I take off my garment at midday, none of my family who have reached puberty comes to me without my permission unless I call them. Nor do they do that when it is Fajr until people know that I have prayed, nor when I have prayed ‘Isha’ and removed my clothes so that I can sleep.'”

483. A man eating with his wife

1053. ‘A’isha said, “I used to eat date and butter mixture with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. ‘Umar visited and the Prophet invited him and he ate. ‘Umar’s hand touched my fingers and he said, ‘Oh! If I were to be obeyed about you, no eye would ever see you!’ Then the veil was revealed.”

1054. Umm Habiba bint Qays (Khawla) was heard to say, “My hand and that of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, mixed together in the same vessel.”

484.When someone enters a house which is uninhabited

1055. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar said, “When someone enters a house which is not lived in, he should say,

‘Peace be upon the righteous slaves of Allah.'”

1056. Ibn ‘Abbas said, “The verse, ‘Do not enter houses other than your own until you have asked permission and greeted their inhabitants’ (24:27) has an exception made to it when Allah says,

”There is nothing wrong in your entering houses where no one lives where there is some service for you. Allah knows what you divulge and what you conceal.'”

485. “Those you own as slaves should ask your permission to enter” (24:56)

1057. Regarding the ayat, “Those you own as slaves should ask your permission to enter” (24:56), Ibn ‘Umar said, “That applies to men rather than women.”

486. The words of Allah, “Once your children have reached puberty” (24:57)

1058. Ibn ‘Umar reported that when his children had reached puberty and he had withdrawn to his room, none of them entered where he was except with his permission.

487. Someone asking permission to come in to visit his mother

1059. ‘Alqama said, “A man came to ‘Abdullah and said, ‘Should I ask permission to go in where my mother is?’ He said, ‘At all times. Do you want to see her (exposed)?'”

1060. Muslim ibn Nadhir said, “A man asked Hudhayfa, ‘Should I ask permission to enter where my mother is?’ He replied, ‘If you were not to ask her permission, you would see what you dislike.'”

488. Asking permission to enter where one’s father is

1061. Musa ibn Talha said, “I entered where my mother was with my father. He went in and I followed him. He turned and pushed me in the chest so that I fell on my bottom. Then he said, ‘Will you enter without permission!'”

489. Asking permission to go in to one’s father and one’s child

1062. Jabir said, “A man should ask permission from his son and his mother, even if she is old, his brother, his sister and his father.”

490. Asking a sister’s permission to enter

1063. ‘Ata’ said, “I asked Ibn ‘Abbas, ‘Does one ask permission of one’s sister?’ He replied, ‘Yes.’ I repeated it and said, ‘My two sisters live in my room and I provide for them and spend on them, so do I ask them for permission?’ He said, ‘Yes. Do you want to see them naked?’

Then he recited, ‘O you who believe! Those you own as slaves and those of you who have not as yet reached puberty should ask your permission to enter at three times: before the Dawn Prayer and when you have undressed at noon and after the Night Prayer – three times of nakedness for you.’ (24:56)

Ibn ‘Abbas said, ‘He did not command these individuals to ask permission other than at these three times of nakedness.’ Then he went on to say, ‘The verse in Surat an-Nur:57 is: ‘Once your children have reached puberty, they should ask your permission to enter as those before them also asked permission.'”

Ibn ‘Abbas said, “Asking permission is obligatory.” Ibn Jurayj added, “For all people.”

491. Asking your brother for permission to enter

1064. ‘Abdullah said, “A man asks permission of his father, his mother, his brother and his sister.”

492. Asking permission three times

1065. ‘Ubayd ibn ‘Umayr reported that Abu Musa al-Ash’ari asked permission of ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab, but he did not grant him permission. It seemed that he was busy. Abu Musa came back and ‘Umar had finished. He said, “Didn’t I hear the voice of ‘Abdullah ibn Qays? Give him permission to enter.” He was told, “He has gone away,” so he sent after him. Abu Musa said, “We were commanded to behave like that (i.e. to go away after having asked permission to enter three times).” ‘Umar said, “Bring me a clear proof of it.”

He then went to the gathering of the Ansar and questioned them. They said, “Only the youngest of us will attest to that Abu Sa’id al-Khudri.” He went with Abu Sa’id. ‘Umar said, “Is something of what the may Allah bless him and grant him peace,, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, commanded hidden from me? Doing business in the markets distracted me,” i.e. going out to trade.

493. Asking permission to enter is not a greeting

1066. Regarding the person who asks for permission to enter before he gives the greeting, Abu Hurayra said, “He is not given permission until he has first given the greeting.”

1067. Abu Hurayra said, “When someone comes in and does not say, ‘Peace be upon you,’ then say, ‘No,’ until he brings the key which is the greeting (salam).”

494.When someone looks without permission, his eye is gouged out

1068. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “If a man looks into your house and you take some pebbles and gouge out his eye, there is no fault in you.”

1069. Anas said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was standing in prayer and a man looked into his room. He took an arrow from his quiver and aimed it at his eyes.”

495. Asking permission without looking

1070. Sahl ibn Sa’d told him that a man looked from a room through the door of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, while the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had a comb with which he was scratching his hair. When the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, saw him, he said, “If I had known that you were looking at me, I would have stabbed you in the eye with this!”

1071. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The ear is put in the place of the eye.”

1072. Anas said, “A man looked through a gap into the room of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and the Messenger of Allah aimed an arrow-head at him, and the man withdrew his head.”

496.When a man greets another man in his room

1073. ‘Ubayd ibn Hunayn related to him that Abu Musa said, “I asked permission three times to come in to ‘Umar, but he did not give me permission and so I went away. He said, ”Abdullah, is it hard on you to be kept waiting at your door.’ I said, ‘I asked permission from you three times and you did not give me permission, so I went away (and we were commanded to do that).’

‘Umar said, ‘From whom did you hear this?’ I replied, ‘I heard it from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.’

‘Umar said, ‘Did you hear something from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, which I did not hear? If you do not bring me a clear proof, I will make an example of you!’ Therefore I went to a group of Ansar who were sitting in the mosque. I asked them and they said, ‘Does anyone doubt this?’ I told them what ‘Umar had said. They said, ‘Only the youngest of us will go with you.’

So Abu Sa’id al-Khudri or Abu Mas’ud went with me to ‘Umar. He said, ‘We went out with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, when he was going to Sa’d ibn ‘Ubada. He gave the greeting, but Sa’d did not give permission. Then he greeted him a second time and then a third time, but Sa’d did not give him permission. So the Prophet said, ‘We have done what we must.’ Then he went back and Sa’d caught up to him and said, ‘Messenger of Allah! By the One who sent you with the Truth, every time you greeted me, I heard and answered you, but I wanted to have a lot of greeting (peace) from you for me and the people of my house.'”

Abu Musa said, “By Allah, I am a guardian of the hadith of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.” ‘Umar said, “Yes, but I wanted to make sure.”

497. A man’s invitation is his permission

1074. ‘Abdullah said, “When a man is given an invitation, that is his permission to enter.”

1075. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “When one of you gives someone an invitation and the person you invited comes with your messenger, that is his permission to enter.”

1076. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “A man’s messenger to another man is his permission to enter.”

1077. Abu’l-‘Alaniyya said, “I came to Abu Sa’id al-Khudri and greeted him, but he did not give me permission. Then I greeted him again and he did not give me permission. Then I greeted him a third time, raising my voice and said, ‘Peace be upon you, people of the house,’ and he did not give me permission. Then I went off to one side and sat down. A slave boy came out to me and said, ‘Enter.’ I entered and Abu Sa’id said to me, ‘If you had said it any more times, I would not have given you permission.’ I asked him about vessels (i.e. those used for wine) and other things. He said, ‘Haram.’ I asked him about an old milk-skin made into a bucket for fermentation purposes. ‘Haram,’ he said.”

498. How does someone stand at a door

1078. ‘Abdullah ibn Busr, the Companion of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said that when the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came to a door when he wanted to ask permission to enter, he did not face it directly. He stood to the right or the left. If he was given permission, he went in. Otherwise he went away.

499.When someone asks permission to enter, he says, “When shall I leave? Where shall I sit?”

1079. Mu’awiya ibn Hudayj said, “I came to ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, and asked him for permission to enter. They told me, ‘Stay where you are until he comes to you.’ I sat down near his door.”

He continued, “‘Umar came out to me, called for water and did wudu’. Then he wiped over his leather socks. I said, ‘O Amir al’-Mu’minin, is this on account of urine?’ He replied, ‘On account of urine or other things.'”

500. Knocking on a door

1080. Anas ibn Malik reported that people knocked on the door of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, using their fingernails.

501.When someone enters without having asked permission

1081. Kalda ibn Hanbal reported that Safwan ibn Umayya sent him to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, during the Conquest of Makka with some milk, gazelle, and cucumber. (Abu ‘Asim said that the meant vegetables.) The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was at the top of the valley and I did not give the greeting nor ask for permission.

He said, “Go back and say, ‘Peace be upon you. May I enter?’ That was after Safwan had become Muslim.”

1082. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “If someone looks inside, he should not be given permission to enter.”

502.When someone says, “Can I come in?” and does not give a greeting

1083. ‘Ata’ reported that Abu Hurayra said, “When someone says, “Can I come in?” and does not give the key.'” ‘Ata’ said, “Peace?” and Abu Hurayra replied, “Yes.”

1084. Rib’i ibn Hirash reported that a man of the Banu ‘Amir came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, “Can I come in?” The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, told his slavegirl, “Go out and say to him,, ‘Say, “Peace be upon you. Can I come in?” He is not good at asking permission to enter.” The man said, “I heard that before the slavegirl came out to me and I said, ‘Peace be upon you. Can I come in?’ Then the Prophet said, ‘And on you. Enter!'”

The man continued, “I went in and asked, ‘Why have you been sent?’ The Prophet replied, ‘I have only brought good. I have come to you in order that you worship Allah alone with no partner and stop worshipping al-Lat and al-‘Uzza and pray five prayers in the night and day, fast a month in the year and go on hajj to this House. You are to take from the property of your rich men and give it toy our poor.’

I said to him, ‘Is there anything you do not know?’ The Prophet replied, ‘Allah knows the good. There is knowledge which no one except Allah knows. There are five things which only Allah knows:

“Truly Allah has knowledge of the Hour and sends down abundant rain and knows what is in the wombs. And no self knows what it will earn tomorrow and no self knows in what land it will die.” (31:34)'”

503. How to ask permission to enter

1085. Ibn ‘Abbas said, “‘Umar asked permission to visit the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, ‘Peace be upon the Messenger of Allah! Peace be upon you! Can I come in?'”

