Part 4: A Code For Every Living (Al-Adab al-Mufrad) by Imam Al-Bukhari

Topics
I. Parents
II. Ties of Kinship
III. Mawlas
IV. Looking After Girls
V. Looking After Children
VI. Neighbours
VII. Generosity and Orphans
VIII. Children Dying
IX. Being a Master
X. Responsibility
XI. Correctness
XII. Dealing with people cheerfully
XIII. Consulation
XIV. Dealings with people and good character
XV. Cursing and Defamation
XVI. Praising People
XVII. Visiting and Guests
XVIII. The Elderly
XIX. Children
XX. Mercy
XXI. Social Behaviour
XXII. Separation
XXII. Advice
XXIII. Defamation
XXIV. Extravagance in Building
XXV. Compassion
XXVI. Attending to this world
XXVII. Injustice
XXVIII. Illness and Visiting those who are ill
XXIX. General Behaviour
XXX. Supplication
XXXI. Guests and Spending
XXXII. Speech
XXXIII. Names
XXXIV. Kunyas
XXXV. Poetry
XXXVI. Words
XXXVII. General Behaviour
XXXVIII. Omens
XXXIX. Sneezing and Yawning
XD. Gestures
XDI. Greeting
XDII. Asking Permission to Enter
XDIII. People of the Book
XDIV. Letters and greetings
XDIV. Gatherings
XDV. Behaviour with people
XDVI. Sitting and lying down
XDVII. Mornings and evenings
XDVIII. Sleeping and going to bed
XDIX. Animals
D. Midday Naps
DI. Circumcision
DII. Betting and similar pastimes
DIII. Various
DIV. Aspects of Behaviour
DV. Anger

 

 

XXXI. GUEST AND SPENDING

316. A man serving his guest himself

746. Abu Usayd as-Sa’idi invited the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, to his wedding. His wife, who was the bride, served them that day. She said, “Do you know what I served the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace? I served him some dates which had been infused in a pot overnight.”

317. Someone who brings his guest food and then stands up to pray

747. Nu’aym ibn Qa’nab said, “I went to Abu Dharr and did not find him at home. I asked his wife, ‘Where is Abu Dharr?’ ‘Fetching some things for the house. He will be back presently.’ I sat down to wait for him and he came with two camels. One of them was lined up behind the other and each of the camels had a waterskin on its neck. Abu Dharr took them off. Then he came and I said, ‘Abu Dharr! There was no man who I desired to meet more than you and there was none that I hated to meet more than you!’

He said, ‘Your father belongs to Allah! How can these two be joined together?’ I replied, ‘In the Jahiliyya, a buried a daughter alive and I feared that I would meet you and you would say, “There is no way for you to repent. There is no way out.” On the other hand, I used to hope that you would say, ‘There is a way for you to repent. There is a way out.”‘

“Abu Dharr asked, ‘Was it during the time of the Jahiliyya that you did it?’ ‘Yes,’ I replied. He said, ‘Allah has pardoned what was already done.’ Then he told his wife, ‘Bring us some food.’ She refused. Then he ordered again and she refused. This continued until their voices were raised in argument.

Abu Dharr said, ‘All right then! They (women) do not consider what the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said!’ ‘What did the Messenger of Allah say about women?’ I asked.

He replied, ‘Woman is a crooked rib. If you try to straighten her out, you will break her. If you coax her gently, there will be love and a sufficient means (of obtaining what you want).’ She went and brought a stew, behaving like a dove.

“Abu Dharr said, ‘Eat. Don’t let me alarm you. I am fasting.’ Then he got up to pray. He began to perform rak’ats in quick succession. Then he turned and ate. I exclaimed, ‘We belong to Allah! I never thought that you would lie to me!’ He replied, ‘Your father belongs to Allah! I have never lied since the moment I met you!’ I said, ‘Did you not tell me that you were fasting?’ ‘Yes, he replied, ‘I have fasted three days of this month and so the reward for an entire month has been written for me and it is therefore lawful for me to eat.'”