504. The one who says, “Who is it?” and is answered, “Me”

1086. Jabir said, “I came to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, about a debt my father owed. I knocked at the door and he asked. ‘Who is it?’ ‘Me,’ I replied. He said, ‘Me?

Me?’ as if he disliked that.”

1087. Burayda said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went out to the mosque while Musa was reciting. He said, ‘Who is it?’ I said ‘I am Burayda, may I be your ransom!’ The Prophet said, ‘This man has been given one of the flutes of the family of Da’ud.'”

505.When someone asks permission, he is told, “Enter with peace”

1088. ‘Abdu’r-Rahman ibn Ju’dan said, “I was with ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar and he asked permission from the people of the house to enter. He was told, ‘Enter with peace,’ and he refused to enter them.'”

506. Looking into houses

1089. Abu Hurayra said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “When the eye enters, permission to enter should not be given.”

1090. Muslim ibn Nadhir said, “A man asked permission to enter from Hudhayfa. He looked in and said, ‘May I come in?’ Hudhayfa replied, ‘As for you eye, it has already entered. As for your bottom, it has not entered.'”

1090 (sic). A man said, “Shall I ask permission from my mother?” He replied, “If you do not ask her permission, you will see something you might dislike.”

1091. Anas ibn Malik reported that a bedouin came to the house of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and put his eye to the crack of the door. Therefore the Prophet took an arrow or a sharp stick and aimed it at the bedouin as to gouge out his eye.

The man left and the Prophet said, “If you had stayed, I would have gouged out your eye.”

1092. ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab said, “Anyone who fills his eye with the contents of a house before he has been given permission has gone astray.”

1093. Thawban, the mawla of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, related that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “It is not lawful for a Muslim man to look inside a house until he has been given permission. If he does so, he has entered. He should not act as the imam of a people and then single himself out for supplication to the exclusion of others. He should not pray while he needs to urinate until he has relieved himself.”

507. The excellence of someone who enters his house saying “Peace”

1094. Abu Umama reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, Allah is responsible for three: if they live, they will have enough, and if they die, they will enter the Garden. Allah Almighty is responsible for whoever enters his house , saying ‘Peace’. Allah is responsible for whoever goes out to the mosque. Allah is responsible for whoever goes out in the Way of Allah.”

1095. Jabir said, “When you come in to your family, greet them with a greeting from Allah which is blessed and good.” He added, “I only think that it is what is meant by His words, ‘When you are greeted with a greeting, greet with one better than it or return it.’ (4:86)”

508.When someone does not mention Allah when he enters his house, shaytan spends the night in it

1096. Jabir reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “When a man enters his house, he should Allah mention Allah Almighty, both when he enters and he eats.

If he does so, Shaytan says (i.e. to the shayatin), ‘You cannot spend the night or eat.’ When he enters and does not mention Allah when he enters, Shaytan says, ‘You have got your lodgings for the night and your supper.'”

509.What one is not given permission for

1097. A’yan al-Khwarizmi said, “We came to Anas ibn Malik while he was sitting his foyer with anyone else with him. My companion greeted him and said, ‘May I come in?’ Anas said, ‘Come in. This is a place where no one asks for permission.’ He had food brought to us and we ate. Then a cup of sweet nabidh was brought and we drank and were full.”

510. Asking permission in shops in the market

1098. Mujahid said, “Ibn ‘Umar did not ask permission to enter shops in the market.”

1099. ‘Ata’ said, “Ibn ‘Umar used to ask permission to enter market-stalls.”

511. How to ask permission from Persians

1100. Abu Malik, the mawla of Umm Miskin, the daughter of (‘Umar) ibn ‘Asim ibn ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab, said, “My mistress sent me to Abu Hurayra and he came with me. When he was at the door, he asked in Persian, ‘Can we come in?’ ‘Come in!’ she replied.’ Then she said, ‘Abu Hurayra, if visitors come to me after ‘Isha’, should I enter into conversation with them?’ He replied, ‘Converse as long as you have not done the witr prayer. If you have down the witr, there is no conversation after it.'”

XDIII. THE PEOPLE OF THE BOOK

512.When a dhimmi writes and gives the greeting, he is answered

1101. Abu ‘Uthman an-Nahdi said, “Abu Musa wrote to a Persian grandee and greeted him in his letter. He was asked, ‘Do you greet him when he is an unbeliever?’ He replied, ‘He wrote to me and greeted me, so I have answered him.'”

1102. Abu Basra l-Ghifari reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “I will ride to the Jews tomorrow. Do not give them the greeting first. If they greet you, then say, ‘and on you.'”

1103. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Do not give the People of the Book the greeting first. Force them to the narrowest part of the road.”

513. A person greeting a dhimmi with a gesture

1104. ‘Alqama said, “‘Abdullah used to greet the Persian grandees with a gesture.”

1105. Anas said, “A Jew passed by the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, saying,

‘Peace be upon you.’ His Companions returned the salam.’ The Prophet said, ‘The Jew said, ‘Poison (sam) be upon you.’ He caught hold of the Jew who admitted it.’ The Prophet said, ‘Answer him with what he said.'”

515. How to answer dhimmis

1106. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “When one of the Jews greets you and says, ‘Poison be upon you (as-samu ‘alaykum),’ say, ‘And on you.'”

1107. Ibn ‘Abbas said, “Return the greeting to whomever it is, Jew, Christian, or Magian. That is because Allah says, ‘When you are greeted with a greeting, greet with one better than it or return it.’ (4:86)”

516. The greeting to the gathering which includes both Muslims and idolaters

1108. Usama ibn Zayd related that one day the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was riding on a donkey on a straw saddle covered by a blanket from Fadak. Usama ibn Zayd was riding behind him. He was on his way to visit Sa’d ibn ‘Ubada. He passed by a meeting which included ‘Abdullah ibn Ubayy ibn Salul before the enemy of Allah had become Muslim. The gathering contained a mixture of Muslims, associaters and idolaters. He greeted them.

517. How does one write to the People of the Book?

1109. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas related that Abu Sufyan ibn Harb sent him to Heraclius, the Byzantine Emperor, and he called for the letter of the Messenger of Allah which Dihya had brought to the governor of Busra, who in turn passed it on to Heraclius.

He read it out, saying, ‘In the name of Allah, the Merciful, the Compassionate, from Muhammad, the slave of Allah and His Messenger, to Heraclius, ruler of the Byzantines. Peace be upon the one who follows guidance. I call you to Islam. If you become Muslim, you will be safe and Allah will double your reward. If you turn away, then you incur the wrong action of your subjects. “O People of the Book! Come to a proposition which is the same for us and you (to His words) Bear witness that we are Muslims.” (3:54)'”

518.When the People of the Book say, “Poison be upon you”

1110. Jabir said, “Some of the Jews greeted the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, by saying, ‘Poison be upon you (as-Samu ‘alaykum)’ and the Prophet replied, ‘And on you.’

‘A’isha, may Allah be pleased with her, said angrily, ‘Didn’t you hear what they said?’ The Prophet replied, ‘Yes, and I answered them. What I said about them will be accepted and what they said about me will not be accepted.'”

519. The People of the Book are forced to the narrowest part of the road

1111. See 1103.

520. How to make supplication for a dhimmi

1112. ‘Uqba ibn ‘Amir al-Juhani passed by a man who looked like a Muslim who greeted him. ‘Uqba answered him, saying, “And on you and the mercy of Allah and his blessings.” His slave said to him, “He is a Christian.” ‘Uqba got up and followed him until he caught up to him. He said, “The mercy of Allah and His blessings are for the believers, but may Allah make your life long and give you much wealth and many children.”

1113. Ibn ‘Abbas said, “If Pharaoh had said to me, ‘May Allah bless you,’ I would have said, ‘And you.’ But Pharaoh is dead.”

1114. Abu Musa said, “The Jews used to sneeze in the presence in the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, hoping that he would say to them, ‘May Allah have mercy on you,’ but he used to say, ‘May Allah guide you and out your affairs in order.'”

521.When someone greets a Christian whom he does not recognise

1115. ‘Abdu’r-Rahman said, “Ibn ‘Umar passed by a Christian who greeted him and Ibn ‘Umar returned the greeting He was told that the man was a Christian. When he learned that, he went back to him and said, ‘Give me back my greeting.'”

522.When someone says, “So-and-so sends you his greetings”

1116. ‘A’isha reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to her, “Jibril sends you the greeting.” She replied, “And peace be upon him and the mercy of Allah.”

XDIV. LETTERS AND GREETINGS

523. Answering a letter

1117. Ibn ‘Abbas said, “I think that answering a letter is a duty, just like returning the greeting.”

524. Letters to women and their reply

1118. ‘A’isha bint Talha said, “I spoke to ‘A’isha when I was under her protection. People used to visit her from all places. Shaykhs used visit me because of my place with her. Young men used to treat me as a sister and give me presents and write to me from their cities.

I said to ‘A’isha, ‘Aunt, this is a letter from so-and-so and his gift.’ ‘A’isha told me, ‘My girl, answer him and reward him. If you do not have anything to give, I will give you something.’ She told her to give it to her.”

525. How to write the beginning of a letter

1119. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar wrote to ‘Abdu’l-Malik ibn Marwan in order to pledge him his allegiance.

He wrote to him, “In the Name of Allah, the All-Merciful, Most Merciful. To ‘Abdu’l-Malik, the Amir al-Mu’minin, from ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar. Peace be upon you. I praise Allah to you. There is no god but Him. I offer you obedience according to the sunna of Allah and the sunna of His Messenger as much as I can.”

526. “Following on from that”

1120. Zayd ibn Aslam said, “My father sent me to Ibn ‘Umar and I saw him write, ‘In the Name of Allah, the All-Merciful, Most Merciful. Following on from that'”

1121. Hisham ibn ‘Urwa said, “I saw some of the letters of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. After the introduction he said, ‘Following on from that'”

527. Beginning letters with “In the Name of Allah, the All-Merciful, Most Merciful”

1122. It is reported that Zayd ibn Thabit wrote this letter: “In the Name of Allah, the All-Merciful, Most Merciful. To the slave of Allah, Mu’awiya, the Amir al-Mu’minin, from Zayd ibn Thabit. Peace be upon you, Amir al-Mu’minin, and the mercy of Allah. I praise Allah to you. There is no god but Him. Following on from that'”

1123. Abu Mas’ud al-Jurayri related to him that a man asked al-Hasan about reading, “In the Name of Allah, the All-Merciful, Most Merciful.” He said, “That should be put at the beginning of letters.”

528. The one who is put first in a letter

1124. Nafi’ said, “Ibn ‘Umar needed something from Mu’awiya and he wanted to write to him. People said, ‘Begin with his name.’ They kept on at him until he wrote, ‘In the Name of Allah, the All-Merciful, Most Merciful, to Mu’awiya.'”

1125. Anas ibn Sirin said, “I wrote for Ibn ‘Umar and he said, ‘Write: “In the Name of Allah, the All-Merciful, Most Merciful. Following on from that: To so-and-so.”‘”

1126. Anas ibn Sirin said, “A man wrote in the presence of Ibn ‘Umar, ‘In the Name of Allah, the All-Merciful, Most Merciful, to so-and-so.’ Ibn ‘Umar forbade him and said, ‘Say: ‘In the Name of Allah. It is for Him.'”

[This had to do with using “ilâ” instead of “li”.]

1127. See 1122.

1128. Abu Hurayra said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘A man from the tribe of Israel and he mentioned the entire hadith had his friend write to him, ‘From so-and-so to so-and-so.'”

529. How are you this morning?

1129. Mahmud ibn Labid said, “When Sa’d’s eye was gravely wounded in the Battle of the Ditch, they moved him to the house of a woman called Rufayda who used to treat the wounded. When the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, passed by him, he would inquire, ‘How are you this evening?’ and in the morning, ‘How are you this morning?’ and he would tell him.”

1130. It is related from Ka’b ibn Malik, who was one of the three to whom Allah turned that Ibn ‘Abbas informed him that ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib emerged from the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in his illness from which he died and the people said,

“O Abu’l-Hasan! How is the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, this morning?” He said, “Praise be to Allah, he is well this morning.”

‘Abbas ibn ‘Abdu’l-Muttalib took him by the hand and said to him, “By Allah, in three days time you will be a subject. By Allah, I think that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, will die of this illness. I recognise death in the faces of the Banu Abdu’l-Muttalib when they are dying. Let us go to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and ask him who will have this authority. If it is for us, then we will know that, and if it is for other than us, we will know it and he can advise him to look after us.” ‘

Ali replied, “By Allah, if we ask him for it and he refuses us, then the people would never give it to us afterwards. By Allah, I will not ask it from the Messenger of Allah.”

530. Someone who writes at the end of a letter, “Peace be upon and the mercy of Allah” and writes so-and-so, son of so-and-so on the 20th of the month

1131. Ibn Abi-Zinad related from his father that he tool this letter from Kharija ibn Zayd and from the great members of the family of Zayd:

“In the Name of Allah, the All-Merciful, Most Merciful. To the slave of Prophet, Mu’awiya, the Amir al-Mu’minin, from Zayd ibn Thabit. Peace be upon you, Amir al-Mu’minin, and the mercy of Allah. I praise Allah to you. There is no god but Him. Following on from that, you asked me about the inheritance of the grandfather and brothers (and he mentioned the letter). We ask Allah for guidance, preservation and firmness in all our affairs. We seek refuge with Allah from being misguided or ignorant or taking on what we have no knowledge of. Peace be upon you, Amir al-Mu’minin, and the mercy of Allah and His blessings and His forgiveness. Wuhayb has written it on Thursday, the 20th Ramadan, 42 (AH).”

531. How are you?

1132. Anas ibn Malik reported that he heard ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab being greeted by a man and he returned the greeting. Then ‘Umar asked the man, “How are you?” The man replied, “I praise Allah to you.” ‘Umar said, :This is what I wanted to hear from you.”

532. How to answer when someone asks you, “How are you this morning?”

1133. Jabir ibn ‘Abdullah reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was asked, “How are you this morning?” He replied, “Well. Away from people who do not attend funerals or visit sick people.”

1134. Muhajir (who is as-Sa’igh) said, “I was sitting with one of the Companions of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, called Dakhm, from al-Hadramaym.

When someone asked him, ‘How are you this morning?’ Dakhm replied, ‘We do not associate anything with Allah.'”

1135. Sayf ibn Wahb reported that Abu’t-Tufayl asked him, “How old are you?” “Thirty-three years old,” he replied. He said, “Shall I tell you a hadith which I heard from Hudhayfa ibn al-Yaman?A man from Muharib ibn Khasafa called ‘Amr ibn Sulay’, a Companion, was my age on that day and I was your age.

Hudhayfa came to us in the mosque and sat at the edge of the people. ‘Amr went over until he was standing in front of him and asked, ‘How are you this morning (or evening), slave of Allah?’

Hudhayfa said, ‘I praise Allah.’ ‘Amr said, ‘What are these hadiths which have come to us from you?’ Hudhayfa said, ‘What have you heard from me, ‘Amr?’ He said, ‘Hadiths which I have not heard from anywhere else.’ Hudhayfa said, ‘By Allah, if I were to relate to you all that I have heard, you would be here with me until the middle of the night. ‘Amr ibn Sulay’, if you see Qays taking control of Syria, then beware and again beware. By Allah, Qays will not leave a believing slave of Allah without causing him to be in a state of fear or killing him. By Allah, a time will come to you in which the flood will not be stopped.’ He said, ‘Then what will help you against your people, may Allah have mercy on you?’ He said, ‘That is my business.’ Then he sat down.”

XDIV. GATHERINGS

533. The best gathering is the most expansive one

1136. ‘Abdu’r-Rahman ibn Abi ‘Amra al-Ansari related to him, “Abu Sa’id al-Khudri was told of a funeral.” He continued, “It seemed that he was hanging back until people had taken their seats. Then he came. When the people saw him, they quickly made room for him. One of them stood up for him to let him sit in his place.

He said, ‘Don’t. I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, “The best gathering is the most expansive one.” ‘Then he went to the side and sat in an expansive gathering.”

534. Facing qibla

1137. Munqidh said, “In most of the gatherings of ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar, he would face qibla. Once Yazid ibn ‘Abdullah ibn Fusayt recited Sajda after sunrise. He prostrated and the people there prostrated with the exception of ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar. When the sun rose, ‘Abdullah uncurled his legs and then prostrated.

He said, ‘Did you see the prostration of your companions? They prostrated at a time when the prayer should not be done.”

536.When someone stands up and then returns to his place

1138. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “When one of you gets up from his place and then returns to it, he is more entitled to.”

537. Sitting in the road

1139. Anas said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came to us when we were children. He greeted us and sent me to get something he needed. He sat in the road waiting for me until I came back to him.”

Anas continued, “I kept Umm Sulaym [his mother] waiting and she asked, ‘What kept you?’ I replied, ‘The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, sent me for something he needed.’ ‘What was it?’ she asked. ‘It is a secret,’ I replied. She said, ‘Keep the secret of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.'”

538. Making room in a gathering

1140. Ibn ‘Umar reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “None of you should make a man rise from his seat and then sit in it. Rather make room and spread out.”

539. A man sitting at the edge of a gathering

1141. Jabir ibn Samura said, “When we came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, we would sit at the edge of the group.”

540. Do not separate two people

1142. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “It is not lawful for a man to separate two people except with the permission of both of them.”

540. Stepping over people to move towards the leader of a gathering

1143. Ibn ‘Abbas said, “When ‘Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, was attacked, I was one of those who carried him into his house. He said to me, ‘Nephew, go see who wounded me and who was wounded with me.’

I went and returned to tell him, but the room was full at that time. I did not want to step over people’s necks because I was young, and so I sat down. ‘Umar’s rule when he sent someone for a need was that he commanded him not to tell about it. ‘Umar had a cover over him.

Ka’b came and said, ‘By Allah, if the Amir al-Mu’minin makes supplication, Allah will let him remain alive and restore him to this community until he does such-and-such and such-and-such for them’ until Ka’b mentioned the hypocrites. He actually named them and used their kunyas. I said, ‘Shall I convey to him what you have said?’ Ka’b said, ‘I only said it because I intended that it be done.’

I plucked up courage and stood up, I stepped over people’s necks until I sat by ‘Umar’s head. I said, ‘You sent me to find out such-and-such. Thirteen people were wounded with you. Kulayb ibn al-Jazzar was wounded while he was doing wudu’ from the cistern. Ka’b swore such-and-such by Allah.’

He said, ‘Summon Ka’b.’ He was summoned and ‘Umar asked, ‘What did you say?’ He replied, ‘I said such-and-such.’ He said, ‘No, by Prophet, I will not make supplication. ‘Umar will be wretched if Allah does not forgive him.'”

1144. Ash-Sha’bi said, “A man came to ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr when there were some people sitting with him. He stepped over them in order to reach him. They stopped him and ‘Abdullah said, ‘Leave the man.’

He approached until he sat with him and then said, ‘Tell me something which you heard from the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.’ ‘

Abdullah said, ‘I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, “A Muslim is the one from whose tongue and hand the Muslims are safe. An emigrant (muhajir) is someone who abandons what Allah has forbidden.”‘”

541. The noblest of people for a person is his companion

1145. Ibn ‘Abbas said, “The most precious of people in my opinion is my sitting companion.”

1146. Ibn ‘Abbas said, “The most precious of people in my opinion is my sitting companion. This is so much the case that he can step over the shoulders of people until he sits with me.”

542. Can a man put his foot in front of someone he is sitting with

1147. Kathir ibn Murra related, “I entered the mosque on Friday and found ‘Awf ibn Malik al-Ashja’i sitting in a circle of men. He stretched out his feet in front of him. When he saw me, he pulled his feet back in. Then he said to me, ‘Do you know why I put my foot out? So that a righteous man might come and sit down.'”

543.When someone in a group of people spits

1148. Al-Harith ibn ‘Amr as-Sahmi related, “I came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, when he was at Mina or at ‘Arafa. People crowded around him and some Bedouins arrived.

When they saw his face, they said, ‘This is a blessed face.’ I said, ‘Messenger of Allah, pray for forgiveness for me.’ He said, ‘O Allah, forgive us!’ I said, ‘Ask forgiveness for me.’ He said, ‘O Allah, forgive us!’ I turned and said, Ask forgiveness for me.’ He said, ‘O Allah, forgive us!’ He spat on his hand and wiped it on his sandal. He did not want it to get on anyone around him.”