318. A man spending on his family

748. Thawban reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The best dinar a man spends is the dinar which he spends on his family, the dinar which he spends on his companions in the Way of Allah, and the dinar which he spends on his riding animal in the Way of Allah.”

One of the transmitters, Abu Qilaba, said, He began with the family, Who has a greater reward that the man who spends on small children until such time that Allah Almighty makes them able to support themselves.”

749. Abu Mas’ud al-Badri reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “When someone spends something on his family and reckons its reward to be with Allah, then it is sadaqa for him.”

750. Jabir said, “A man said, ‘Messenger of Allah, I have a dinar.’ He said, ‘Spend it on yourself.’ The man said, ‘I have another.’ He said, ‘Spend it on your servant (or he said, ‘on your child’).’ The man said, ‘I have another.’ He said, ‘Use it in the Way of Allah, but that is the least form of sadaqa.'”

751. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “There are four dinars: a dinar which you give to a poor person, a dinar you give to free a slave, a dinar you spend in the Way of Allah, and a dinar which you spend on your family. The best of them is the dinar which you spend on your family.”

319. There is a reward for everything, even the morsel given to a wife

752. Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas transmitted that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to him, “You do not spend anything by which you desire the face of Allah Almighty but that you art rewarded for it, even what you place in your wife’s mouth.”

320. Supplication in the last third of the night

753. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Our Lord, the Blessed and Exalted, descends to the lowest heaven every night when a third of the night remains. He says, ‘Who is calling on Me so that I can answer him? Who is asking Me for something so that I can give to him? “Who is asking Me for forgiveness so that I can forgive him?'”

XXXII. SPEECH

321. Someone’s words, “So-and-so with the curly black hair” or someone “tall” or “short” when he intends to describe him and does not mean to slander him

754. Abu Ruhm, one of the Companions of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, who had offered his allegiance to the Prophet under the Tree [i.e. at Hudaybiyya] was heard to say,

“I went on the expedition to Tabuk with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. While we were travelling at night at al-Akhdar, I was near to the Prophet. A deep sleepiness overcame us, but I began to wake up when my camel wandered near to the Prophet’s camel. I was worried that when it came close, it would his foot in the stirrup. I began to pull my camel back, but at a certain point in the night I feel asleep. Then my camel jostled against the camel of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, while his foot was in stirrup, hitting his foot. I did not wake up until he exclaimed, ‘Ow!’ I said, ‘Messenger of Allah, ask for forgiveness for me!’

The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘Never mind.’ “Then the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, began to ask about those of the Banu Ghifar who had stayed behind. He asked, ‘What happened to the people with thin red beards?’

I replied that they had stayed behind. He asked,, ‘What did the people with the short black curly hair with camels in Shabakatu Shadakh do?’ Then I remembered that they were among the Banu Ghifar, but I did not remember them until I remembered that they were a party from Aslam. So I replied, ‘Messenger of Allah, they are from Aslam.’ He said, ‘What kept one of these men who failed to come letting one of his camels by ridden by an man eager in the Way of Allah? The most painful thing for me is that Muhajirun from Quraysh, the Ansar, Ghifar and Aslam should stay behind.'”

755. ‘A’isha said, “A man asked for permission to come in to see the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and the Prophet remarked, ‘He is a bad brother of his tribe.’ When the man came in, the Prophet was cheerful towards him. I asked the Prophet about that and he said, ‘Allah does not love anyone who is obscene and coarse.'”

756. ‘A’isha said, “Sawda, who was a heavy, sluggish woman, asked for permission to come in (to see the Prophet) on the night of Jam’ (Muzdalifa) and he gave her permission.”

322. Someone who does not see any harm in a historical story

757. Ibn Mas’ud said, “When the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, divided the booty of Hunayn at Ji’rana, the people crowded up against him. Then the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘Allah sent on of His slaves to a people and they rejected him and wounded him in the head. He wiped the blood from his brow, saying, “O Allah, forgive my people for they do not know.”‘”

‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ud added, “I can almost visualise the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, telling about the man wiping his brow.”