544. Gatherings on roads

1149. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade gatherings in the road. They said, “Messenger of Allah, it is hard for us to sit in our houses.”

He said, “If you must sit there, then fulfil the rights of the gathering.” They asked, ‘What is their right, Messenger of Allah?” He replied, “Guiding anyone who asks for directions, returning the greeting, lowering the eye, commanding the correct and forbidding the bad.”

1150. Abu Sa’id al-Khudri reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Beware of sitting in the road.” They said, “Messenger of Allah, we must meet where we can sit to talk.”

The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “If you must do it, then give the road its due.

“What is the due of the road, Messenger of Allah,” they asked.

He replied, “Lowering the eye, avoiding doing anything harmful, commanding the correct and forbidding the bad.”

545. Someone who sits dangling his feet in a well with his legs uncovered

1151. Abu Musa al-Ash’ari said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went out one day to one of the walled gardens of Madina, and I went out after him. When he entered the garden, I sat at the gate and said, I will be the doorkeeper of the Messenger of Allah today even if he has not commanded me to do it.’

The Prophet went and answered a call of nature and then sat on the edge of the well. He uncovered his legs and dangled them in the well. Abu Bakr came and asked for permission to enter.’

I said, ‘Stay where you are until I ask permission for you.’ He waited and I went to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, ‘Messenger of Allah, it is Abu Bakr asking permission to come in.’ He said, ‘Let him in and give him the good news of the Garden.’

He entered and sat at the right side of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, uncovered his legs and dangled them in the water. Then ‘Umar came. I said, ‘Stay where you are until I ask permission for you.’ The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘Let him in and give him the good news of the Garden.’ ‘Umar went in and sat at the left side of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, uncovered his legs and dangled his feet in the well. The rim of the well was then full and there was no place left to sit.

Then ‘Uthman came. I said, ‘Stay where you are until I ask permission for you.’ The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘Let him in and give him the good news of the Garden as well as an affliction which will befall him.’

‘Uthman came in and could not find a place with them. He moved around until he was facing them on the other side of the well, uncovered his legs and dangled them in the well. I began to wish that a brother of mine would come and I asked Allah to make him come, but he did not come before they had got up.”

Sa’id ibn al-Musayyab said, “I interpreted it as their graves. They (the Prophet, Abu Bakr and ‘Umar) were buried together here, but ‘Uthman was alone.”

1152. Abu Hurayra said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went out in the heat of the day. He did not speak to me nor did I speak to him until he came to the market of Qaynuqa’. He sat in the courtyard of Fatima’s house and asked, ‘Is the little one here? Is the little one here?’

Fatima held her son back for a short time. I think that she was putting a necklace on him or washing him. Then he came running and he hugged him and kissed him. He said, ‘O Allah, love him and love those who love him.'”

546.When a man rises to give place for someone in a gathering, that person should not sit in it

1153. Ibn ‘Umar said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade anyone forcing a man to rise from his seat so that someone else could sit in his place.”

XDV. BEHAVIOUR WITH PEOPLE

547. The Trust

1154. Anas said, “I was serving the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, one day. When I thought I had finished serving him, I said, ‘The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, is having a midday nap.’

So I left him and there were some children playing. I stood looking at them and their game. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came out, and came up to them and greeted them. Then he called me and sent me to get something he needed. He remained in the shade until I came back to him.

I was late for my mother and she and he asked, ‘What kept you?’ I replied, The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, sent me for something he needed.’ ‘What was it?’ she asked. I replied, ‘It is a secret of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.’

She said, Keep the secret of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.’ I did not tell anyone that secret. If I had told it, I would have told it to her.'”

548.When he turned, he turned completely

1155. Abu Hurayra described the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, with the words, “He was of medium height, but nearer to being tall. He was very white with a black beard and good front teeth. He had long eye-lashes. He was very broad between the shoulders and had full cheeks. He walked on his entire foot, but they did not have a hollow. He turned completely towards people or turned his back completely. I have not seen anyone like him before or since.'”

549.When a man is sent to another man for some reason and he does not tell him what it is

1156. Aslam said, “‘Umar said to me, ‘If I send you to a man, do not tell him why I sent you to him. If you do, Shaytan will prepare a lie for him in that.'”

550. Should you say, “Where have you come from?”

1157. Mujahid said, “It is disliked for a man to look sharply at his brother or to follow him with his glance when he leaves or to ask him, ‘Where have you come from and where are you going?'”

1158. Malik ibn Zubayd said, “We passed by Abu Dharr at ar-Rabadha. He said, ‘Where have you come from?’ We said, ‘Makka or from the Ancient House.’ He said, ‘Is this what you have done?’ We said, ‘Yes.’ He said, ‘And was there commerce or selling with it?’ ‘No,’ he replied. He said, ‘Then resume your actions anew.'”

551. Someone who listens to people’s conversation when they dislike for him to do that

1159. Ibn ‘Abbas reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Whoever fashions an image will have to breathe life into it and he will be punished since he will not be able to breathe life into it.

Anyone who claims to have seen a vision in a dream will have to string two beads of barely together and he will be punished because he will not be able to string them together.

Anyone who listens to people’s conversation when they move away from him will have molten lead poured into his ears.”

552. Sitting on an elevated seat

1160. Al-‘Iryan ibn al-Haytham said, “My father came to Mu’awiya when I was a body. When he reached him, he said, ‘Welcome, welcome.’ A man was sitting with him on the elevated seat.

He said, ‘Amir al-Mu’minin, who is this you are welcoming?’ He said, ‘This is the master of the people of the east. This is al-Haytham ibn al-Aswad.’

I asked, ‘Who is this?’ They replied, ‘This is ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr ibn al-‘As.’ I said to him, ‘Abu so-and-so. From where will the Dajjal emerge?’

He said, ‘I have not seen the people of a town who asked about what is far nor left what is near. You are from the people of a town.’ Then he said, ‘He will emerge from the land of Iraq with the trees and palm trees.'”

1161. Abu’l-‘Aliyya said, “I sat with Ibn ‘Abbas on an elevated seat.” Abu Jamra said, “I used to sit with Ibn ‘Abbas. He used to make me sit on his seat. He told him, ‘Stay with me so that I can allot you a portion of my property.’ I stayed with him for two months.”

1162. Abu Khulda reported that he heard Anas ibn Malik when he was with al-Hakam, the amir of Basra, on a seat. He said, “When the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was hot, he delayed the prayer until a cooler time of the day. When it was cold, he made the prayer early.”

1163. Anas ibn Malik said, “I came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, while he was on a seat with a bad woven on it. He had a pillow under his head made of skin stuffed with fibre.

There was a cloth between his skin and the seat. ‘Umar visited him and wept. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘What made you weep, ‘Umar?’

He said, ‘By Allah, Messenger of Allah, I am only weeping since I know that you are more noble with Allah than Chosroes and Caesar. They both live in what they live of this world while you, Messenger of Allah, are in the place I see.’

The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘Are you not content, ‘Umar, that they have this world while we have the Next?’

I replied, ‘Yes, Messenger of Allah.’ He said, ‘That is the way of it.'”

1164. Abu Rifa’a al-‘Adawi said, “I came to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, while he was speaking [i.e. on Jumu’a].

I said, ‘Messenger, a stranger man has come to ask about his deen. He does not know what his deen is.’

He turned to me and stopped speaking. He was brought a chair which I think had iron legs. (Hamid [one of the transmitters] said, ‘I think that it was black wood like iron).’] He sat down on it and began to teach me what Allah had taught him. Then he finished his speech.”

1165. Musa ibn Dihqan said, “I saw Ibn ‘Umar sitting on a bridal seat wearing a red garment.”

1165. (sic) ‘Imran ibn Muslim said, “I saw Anas sitting on a bed, placing one foot over another.”

553.When someone sees people conversing secretly, he should not enter where they are

1166. Sa’id al-Maqburi said, “I passed by Ibn ‘Umar who had a man with him with whom he was conversing. I went to them, and he struck me on the chest and said, ‘When you find two men conversing, do not go up to them nor sit with them until they give you permission.’

I said. ‘May Allah make you prosper, Abu ‘Abdu’r-Rahman. I hoped that I would hear something good from you.'”

1167. Ibn ‘Abbas said, “Whoever listens to people’s conversations when they do not want him to do so will have molten lead poured into his ears. Anyone who lies about a dram will be obliged to string a barley bead.”

554. Two should not converse to the exclusion of a third

1168. ‘Abdullah reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said,

“When there are three people, two should not converse together to the exclusion of the third.”

555.When there are four people

1169. ‘Abdullah reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said,

“When there are three people, two should not converse together to the exclusion of the third for that would grieve him.”

1170. Ibn ‘Umar reported something similar from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.

He stated, “We said, ‘If there are four?’ He said, ‘Then it will not harm him.'”

1171. ‘Abdullah reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Two should not converse to the exclusion of another until they are mixing with people since that would distress him.”

1172. Ibn ‘Umar said, “When there are four, there is no harm.”

556.When someone sits without someone else, he should ask his permission to leave

1173. Abu Burda ibn Abi Musa said, “I sat with ‘Abdullah ibn Sallam. He said, ‘You have sat down with us, but now it is time for us to leave.’ I said, ‘If you like.’ He got up and I followed him to the door.”

557. Do not sit in the edge of the sunlight

1174. Qays related that his father arrived while the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was speaking. He stood in the sun and the Prophet told him to move to the shade.

XDVI. SITTING AND LYING DOWN

558. Sitting wrapped up in a garment

1175. Abu Sa’id al-Khudri said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade two types of dress and two sales transactions. He forbade the sales transactions called mulamasa and munabadha.* The two types of dress are samma’ ** and wrapping oneself up in garment while sitting down [with the legs drawn up] without anything covering the private parts.”

[*Mulamasa is when a person touches something and that completes the sale without him examining it properly. Munabadha is when the seller throws the garment to someone and that completes the sale, without any inspection.

** Samma’ is put the corner of the garment over one shoulder so that one side is uncovered with nothing covering it.]

559. Someone who has a cushion thrown to him

1176. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr reported his fasting was mentioned to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. He said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came to visit me and I threw him a leather cushion stuffed with palm fibre, but he sat on the ground. The cushion remained between me and him.

He asked me, ‘Are three days every month enough for you?’ I said, ‘Messenger of Allah!’ He said, ‘Five?’ I said, ‘Messenger of Allah!’ He said, Eleven?’ I said, ‘Messenger of Allah!’ Then he said, ‘Do not exceed the fast of Da’ud. Half of the time. Fast one day and break the fast the next.'”

[‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr was fasting every day.]

1177. ‘Abdullah ibn Busr reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, passed by ‘Abdullah’s father who threw the Prophet a rug on which he sat.

560. Squatting

1178. Qayla related, “I saw the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, sitting squatting. When I saw the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, humble in his form of sitting, I trembled from dear.”

561. Sitting cross-legged

1179. Dhayyal ibn Hanzala said, “I visited the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and I saw him sitting cross-legged.”

1180. Abu Ruzayq related that he saw ‘Ali ibn ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas sitting cross-legged with one foot crossed over the other, the right on the left.

1181. ‘Imran ibn Muslim said, “I saw Anas ibn Malik sitting like that cross-legged, with one of his feet over the other one.”

562.Wrapping oneself up

1182. Salim ibn Jabir al-Hujaymi said, “I came up to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, when he was wrapped up in a cloak whose edges were cover his feet.

I said, ‘Messenger of Allah, advise me.’ He said, ‘You must have fearful awareness of Allah. Do not scorn anything correct, even pouring water from your bucket into the bucket of someone else who asks you for water or talking to your brother with a happy face. Beware of dragging your waist-wrapper it is part of arrogance and Allah does not like it. If a man blames you for something he knows about you, do not blame him for anything you know of him. Leave him to his own evil. You will have your reward. Do not abuse anything.'”

He said, “After that, I did not ever abuse anything, animal or man.”

1183. It is related that Abu Hurayra said, “I never saw al-Hasan without my eyes overflowing with tears. That is because the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went out one day and I found him in the mosque. He took my hand and I went along with him. He did not speak to me until we reached the market of Banu Qaynuqa’. He walked around it and looked. Then he left and I left with him until we reached the mosque. He sat down and wrapped himself in his garment.

Then he said, ‘Where is the little one? Call the little one to me.’ Hasan came running and jumped into his lap. Then he put his hand in his beard. Then the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, opened his mouth and put his tongue in his mouth. Then he said, O Allah, I love him, so love him and the one who loves him!'”

563. Someone who kneels

1184. Anas ibn Malik related that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, prayed Dhuhr with them. When he said the taslim, he stood on the minbar and talked about the Final Hour.

He mentioned terrible things about it. Then he said, ‘Whoever wants to ask about something should ask about it. By Allah, whatever you ask me about, I will tell you as long as I am in this place.’

People wept a great deal when they heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say that. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, repeated frequently, ‘Ask.’

‘Umar knelt on knees and said, ‘We are content with Prophet as a Lord, with Islam as a deen and Muhammad as a Messenger.’ The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was silent when ‘Umar said that.

Then the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘Better! By the One in Whose hand the soul of Muhammad is, I have been shown the Garden and the Fire inside this garden while I was praying. I have not seen any good and evil such as I have seen this day.'”

564. Lying down

1185. ‘Abdullah ibn Zayd ibn ‘Asim al-Mazini said, “I saw him.” Malik ibn Isma’il asked Ibn ‘Uyayna (who had transmitted this to him), “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace?” He replied, “Yes, lying down with one of his feet over the other.”

1186. Al-Miswar said, “I saw ‘Abdu’r-Rahman ibn ‘Awf lying down with one of his feet over the other.”

565. Lying on one’s face

1187. Ibn Tikhfa al-Ghifari reported that his father told him that he had been one of the People of the Bench. He told him, “I was sleeping in the mosque during the last part of the night, lying on my stomach. Someone came to me and moved me with his foot, saying, ‘Get up. This is a manner of lying

down which Allah hates.’ I raised my head and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was standing by my head.”

1188. Abu Umama reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, passed by a man in the mosque who was lying on his front. He kicked him with his foot and said, “Get up. It is the sleep of Jahannam.”

566. Only give or take things with the right hand

1189. Ibn ‘Umar said, “the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘None of you should eat with his left hand nor drink with his left hand. Shaytan eats and drinks with his left hand.'”

567.Where you should place your sandals when you sit down

1190. Ibn ‘Abbas said, “Part of the sunna is that when a man sits down, he removes his sandals and puts them at his side.”

568. Shaytan comes with a stick or something to chase a person out of bed

1191. Abu Umama said, “Shaytan comes to one of you in bed after his family has covered him and wished him good night. He throws sticks, stones or other things on him to make him angry with his family. When he feels that, he should not get angry with his family.’

He said, ‘It is part of the work of Shaytan.'”

569. Someone who spends the night on a roof without any covering

1192. ‘Ali reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “If anyone spends the night on the top of his house without protection, Allah has no responsibility for (protecting) him.”

1193. ‘Ali ibn ‘Umara said, “Abu Ayyub al-Ansari came and went up on the flat roof. He came down and said, ‘I almost spent the night with no protection.'”

1194. Zuhayr reported that one of the Companions of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “If anyone spends the night on a flat roof (without walls) and then falls off of it and dies, no one bears any responsibility for him. If anyone embarks on the sea when it is fierce (i.e. stormy) and is destroyed, no one bears any responsibility for him.”

570. Should you let your feet dangle while you are sitting?

1195. Abu Musa al-Ash’ari related that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was sitting in a walled garden on the rim of a well, dangling his feet into the well.

571.What to say when you go out for something

1196. When Ibn ‘Umar left his house, he used to say, “O Allah, keep me and those with me safe!”

1197. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to say when he left his house, “In the Name of Allah. Reliance is on Allah. There is no power nor strength except by Allah.”

572. Can a man put his feet out in front of his companions and can he lie down in their presence?

1198. Some of the delegation of ‘Abdu’l-Qays heard him mention the following: “When it became clear to us that we should go to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, we travelled until we were in sight of our destination. We were met by a man on a young camel. He greeted is and we returned the greeting.

Then he stopped and asked, ‘Which tribe are you from?’ We replied, ‘We are the delegation of ‘Abdu’l-Qays.’ The man said, ‘Welcome. I was looking for you. I came to give you good news. Yesterday the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, looked towards the east and told us, “Tomorrow from that direction (i.e. the east) there will come the best delegation of the Arabs.”

I spent the night preparing to leave. This morning I rode long and hard on my camel until dawn rose. Then I thought of returning, but I caught sight of the heads of your mounts.’

“Then he turned his mount with his reins and went back the way he had come until he reached the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, who was surrounded by his Companions from both the Muhajirun and the Ansar.

The man said, ‘May my father and mother be your ransom, I have come to give you the good news of the delegation of the ‘Abdu’l-Qays!’ The Prophet said, “‘Umar, where did you see them?’ He said, ‘They are coming after me.’ When he mentioned that, the Prophet said, ‘Allah gives you good news of blessings.’

The people prepared their places. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was sitting and took the end of his robe in his hand. He was lying on it with his feet stretched out.

“The delegation arrived and the Muhajirun and Ansar expressed joy at seeing them. When they (the delegation) saw the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, the Companions, they made their mounts prance for joy. They came forward swiftly. The people made room for them while the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, remained reclining. Al-Ashajj, who is Mundhir ibn ‘A’idh ibn Mundhir ibn al-Harith ibn an-Nu’man ibn Ziyad ibn ‘Asar, stayed back. He rounded up their mounts and made them kneel. He removed their loads and collected their baggage together. Then he took out a bag which belonged to him, removed his travel garments, and put on a robe. Then he came walking slowly.

The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, asked,, ‘Who is your master and leader and the one in command?’ They all pointed at al-Ashajj. He said, ‘Is this man the son of your leaders?’ They replied, ‘His fathers were out masters in the time of the Jahiliyya and he led us to Islam.’

When al-Ashajj arrived, he wanted to sit in a corner, but the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, sat upright and said, ‘Here, Ashajj!*’ It was the first day that al-Ashajj was called that. He had got some redness in his skin when he was weaned. It was like a moon on his face. The Prophet seated al-Ashajj at his side and was kind to him and acknowledged his higher position over them. People came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, to ask him things and he answered them (and so on to the end of the hadith.)

“Then the Prophet said, ‘Is there someone with you who will give you anything to eat?’ ‘Yes,’ they said. They got up quickly, every man going to his load. They brought a heap of dates in their hands and placed them on a amt before him. Also in front of him there was a palm branch less than two armspans and more than one span long. He was sorting them. When he had divided them up, he pointed with it to a pile of those dates and said, ‘You called these Ta’dud?’ ‘Yes,’ they said. He said, ‘And you call these ones Sarafan?’ ‘Yes,’ they replied. He continued, ‘And you call these ones Barni?’ ‘Yes,’ they said. He said, ‘They are the best of your dates and the one beneficial for you.’

“One of the shaykhs of area said, ‘They have the greatest blessing, We had a lot which we used to feed our camels and donkeys. When we returned from the delegation, that increased our desire for them and we asked for them until their price increased. We saw the blessing in them.”

[* meaning to have a mark on his forehead.]

XDVII. MORNINGS AND EVENINGS

573.What to say in the morning

1199. Abu Hurayra said, “In the morning, the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, would say,

‘O Allah, We enter the morning by You and we enter the evening by You. We live by You and we die by You and to You is gathering.’ In the evening, he would say, ‘O Allah, we enter the evening by You and we enter the morning by You and we live by You and we die by You and to You is the return.'”

1200. Ibn ‘Umar said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did not omit saying the following words in the morning and evening:

‘O Prophet, I ask you for well-being in this world and the Next. O Allah, I ask you for forgiveness and well-being in my deen and in this world and in my family and my property. O Allah, veil my faults and calm my fears. O Allah, give me protection in front of me and behind me, on my right and my left and above me. I seek refuge by Your might from being overwhelmed from under me.'”

1201. Maymuna, the wife of the Prophet, said, “I heard Anas ibn Malik say that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said,

‘Whoever days in the morning, “O Allah, we bear witness to you and we bear witness to the bearers of You Throne and Your angels and all Your creation. You are Allah. There is no god but You alone with no partner and Muhammad is your slave and Messenger”,

by that Allah will free a quarter of him from the Fire on that day. If someone says it twice, Allah will free half of him from the Fire. If he says it four times, Allah will free him completely from the Fire on that day.'”