323. Someone who shields a Muslim

758. Abu’l-Haytham said, “Some people came to ‘Uqba ibn ‘Amir and said, ‘We have some neighbours who drink (wine) and behave incorrectly. Shall we bring them before the ruler?’ ‘No,’ he replied, ‘I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, “Whoever sees the fault of a Muslim and then veils it, it is as if he brought girl buried alive back to life from her grave.””

324. Someone saying, “People are destroyed.”

759. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “When you hear a man saying, ‘People are destroyed,’ then he has destroyed them.”

325. Do not call a hypocrite “master (sayyid)”

760. ‘Abdullah ibn Burayda reported from his father that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Do not call a hypocrite ‘master’. He is not your master and you will have angered your Lord, the Mighty and Exalted.”

326.What someone says when he is praised

761. ‘Adi ibn Arta’ said, “When one of the Companions of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was praised, he said in supplication to Allah), ‘Do not take me to task for what they say and forgive me for what they do not know.'”

762. Abu Qilaba reported that ‘Abdullah said to Abu Mas’ud or Abu Mas’ud said to ‘Abdullah, “What did you hear the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say about ‘(false) assertion?” He said, “It is a bad mount for a man.”

763. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr said, “Abu Mas’ud, what did you hear the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say about ‘People who make false claims?” He replied, “I heard him say, ‘A bad mount for a man’ and I heard him say, ‘Cursing a believer is like killing him.'”

327. One should not say about something he does not know, “Allah knows it”

764. Ibn ‘Abbas said, “None of you should say about a thing which he does not know, ‘Allah knows it’ when Allah may know that it is other than what he said and thus he (tries to) teach Allah what he does not know. That is something terrible in Allah’s sight.”

328. The rainbow

765. Ibn Abbas said, “The Milky Way is one of the gates of the heavens. The rainbow is security from being destroyed by flood after the people of Nuh, peace be upon him.”

329. The Milky Way

766. Ibn al-Kawwa’ asked ‘Ali about the Milky Way. He said, “It is the water-trough (or loop of the bag) from which the heaven opens up flowing water.”

767. Ibn ‘Abbas said, “The rainbow is security for the people of the earth that they will not be drowned. The Milky Way is the door of the heavens and forms a furrow through it.”

330. Someone who dislikes for it to be said, “O Allah, place me in the Abiding Abode of Your mercy”

768. Abu’l-Harith al-Kirmani heard a man say to Abu Raja’, “I greet you and I ask Allah to join both of us together in the Abiding Abode of His mercy.” Abu Raja’ said, “Is anyone capable of that?” He continued, “What is the Abiding Abode of His mercy?” “The Garden,” the man replied. “That is not correct,” he said. The man asked, “Then what is the Abiding Abode of His mercy?” “The Lord of the Worlds,” he replied.

331. Do not curse time

769. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “None of you should say, ‘May time (ad-Dahr) be disappointed. Allah is time (ad-Dahr).”

770. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “None of you should say, ‘May time be disappointed!’ Allah Almighty said, ‘I am time (ad-Dahr). I send the night and the day. If I so wished, I could take them away.’ None of you should the grape-vine ‘karm” (instead of ‘inab). Karm* is the Muslim man.”

[* Karm suggests honour.]

332. A man should not look sharply at his brother when he turns away

771. Mujahid said, “It is disliked for a man to stare at his brother or let his eye follow him when he turns his back or to ask, ‘Where have you come from? Where are you going?'”

333. Someone saying to someone else, “Bother you”

772. Anas reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, saw a man driving a sacrificial camel. “Ride it,” he told him. The man replied, “It is a sacrificial camel.” “Ride it,” he repeated. The man said again, “It is a sacrificial camel.” “Ride it,” he repeated. The man said, “It is a sacrificial camel.” The Prophet said, “Ride it, and bother you!”

773. Al-Miswar ibn Rifa’a al-Quruzi said, “I heard a man ask Ibn ‘Abbas, ‘Should I do wudu’ after I have eaten bread and meat?’ He replied, ‘Woe to you! Would you do wudu’ on account of good things?'”