574.What to say in the evening

1202. Abu Hurayra reported that Abu Bakr said, “Messenger of Allah, teach me something that I can say morning and evening.” The Prophet said,

“O Allah, Knower of the Unseen and the Visible, Creator of the heavens and the earth, everything is in Your hands. I testify that there is no god but You. I seek refuge with You from the evil of myself and the evil of shaytan and his (encouragement to) associate others (with You).”

Say it in the morning and the evening and when you go to sleep.”

1203. A similar report from Abu Hurayra in which he said, “The Lord of everything and its Master.”

He said, “The evil of shaytan and his encouragement to associate.”

1204. Abu Rashid al-Hayrani said, “I came to ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar and asked him to relate to us what he had heard from the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. He handed me a paper and said, ‘This is what the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, wrote for me.’ I looked at it and it read: ‘Abu Bakr as-Siddiq asked the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, “Messenger of Allah, teach me what to say in the mornings and evenings.” He said, “Abu Bakr, say,

‘O Allah, the Creator of the heavens and the earth, the Knower of the Unseen and Visible. the Lord of all things and their Master. I seek refuge with You from the evil of shaytan and his encouragement to associate and that I bring evil on myself or bring it on another Muslim.'”‘”

XDVIII. SLEEPING AND GOING TO BED

575.What to say when you go to bed

1205. Hudhayfa said, “When the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, wanted to go to sleep, he said,

‘By Your Name, O Allah, I die and live.’ When he woke up, he said, ‘Praise be to Allah who gave us life after He made us die, and to Him is the gathering.'”

1206. Anas said, “When the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went to bed, he said,

‘Praise be to Allah who has given us food and drink, and given us enough and given us refuge. How many people have neither enough nor refuge!'”

1207. Jabir said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did not sleep until he had recited, ‘Alif-Lam-Mim. The Sending-down’ (32) and ‘Blessed is the One in whose hand the kingdom is’ (67).'”

Abu’z-Zubayr (the transmitter) observed, “They are better than every sura in the Qur’an to the amount of seventy good deeds. Anyone who recites them will have seventy good actions written for him, will be raised seventy degrees by it, and will have seventy errors falls from him.”

1208. ‘Abdullah said, “Going to sleep during dhikr comes from Shaytan. if you like, you can put it to the test. When one of you goes to bed and wants to go to sleep. he should mention Allah Almighty.”

1209. Jabir said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did not go to sleep until he had recited ‘Blessed’ (67) and ‘Alif-Lam-Mim. The Sending-down’ (32).”

1210. Abu Hurayra said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘When one of you goes to bed, he should undo the inside of his lower garment and dust the bed with it. He does not know what has come on his bed since he left it. He should lie down on his right side and say,

‘In Your Name I have laid down on my side. If You take my soul, then have mercy on it. If You release it, then preserve it in the manner in which You preserve the men of right action.”

1211. Al-Bara’ ibn ‘Azib said, “When the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went to bed, he laid down on his right side. Then he said,

‘O Allah, I have turned my face to You and I have surrendered my self to You and I have committed my back to You out of fear and desire for You. There is no place of safety or refuge from You except with You. I have believed in Your book which You revealed and Your Prophet whom You sent.’

He said, ‘Whoever says it at night and then dies, dies in fitra (natural state).'”

1212. Abu Hurayra said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to say when he went to bed,

‘O Allah, Lord of the heavens and the earth, and Lord of all things, Splitter of the grain and seeds, the One who sent down the Torah, the Gospel and the Qur’an! I seek refuge with You from every evil. You take by the forelock. You are the Outward, and there is nothing above You. You are the Inward and there is nothing below You. Pay my debts for me and keep me safe from poverty.'”

576. The excellence of making supplication when going to sleep

1213. See 1211.

1214. Jabir said, “When a man enters his house or goes to bed, an angel and shaytan hasten to him. The angel says, ‘Seal it with good!’ The Shaytan says, ‘Seal it with evil.’ If he praises Allah and remembers Him, he chases the shaytan away and spends the night with him guarding him. When he wakes up, the angel and shaytan hasten to him and say the same thing. If he mentions Allah and says,

‘Praise be to Allah, who keeps firm hold of the heavens and earth, preventing them from vanishing away. And if they vanished no one could then keep hold of them. Certainly He is Most Forbearing, Ever-Forgiving.’ (35:41) Praise be to Allah who holds back the sky preventing it from falling on the earth, except by His permission. Allah is All-Compassionate to mankind, Most Merciful .’ (22:63)

If he dies, he dies a martyr, If he gets up and prays, he prays in virtue.'”

577. Placing one’s hand under his cheek

1215. Al-Bara’ said, “When the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, wanted to go to sleep, he put his hand under his right cheek and said, ‘O Allah, protect me from Your punishment on the Day you raise up Your slaves.'”

578. Chapter

1216. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “If a Muslim man persists in two actions, he will enter the Garden. They are easy, but those who do them are few.’

He was asked, ‘What are they, may Allah bless him and grant him peace?’ He said, ‘That you say “Allahu akbar” ten times, “al-hamdu lillah” ten times, and “Subhana’llah” ten times after every prayer. That is 150 on the tongue and 1500 in the balance.’ I saw the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, counting them with his hand.

Then he said, ‘When you go to bed, you should say, “Subhana’llah”, “al-hamdu lillah”, and “Allahu akbar”. That is 100 on the tongue and 1000 in the balance. Who among you can do 2500 bad actions morning and night?’ He was asked, ‘Messenger of Allah, how is it that they are not counted?’

He said, ‘Shaytan comes to one of you while he is praying and reminds him of something he has to do such-and-such and such-and-such, so he does not remember to do it.'”

579.When someone gets up from his bed and then goes back to it, he should dust it

1217. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “When one of you goes to bed, he should dust his bed with the inside of his lower garment. he should say, ‘In the Name of Allah.’ He does not know what might have come on it after he left it. If he wants to lie down, he should lie down on his right side and say, ‘Glory be to You, my Lord, I have laid down on my side by You and I raise it up by You. If you take my soul, then forgive it. If you release it, then guard over it as You guard over Your righteous slaves.'”

580.What to say when you wake up in the night

1218. Rabi’a ibn Ka’b related, “I used to spend the night at the door of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and I would give him his wudu’ water.”

He said, “After a long period of the night had passed, I heard him say, ‘Allah hears whoever praises Him,’ and I heard him say after a long period of the night had passed, ‘Praise be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds.'”

581. Someone who goes to sleep with grease on his hand

1219. Ibn ‘Abbas reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Whoever goes to sleep with grease on his hand before washing it off and is afflicted by something should not blame anyone except himself.”

1220. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Anyone who spends the night with grease on his hand and is afflicted by something should not blame anyone but himself.”

582. Putting lamps out

1221. Jabir ibn ‘Abdullah reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Lock the doors, tie the water-skins, turn over the vessels, cover the vessels, and put out the lamps. Shaytan does not open a locked door, nor untie a water-skin, nor uncover a vessel. A mouse can cause a house to burn down with its inhabitants inside it.”

1222. Ibn ‘Abbas said, “A mouse came and began to drag the wick. The slavegirl moved to stop it. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘Leave it.’ The mouse brought the wick and put it on the mat where he was sitting. It burned a hole in it the size of a dirham. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘When you go to sleep, put out the lights. Shaytan guides things like this and then they burn you.'”

1223. Abu Sa’id said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, woke up one night and found that a mouse had taken the wick and climbed onto the roof with it to burn the house down over them. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, cursed it and it became lawful to kill it in the Haram.”

583. A fire should not be left burning in the house when people go to sleep

1224. Ibn ‘Umar reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Do not leave the fire burning in your house when you go to sleep.”

1225. ‘Umar said, “Fire is an enemy, so beware of it.” He used to go around an put out the fires of his family before he went to sleep at night.

1226. Ibn ‘Umar heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, “Do not leave a fire burning in your houses. It is an enemy.”

1227. Abu Musa said, “A house in Madina burned down with its inhabitants during the night. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was informed about that and said, ‘Fire is your enemy. When you go to sleep, put out the fires.'”

584. Seeing the Blessing of Rain

1228. Abu Mulayka related that when it rained, Ibn ‘Abbas said, “Slavegirl! Bring out my saddle and bring my garment. Allah says, ‘We sent down blessed water from the sky.’ (50:9)”

585. Hanging up a whip in the room

1229. Ibn ‘Abbas reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, commanded that whips be hung up in houses.

586. Locking the door at night

1230. Jabir ibn ‘Abdullah said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Beware of conversing after the night is still. None of you knows what creatures Allah will send, so lock your doors, tie up the water-skins, cover vessels and put out the lamps.”

587. Bringing children inside when evening falls

1231. Jabir reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Keep children in until the evening has completely fallen. That time is the hour when the shaytans come out.”

XDIX. ANIMALS

588. Making animals fight each other

1232. It is reported from Mujahid that Ibn ‘Umar disliked making animals fight each other.

589. The barking of dogs and braying of donkeys

1233. Jabir ibn ‘Abdullah reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said “Do not go out often after the night is still. Allah has animals which he sends out. Anyone who hears the barking of a dog or the braying of a donkey should seek refuge with Allah from the Accursed Shaytan. They see what you do not see.”

1234. Jabir ibn ‘Abdullah reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “When you hear a dog barking or a donkey braying in the night, seek refuge with Allah. They see what you do not see. Shut the doors and mention the Name of Allah over them. Shaytan will not open a door which has been shut and had the name of Allah mentioned over it. Then cover the pots, tie the water-skins and cover the vessels.”

1235. See previous two hadiths.

590.When you hear a cock

1236. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “When you hear the crowing of a cock in the night, it has seen an angel. Ask Allah for its blessing. If you hear the braying of a donkey in the night, it has seen a shaytan, so seek refuge with Allah from shaytan.”

591. Do not curse fleas

1237. Anas ibn Malik reported that a man cursed fleas in the presence of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Do not curse them. A flea woke up one of the Prophets for the prayer.”

D. MIDDAY NAPS

592. Sleeping at Midday

1238. ‘Umar said, “Sometimes some of the men of Quraysh sat at the door of Ibn Mas’ud. When the shadows shifted from west to east, he said, ‘Get up, Any time spent here after this is for Shaytan.’

He made everyone he passed by get up. While we were getting up, someone said to him, ‘This is the mawla of the Banu’l-Hashas who composes poetry.’ ‘Umar called and said, ‘What have you got to say?’