774. Jabir said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was at al-Ji’rana on the Day of the Battle of Hunayn with the spoils in the custody of Bilal. The Prophet was dividing them out. A man came up to him and said, ‘Be just! You are not being just!’ The Prophet said, ‘Bother you! Who will be just if I am not just?’ ‘Umar said, ‘Messenger of Allah, let me strike off the head of the hypocrite!’ The Prophet said, ‘This man is with his followers who recite the Qur’an and it does not go beyond their throats. They pass through the deen as an arrow passes through the target (i.e. nothing of it remains on the arrow).'”

775. Bashir ibn Ma’bad as-Sadusi (whose name was Zahim ibn Ma’bad) made hijra (emigration) to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and the Prophet asked him, “What is your name?” “Zahim,” he replied. The Prophet said, ‘No, you are Bashir.”

Bashir said, “While I was walking with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, he passed the graves of some idolaters. He said, ‘These people have missed much good’ three times. Then he passed by the graves of the Muslims and observed, ‘These people have obtained much good.’

The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, suddenly looked up and saw a man wearing sandals walking among the graves. He said, ‘You with the ox-hide sandals, take off your sandals!’ When he saw the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, he removed his sandals and threw them away.'”

334. Building

776. Muhammad ibn Hilal reported that he saw the rooms of the wives of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. The rooms were made of palm trunks covered with hair. The transmitter (Muhammad ibn Abi Fudayk) said, “I asked him about ‘A’isha’s room and he said, ‘Its door faced Syria.’ I asked, ‘Was it one or two spans?’ ‘Its door was one span,’ he replied. I asked, ‘And what was it made of?’ He said, ‘From cypress or teak wood.'”

777. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The Final Hour will not come until houses’ adornments resemble painted garments.” Ibrahim (the transmitter) said, “He meant striped garments.”

335. A man saying, No, by your father”

778. Abu Hurayra said, “A man came to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, ‘Messenger of Allah, which sadaqa has the best reward?’ He said, ‘By your father, you will learn of it. It is that you give sadaqa while you are healthy and avaricious, fearful of poverty and desirous of wealth. You should not delay it until you are at the point of death and then say, “This much is for so-and-so. This much is for so-and-so. This much is for so-and-so.”‘”

336.When a person seeks something, he should ask for something small and not praise the person

779. ‘Abdullah said, “When one of you seeks something he needs, he should ask for something small. He will have what is decreed for him. None of you should go to his companion and then praise him and thus break his back.”

780. Abu ‘Izza Yassar ibn ‘Abdullah al-Hudhali reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “When Allah wants a slave to die in a particular country, he makes him have some reason for being there.”

337. Someone’s words, “May the one who hates you not have good!”

781. Abu ‘Abdu’l-‘Aziz said, “Abu Hurayra spent the night with us and looked at a star before him. Then he said, ‘By the One who holds Abu Hurayra in his hand, some people wish that they would be appointed commanders in the earth while their actions are as if they were handing from that star. They are not appointed to those positions of command not to those positions.’ Then he turned to me and said, ‘May the one who hates you not have good! Is all of this allowed by the people of the east in the east?’ ‘Yes, by Allah,’ I replied. He said, ‘May Allah make them ugly and drive them like angry camels as if their faces were beaten shields until they give the owner of a field his field and the owner of sheep his sheep!'”

338. Someone should not say, “Allah and so-and-so”

782. Mughith claimed that Ibn ‘Umar once asked him about his mawla and Mughith replied, “By Allah and so-and-so.” Ibn ‘Umar responded, “Do not speak like that. Do not put anyone with Allah. Say “soand- so: after you have said, “Allah.”

339. Someone saying, “What Allah wills and you will”

783. Ibn ‘Abbas said, “A man said, to the Prophet, ‘Whatever Allah wills and you will.’ He said, ‘You have put an equal with Allah. It is what Allah alone wills.'”