The man said: ‘Say farewell to Salma if you prepare to go in the morning, White hair and Islam is enough prohibition for a man’

‘Umar said, ‘Enough! You have spoken the truth. You have spoken the truth.'”

1239. As-Sa’ib ibn Yazid said, “‘Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, used to pass by us in the middle of the day or near to it and say, ‘Get up and take a midday nap. Any time spent here after this is for shaytan.'”

1240. Anas said, “They used to gather and then take a midday nap.”

1241. Anas said, “At the time that wine was made unlawful, there was no drink that the people of Madina liked better than that made from dried dates and unripe dates. I used to give the drink to the Companions of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. They were in the home of Abu Talha when a man passed by and announced, ‘Wine has been forbidden.’

They did not say, ‘When?’ or ‘Wait until we see.’ They said, ‘Anas, break them!’ Then they said in the presence of Umm Sulaym, ‘Wait until it becomes cool and we have washed ourselves.’ Then Umm Sulaym put perfume on them. Then they went to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and the news was as the man had said.”

Anas added, “After this they never drank it again.”

593. Sleeping at the end of the day

1242. Khawwat ibn Jubayr said, “Sleeping during the beginning of the day is stupidity. Sleeping during the middle of the day is also stupidity, and sleeping at the last part of it is imbecility.”

594. Banquet

1243. Maymun (ibn Mahran) said, “I asked Nafi’, ‘Did Ibn ‘Umar ever invite people to a banquet?’ He said, ‘A camel of his once broke something and so we sacrificed it. Then Ibn ‘Umar said, “Gather the people of Madina for me.”

I said, “Abu ‘Abdu’r-Rahman, for what? We do not have any bread.” He said, “O Allah, praise belongs to You. These are bits of meat and this is broth,” or he said, “Broth and meat chunks. Whoever wishes can eat and whoever wishes can leave it.”‘”

DI. CIRCUMCISION

595. Circumcision

1244. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Ibrahim, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was circumcised when he was eighty years old. He was circumcised with an axe (qadum).”

Abu ‘Abdullah said that “qadum” refers to the name of a place (rather than an axe).”

596. Female circumcision

1245. An old woman from Kufa, the grandmother of ‘Ali ibn Ghurab, reported that Umm al-Muhajir said, “I was captured with some girls from Byzantium. ‘Uthman offered us Islam, but only myself and one other girl accepted Islam. ‘Uthman said, ‘Go and circumcise them and purify them.'”

597. Supplication during circumcision

1246. Salim said, “Ibn ‘Umar, Nu’aym and I were circumcised and they sacrificed a ram on our behalf. I think that we were more happy about it than the other children since a ram had been sacrificed on our behlaf.”

598. Diversion during circumcision

1247. Umm ‘Alqama related that when the nieces of ‘A’isha’s brother were circumcised, ‘A’isha was asked, “Shall we call someone to amuse them?” “Yes,” she replied. ‘Adi was sent for and he came to them. ‘A’isha passed by the room and saw him singing and shaking his head in rapture and he had a large head of hair. ‘Uff!’ she exclaimed, ‘A shaytan! Get him out! Get him out!'”

599. The dhimmi’s invitation

1248. Aslam, the client of ‘Umar, said, “When we came to Syria with ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab, the chief came to him, ‘Amir al-Mu’minin, I have prepared some food for you and I would like you to bring some nobles with you. That will be a stronger and nobler action for me.’ ‘Umar said, ‘We cannot enter these churches of yours with the images which are inside them.'”

600. Circumcising slavegirls

1249. See 1245.

601. Circumcision of an older person

1250. Abu Hurayra said, “Ibrahim, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was circumcised when he was 120 years old. Then he lived eighty years after that.”

Sa’id ibn al-Musayyab said, “Ibrahim was the first to be circumcised, the first to give hospitality, the first to trim his moustache, the first to cut his nails and the first to get white hair.

He said, ‘O Lord, what is this?’ ‘Gravity,’ Allah replied. Ibrahim said, ‘O Lord, increase me in gravity!'”

1251. It is reported that al-Hasan said, “Are you not astonished by this man? (i.e. Malik ibn al-Mundhir) He went to some of the old people of Kaskar who had become Muslim and examined them and then commanded that they be circumcised although it was winter. I heard that some of them died.

Greeks and Abyssinians became Muslim with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and they were not examined at all.”

1252. Ibn Shihab said, “When a man became Muslim, he was ordered to have himself circumcised, even if he was old.”

602. An invitation when a child is born

1253. Bilal ibn Ka’b al-‘Ukki said, “We Ibrahim ibn Adham, ‘Abdu’l-‘Aziz ibn Qarir, Musa ibn Yasar and I visited Yahya ibn Hassan (al-Bakri al-Filistini) in his village. He brought us some food, but Musa held back because he was fasting.

Yahya said, ‘We had a man with the kunya of Abu Qursafa from the Banu Kinana who had been one of the Companions of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he was in this mosque for forty years. He would fast one day and break the fast the next day, My father had a son born to him and he invited this man on the day that he was fasting and he broke his fast.’ Ibrahim stood up and swept him with cloak and Musa broke his fast.”

603. Rubbing a child’s gums

1254. Anas said, “On the day he was born, I took ‘Abdullah ibn Abi Talha to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. I found him wearing a woollen robe while he was marking one of his camels with tar.

The Prophet said, ‘Do you have any dates with you?’ ‘Yes,’ I replied. I gave him some dates. He chewed the dates and opened the child’s mouth and put some chewed dates into the child’s mouth. The child licked his lips. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘The Ansar love dates,’ and gave him the name ‘Abdullah.”

604. Supplication at birth

1255. Mu’awiya ibn Qurra said, “When Iyas was born to me, I invited a group of the Companions of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and I fed them and they made supplication. I said, ‘You have made supplication, so may Allah bless you for your supplication. If I make supplication, then you say, “Amen”.’ He went on, ‘I made a lot of supplication for him for his deen, his intellect and things like that.’ He added, ‘I still recognise the supplication of that day in him.”

605. The person who praises Allah when he is born if he is well-formed and is not concerned whether it is a boy or a girl

1256. Kathir ibn ‘Ubayd said, “When someone in the family of ‘A’isha had a child, she did not ask, ‘Boy or girl?’ She asked, ‘Was he created well-formed?’ If the answer was ‘Yes,’ she said, ‘Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds.'”

606. Shaving pubic hair

1257. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Five things are included in the fitra: trimming the moustache, cutting the nails, shaving the public hair, plucking the armpits, and using the siwak (arak stick for cleaning the teeth).”

607. The time for cutting the nails and hair

1258. Nafi’ reported that Ibn ‘Umar used to trim his nails every fifteen days and shave his pubic hair every month.

DII. BETTING AND SIMILAR PASTIMES

608. Betting

1259. Ja’far ibn Abi’l-Mughira said, “Sa’id ibn Jubayr stayed with me and said tht Ibn ‘Abbas related to me that he used to say, ‘Where are those who play with gambling arrows for the slaughtered camel? They buy a camel with ten shares. Then they shuffle the arrows and it becomes nine shares and they continue until comes down to one share. The others lose their shares to the one share. That is gambling (arrow-shuffling).'”

1260. Ibn ‘Umar said, “Arrow-shuffling is gambling.”

609. Betting a cock

1261. Rabi’a ibn ‘Abdullah ibn al-Hadir ibn ‘Abdullah reported tht two men wagered two cocks in the time of ‘Umar. ‘Umar ordered that the cock be killed and a man of the Ansar said to him, “Will you kill a something which glorifies Allah?” So ‘Umar left it.

610. Someone who says to his companion, “Come, I’ll make a bet with you”

1262. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “If any of you makes an oath and swears in his oath by al-Lat and al-‘Uzza should say, ‘There is no god but Allah.’ If any of you tells him companion, ‘Come on, I will make a bet with you’ should give sadaqa.”

611. Betting a pigeon

1263. Husayn ibn Mus’ab reported that someone told Abu Hurayra, “We wager two pigeons and we do not want for there to be a third unwagered pigeon between them so that the unwagered pigeon might take the winnings.” Abu Hurayra said, “That is how children behave. You are at the point where you should abandon that.”

612. Doing the camel-chant for women’s camels

1264. It is related tht al-Bara’ ibn Malik used to do the camel-chant for the men and Anjasha used to do the camel-chant for the women. He had a good voice and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Anjasha, be gentle when you drive the glass-vessels.”

613. Singing

1265. Ibn ‘Abbas said that the words of Allah in Luqman (35:6), “There are people who trade in distracting tales” mean “singing and things like it.”

1266. Al-Bara’ ibn ‘Azib reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Extend the greeting and you will be safe. The saw is evil.”

Abu Mu’awiya (one of the transmitters) said, “The ‘saw’ is trivial pursuit.'”

1267. Salman al-Ilhani reported that Fadala ibn ‘Ubayd was in a gathering. He heard that some people were playing backgammon. He got up in anger and forbade it in the strongest possible terms. Then he said, “Anyone who plays it in order to consume its winnings is like someone who eats pig meat and does wudu’ with blood.”

614. The person who does not greet backgammon players

1268. Al-Fadil ibn Muslim reported that his father said, “When ‘Ali, may Allah be pleased with him, went out through the Bab al-Qasr, he saw some backgammon players. He took them and locked them up from morning to night. Some of them he only locked up for half the day. Those he locked up until night were those who used silver. Those he locked up for half the day were those who played it. He also commanded that they should not be greeted.”

615. The wrong action of someone who plays backgammon

1269. Abu Musa al-Ash’ari reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Anyone who plays backgammon has rebelled against Allah and His Messenger.”

1270. ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ud said, “Beware of these two marked cubes. They should be forcibly prohibited. They are part of gambling.”

1271. Burayda reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Someone who plays backgammon is like a person who puts his hand in the meat and blood of a pig.”

1272. Abu Musa reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Anyone who plays backgammon has rebelled against Allah and His Messenger.”

616. Manners and removing those who play backgammon and the people of trivial pursuits (ahl al-batil)

1273. Nafi’ related that if ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar found any of his family playing backgammon, he would beat them and break the board.

1274. ‘Alqama ibn Abi ‘Alqama reported from his mother that ‘A’isha, may Allah be pleased with her, heard that some people living in a room in her house had a backgammon game. She sent to them, Saying, “If you do not remove it, I will evict you from my house.” He censured them for playing that.