340. Singing and Play

784. ‘Abdullah ibn Dinar said, “I went out with ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar to the market. He passed by a small slave-girl who singing and remarked, ‘Shaytan. If he had left anyone, he would have left this girl.'”

785. Anas ibn Malik heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, “I have nothing to do with diversions and diversions have nothing to do with me.” He meant that he does not do anything worthless.”

786. Ibn ‘Abbas said about “There are some people who trade in distracting tales” (31:5) that it means singing and things like it.

787. Al-Bara’ ibn ‘Azib reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Spread the greeting to people and you will be safe. The saw is evil.” Abu Mu’awiya said that the “saw” means amusement.

788. Fadala ibn ‘Ubayd was at a meeting when he heard that some people were playing backgammon. He got up in anger to forbid it in the strongest possible terms. Then he said, “The one who plays in order to live on his winnings is like a person who eats pig meat and does wudu’ in blood.”

341. Guidance and good behaviour

789. Ibn Mas’ud was heard to say, “You are living at a time when there are many men of understanding and few orators. There are few who ask and many who give. In it there is more action than diversion. After you there will come a time when there are few men of understanding and many orators. There will be many who ask and few who give. Guidance in it directs action. Know that right guidance at the end of time is better than some actions.”

790. Abu’t-Tufayl said, “I was asked, ‘Did you see the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace?’ ‘Yes,’ I replied, ‘and I do not know of any man left alive on the face of the earth except myself who saw the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.’ He went on, ‘The Prophet had white skin and a handsome face.'”

In another transmission, al-Jurayri said, “I and Abu’t-Tufayl (‘Amir ibn Wathila l-Kinani) were doing tawaf of the House when Abu’t-Tufayl said, ‘There is no one remaining who saw the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, except me.’ I asked, ‘Did you actually see him?’ ‘Yes,’ he replied. I asked, ‘What was he like?’ He said, ‘He was white-skinned, handsome, and of medium stature.'”

791. Ibn ‘Abbas reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Right guidance, correct behaviour and being moderate form a twenty-fifth portion of prophethood.”

In another variant, “Right guidance, correct behaviour and moderation form a seventieth part of prophethood.”

342.When news comes to you from someone you do not furnish with travel provisions

792. It is related that ‘Ikrima said, “I asked ‘A’isha, ‘Did you ever hear the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, quoting poetry?’ She replied, ‘Sometimes when he entered a house, he would say, “News will come to you from someone you do not furnish with travel provisions.”*'”

[*. A line of poetry written by Abu Khirash.]

793. Ibn ‘Abbas said, “This is something that a Prophet said, ‘News will come to you from someone you do not furnish with travel provisions’ (meaning that he had quoted it.”

343.Wishing which is disliked

794. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “When one of you wishes for something, he should look to what he desires. He does not know what he will be given.”

344. Do not call the grape “kurm”

795. ‘Alqama ibn Wa’il reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “None of you should say ‘kurm.’ Rather use ‘habala’ for grape-vines.”

345. Someone saying, “Bother you”

796. See 772.

346. Someone saying, “O person!”

797. Hamna bint Jahsh said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘What is it, O person?'”

798. Habib ibn Sabhan al-Asadi said, “I saw ‘Ammar praying the obligatory prayer. Then he said to a man at his side, ‘O person!’ Then he got up.”

799. Ash-Sharid said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, rode with me behind him and said, “Do you know any of the poetry of Umayya ibn Abi’s-Salt?’ ‘Yes,’ I replied and recited a line. ‘Go on,’ he said, until I had recited a hundred lines.”

347. Someone saying, “I am lazy”

800. ‘A’isha said, “Do not forget to stand up at night to pray. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did not neglect to do it. If he was either ill or lazy, he prayed sitting down.”

348. Someone who seeks refuge from laziness

801. Anas ibn Malik said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to often say,

‘O Allah, I seek refuge with You from worry, sorrow, incapacity, laziness, cowardice, avarice, being overburdened by debt and being overcome by other men.'”

349. Someone’s words, “May my self be your ransom!”

802. Anas ibn Malik said, “Abu Talha used to kneel before the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and sprinkle water on his quiver and say:

‘May my face be a protection for your face And my self be a ransom for your self.'”