1275. Kulthum ibn Jabir said, “Ibn az-Zubayr addressed us and said, ‘People of Makka, I have heard that there are men of Quraysh who play a game called backgammon. It is done with the left hand. Allah says, ‘Wine and gambling.’ (5:90) I swear by Allah that if anyone who plays it is brought before me, I will punish him in his hair and skin, and I will give his booty to the one who brings him to me.”

1276. Ya’la ibn Murra reported that he heard Abu Hurayra speaking about someone who plays backgammon and bets on it, saying that he is like someone who eats pig meat and that the person who plays it without betting on it is like someone who washes his hands in pig’s blood. The person who sits looking at it is like someone who looks at pig’s meat.

1277. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr ibn al-‘As said, “Someone who plays dice for a bet is like a person who eats pig met. Someone who plays it without betting is like someone who washes his hands in pig’s blood.”

617. A believer is not harmed by the same stone twice

1278. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “A believer is not hurt by the same stone twice.”

618. Someone who shoots at night

1279. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Anyone who shoots at night is not one of us.”

[Abu ‘Abdullah [i.e. al-Bukhari] noted, “There is something doubtful in its isnad.]

1280. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Anyone who bears arms against us is not one of us.”

1281. Same hadith as 1280, but from Abu Musa.

DIII. VARIOUS

619.When Allah wants to take the soul of one of His slaves in some land, he gives him a reason for going there

1282. Abu’l-Malih reported from one of his people (who was a Companion) that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “When Allah wants one of His slaves to die in some land, he makes him have a reason for going there.”

620. The person who blows his nose in his garment

1283. Muhammad ibn Sirin related that Abu Hurayra blew his nose in his garment and then said, “Excellent! Excellent! Abu Hurayra blows his nose in cotton. You saw me lying prone between ‘A’isha’s room and the minbar when people said I was mad, but I was only hungry.”

621.Whispering

1284. Abu Hurayra related, “Some people said, ‘Messenger of Allah, we feel in ourselves something which we do not want to speak about and we have been in that state since sunrise.’ He said, ‘Have you really felt like that?’ ‘Yes,’ they said. He said, ‘That is clear belief.'”

1285. Shahr ibn Hawshab said, “I and my maternal aunt visited ‘A’isha and said, ‘Sometimes something occurs to one of us such that, if he had spoken about it, that would have been the end of his hopes for the Next World. If it were to be revealed, he would be killed for it.’ She said the takbir three times and then said, ‘The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was asked about that and said, “If that happens to one of you, he should say the takbir three times. Only a believer feels that.'”

1286. Anas ibn Malik said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘People will continue to ask about things that do not exist to such an extent that they will say, “Allah created everything, so who created Allah?”‘”

622. Opinion

1287. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Beware of opinion. Opinion is the most lying form of speech. Do not spy. Do not fight one another. Do not try to ensnare one another (in sales). Do not hate one another. Be slaves of Allah and brothers.”

1288. Anas said, “While the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was with one of his wives, a man passed by and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, called him and said, ‘So-and-so, this is my wife so-and-so.’ The man said, ‘Whoever I might suspect, I would not suspect you!’ The Prophet said, ‘Shaytan flows in the son of Adam like blood flows.'”

1289. ‘Abdullah said, “The person who has had something stolen from him continues to be suspicious until he is worse than the thief.”

1290. Bilal ibn Sa’d al-Ash’ari related that Mu’awiya wrote to Abu Dharr, “Write down for me the deviants of Damascus.” Abu Dharr said, “What do I have to do with the deviants of Damascus and how would I know them?”

His son Bilal said, “I will write them,” so he wrote them. Abu Dharr said, “How do you know? You would only know that they are deviants if you were one of them. Begin with yourself and do not send their names.”

623. The slavegirl and wife shaving the husband

1291. ‘Abdul-‘Aziz ibn Qays said, “I visited ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar while a slavegirl was shaving his hair.” He said, “The lime depilatory makes the skin supple.”

624. Plucking the armpits

1292. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The fitra consists of five: circumcision, shaving the pubic hair, plucking the armpits, clipping the moustache and clipping the moustache.”

1293. As 1292 but a different order.

1294. Similar to 1292.

625. Good contract

1295. Abu’t-Tufayl reported, “I saw the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, divide the meat at al-Ji’rana. At that time, I was a boy who carried the joint of the camel (after it had been sacrificed). A woman came to him and he spread out his robe for her. I asked, ‘Who is this?’ The reply was, ‘This is the woman who suckled him.'”

626. Recognition

1296. Al-Mughira ibn Shu’ba reported that a man said, “May Allah make the amir thrive! Your chamberlain recognises certain men and gives them preference in permission to enter.” He said, “May Allah excuse him! Recognition helps with a voracious good and attacking camel.”

627. Children playing with nuts

1297. Ibrahim said, “Our companions used to allow us all sorts of play things except for dogs.”

(Abu ‘Abdullah said that he meant the children.)

1298. Abu ‘Uqba said, “I once walked along the road with Ibn ‘Umar. I passed some Abyssinian lads who were playing and he brought out two dirhams which he gave to them.”

1299. ‘A’isha reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to call her companions to her who were playing with dolls.”

628. Sacrificing pigeons

1300. Abu Hurayra said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, saw a man following a dove and said, ‘A shaytan following a shaytan.'”

1301. Al-Hasan said, “‘Uthman did not speak on any Jumu’a without commanding the killing of dogs and slaughtering of doves.”

629. Someone who has a need is the person most entitled to go out for it

1302. Zayd ibn Thabit reported that ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab came to him to ask to see him one day and he gave him permission while his head was in the hands of a slavegirl of his who was combing his hair. He removed his head and ‘Umar said to him, ‘Let her comb it.’ He said, ‘Amir al-Mu’minin, if you were to send for me, I would come to you.’ ”Umar said, ‘It is my need.'”

630.When someone spits when he is with people

1303. Abu Hurayra said, “When someone spits in the presence of people, let him catch it with his palms so that his spit does not fall on the ground. When he fasts, he should oil his palm so that the trace of the fast is not seen on him.”

631.When a man speaks to people, he does not turn to one particular person

1304. Habib ibn Abi Thabit said, “When a man spoke, they used to like that he not turn to one particular man, but rather he should address everyone.”

DIV. ASPECTS OF BEHAVIOUR

632. Excess looking

1305. Ibn Abi’l-Hudhayl said, “Messenger of Allah visited a man with one of his companions. When he entered the house, his companion began to look around. ‘Abdullah told him, ‘By Allah, it would have been better for you if your eyes had been gouged out.”

1306. Nafi’ reported that a group of the people of Iraq visited Ibn ‘Umar. They saw a gold crown on one of their servants and looked at one another. He remarked, “How quick you are to see evil!”

633. Excess words

1307. Abu Hurayra said, “There is no good in excess words.”

1308. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The worst of my community are those who speak a lot, those who are diffuse in speech and those who fill their mouth with words. The best of my community are the best of them in character.”

634. The two-faced

1309. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The worst person is someone who is two-faced. He is the person who comes to one group of people with one face and another group of people with another face.”

635. The wrong action of the two-faced

1310. ‘Ammar ibn Yasir said, “I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say,

“The person who has two faces in this world will have two tongues of the Fire on the Day of Rising.’ He passed by a stout man and said, ‘This is one of them.'”

636. The worst person is the one from whose evil one must be on guard

1311. ‘Urwa ibn az-Zubayr heard ‘A’isha say, “A man asked permission to visit the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and the Prophet said, ‘Give him permission. He is an evil brother of his tribe.’

When he entered he spoke kindly to him. I said, ‘Messenger of Allah, you said what you said and then you spoke kindly to him.’ He replied, ‘Yes, ‘A’isha. The worst of people is the one people leave alone fearing his coarseness.'”

637. Modesty

1312. ‘Imran ibn Husayn said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said,

“Modesty brings nothing but good.” Bashir ibn Ka’b said, “It is written in books of wisdom, ‘From modesty comes gravity. From modesty comes tranquillity.””

‘Imran said, “I relate to you from the Messenger of Allah and you then relate to me from some page!”

1313. Ibn ‘Umar said, “Modesty and belief are together. If one of them is removed, the other is removed.”

638. Coarseness

1314. Abu Bakra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Modesty is part of belief. Belief is in the Garden. Foul language is part of coarseness and coarseness is in the Fire.”

1315. Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyya said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had a large head and large eyes. When he walked, he bent forward as if he was walking up a hill. When he turned around, he turned completely.”

639. If someone is not shy, let him do whatever he likes

1316. Abu Mas’ud said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Part of what people know of the words of first prophethood is that if someone is not shy, he can do whatever he likes.”

DV. ANGER

640. Anger

1317. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The person who is strong is not strong because he can knock people down. The person who is strong is the one who controls himself when he is angry.”

1318. Ibn ‘Umar said, “There is nothing that is swallowed greater with Allah in reward than a slave of Allah who swallows and contains his rancour out of desire for the pleasure of Allah.”

641.What to say in anger

1319. Sulayman ibn Surad said, “Two men abused one another in the presence of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and one of them began to get angry and his face got red.

The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, looked at him and said, ‘I know some words that, if he says them, will remove this from him. They are:

“I seek refuge with Allah from the Accursed Shaytan.”‘

The man went to that man and said, ‘Do you know what he said? He said, “I seek refugewith Allah from the Accursed Shaytan.”‘ The man retorted. ‘Do you think me mad?'”

1319. (sic) Another variant of 1319.

642. A person should remain silent when he is angry

1320. Ibn ‘Abbas said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘ Teach and make it easy. Teach and make it easy.’ three times. He went on, ‘When you are angry, be silent’ twice.”

643. Loving the one you love is an easy matter

1321. ‘Ali was heard to say to Ibn al-Kawwa’, “Do you know what the first one said? ‘Loving the one you love is an easy matter. It may be that one day he will be the one you hate. Hating the one who hate

is an easy matter, It may be that one day he will be the one you hate.'”

644. Do not let your anger be destruction

1322. Aslam said, ” ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab said, ‘Do not let your love be a total infatuation. Do not let your anger be destruction.’ I asked, ‘How is that?’ He replied, ‘When you love, you are infatuated like a child. When you hate, you desire destruction for your companion.'”

Taken From Kitab “Al-adab al-mufrad” by Imam al-Bukhari

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