803. Abu Dharr said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went towards al-Baqi’ and I began to follow him. He turned and saw me and said, ‘Abu Dharr!’ I said, ‘At your service, Messenger of Allah. May I be your ransom.’ He said, ‘Those who are rich will be poor on the Day of Rising except those who say, “Such-and-such and such-and-such is for a right (which was performed).”‘ I said, ‘Allah and His Messenger know best.’

He said, ‘That is how it is’ three times. Then we came to Uhud. He said, ‘Abu Dharr!’ I replied, ‘At your service, Messenger of Allah. May I be your ransom.’ He said, ‘It would not delight me if Uhud were to become gold for the family of Muhammad and then have them spend a night with a dinar or he said a mithqal.’

Then we were at a wadi and he went ahead, so I thought that he felt a call of nature, and so I sat down at the edge of the wadi. He was gone a long time and I feared for him. Then I heard him and it seemed as if he were talking to a man. Then he came out to me my himself. I said, ‘Messenger of Allah, who was the man you were talking to?’ ‘Did you hear him?’ he asked. I said, ‘Yes.’ He said, ‘That was Jibril. He came to me and gave me the good news that whoever of my community dies without associating anything with Allah will enter the Garden.’ I said, ‘Even if he commits adultery or steals?’ He said, ‘Yes.'”

350. A man saying, “May my father and mother be my ransom”

804. ‘Abdullah ibn Shaddad said, “I heard ‘Ali, may Allah be pleased with him, say, ‘I did not see the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, saying, (“May my father and mother be) your ransom” after Sa’d. I heard him say to him, “May my father and mother be your ransom.”‘”

805. ‘Abdullah ibn Burayda related that his father said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went out to the mosque while Abu Musa was reciting and asked, ‘Who is this?’ ‘I am Burayda,’ I replied, ‘May I be your ransom!’ He said, ‘This man has been given one of the flutes of the family of Da’ud.'”

351. A man saying, “My son” to someone whose father did not become Muslim

806. As-Sa’b ibn Hakim reported that his grandfather said, “I came to ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him. He began to say, ‘Nephew.’ Then he questioned me and I told him my lineage and so he knew that my father had not become Muslim. He began to say, ‘My son, my son.'”

807. Anas said, “I used to serve the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.” He continued, “I used to enter without asking for permission to enter. One day I came and he said, ‘My son, there is anew situation. You should not come in unless you have permission.'”

808. Ibn Abi Sa’sa’sa reported from his father that Abu Sa’id al-Khudri called him “my son”.

352. Someone should not say, “khabuthat nafsi”* (an expression meaning “I am overcome with nausea”)

809. ‘A’isha reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “None of you should say, ‘khabuthat nafsi’. He should say, ‘Laqisat nafsi.'”

[* Khabutha has a connotation of foulness.”

810. Same with another isnad.

XXXIII. NAMES

353. The kunya Abu’l-Hakam

811. Hani’ ibn Yazid related that when he came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, with his people, the Prophet heard them using the kunya Abu’l-Hakam. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, called him and said, “Allah is the Judge (al-Hakam) and He has judgement. Why have you been given the kunya Abu’l-Hakam?”

He said, “When my people disagree about something, they bring it to me and I judge between them so that both parties are content.” “How excellent this!” the Prophet exclaimed. Then he asked, “Do you have any children?” Hani’ replied, “I have Shurayh, ‘Abdullah and Muslim, the Banu Hani’.’ He asked, “Which of them is the oldest?” “Shurayh,” he replied. He said, “You are Abu Shurayh,” and he made supplication for him and his children.

The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, then heard them call a man among them ‘Abdu’l-Hajar [slave of the Stone]. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, asked, “What is your name?” “‘Abdu’l-Hajar,” he replied. “No,” he said, your name is ‘Abdullah.”

Shurayh said, “When Hani was ready to return to his land, he came to the Prophet, ‘Abdullah and said, “Tell me something that will make the Garden certain for me.” He said, “You must speak good and give food.”

354. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, liked good names

812. ‘Abdullah Hudud related that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Who will drive these camels of ours?” or “Who will deliver these camels of ours?” A man said, “I will.”

He asked, “What is your name?” “So-and-so,” he said. He said, “Sit down.” Then another stood up and the Prophet asked, “What is your name?” The man said, “So-and-so.” He said, “Sit down.” Then another man stood up and the Prophet said, “What is your name?” “Najiyya (Rescuer),” he said. “The Prophet said, “You will do it. Drive them.”

355. Swiftness in walking

813. Ibn ‘Abbas said, “The Prophet of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came forward swiftly while we were sitting, He approached in such a manner that we wee alarmed by the speed with which he came towards us. When he reached us, he greeted us and said, ‘I came swiftly to you to tell you about the Night of Power. I forgot it in the time it took me to get to you, so look for it in the last ten nights (of Ramadan).'”

356. The names which Allah Almighty loves the most

814. Abu Wahb, a Companion, reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Name yourselves with the names of the Prophets. The names which Allah Almighty loves most are ‘Abdullah and ‘Abdu’r-Rahman. The most truthful names are Harith and Humam. The ugliest names are Harb and Murra.”

815. Jabir said, “A man had a child and named him al-Qasim. We said, ‘We will not give you the kunya Abu’l-Qasim nor will we so honour you. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was told and said, ‘Call your son ‘Abdu’r-Rahman.'”

357. Changing one name to another

816. Sahl said, “Al-Mundhir ibn Abi Usayd was brought to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, when he was born and the Prophet placed him on his thigh while Abu Usayd was seated near him. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was busy with something in front of him, so Abu Usayd told someone to take his son from the Prophet’s leg. When the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, became aware of it, he asked, ‘Where is the child?’ Abu Usayd replied, ‘We sent him home.’ The Prophet asked, ‘What is his name?’ He replied, ‘Such-andsuch.’ The Prophet said, ‘No, rather his name is al-Mundhir.’ So we called him al-Mundhir from that day.”

358. The name which Allah Almighty hates the most

817. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The name which hates the most is that a man be called the King of Kings.”

359. Someone who calls another person using the diminutive of his name

818. Talq ibn Habib said, “I was the most vehement person in denying intercession. I questioned Jabir and he said, ‘Tulayq, I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, “They will come out of the Fire after entering it,” and we recite (the same Book) you recite.'”

360. Calling someone by the name he loves the most

819. Hanzala ibn Hidhaym said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to like to call a man by the name that he liked best and by his favourite kunya.”

361. Changing the name ‘Asiya (meaning “rebellious”)

820. Ibn ‘Umar said that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, changed a woman’s name from ‘Asiya (rebellious), saying, “You are Jamila (beautiful).”

821. Muhammad ibn ‘Ata’ related that he visited Zaynab bint Salama and she asked him about the name of one of his sisters. He reports: “I said, ‘Her name is Barra.’ She said, ‘Change her name. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, married Zaynab bint Jahsh. Her name was Barra and he changed it to Zaynab. I visited Umm Salama when she married him and my name was Barra.

He heard her call me Barra and said, ‘Do not adorn yourselves. Allah is the One who knows those who are pious (barra) among you and those who are deviant. Call her Zaynab.’ Umm Salama said, ‘She is Zaynab.’ I said to Zaynab, ‘Give her a name.’ Zaynab said, ‘Change it to what the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, changed it.'” So he called her Zaynab.

362. Surm (meaning “separation”)

822. Ibn ‘Abdu’r-Rahman ibn Sa’id al-Makhzumi, whose name was as-Surm, reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, named him Sa’id (happy). He related that he had seen ‘Uthman reclining in the mosque.

823. ‘Ali said, “When al-Husayn was born, I named him Harb (war). The Prophet came and said, ‘Show me your son. What have you named him?’ ‘Harb,’ we replied. He said, “He is Hasan.’ When al-Husayn was born, I named him Harb. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came and said, ‘Show me your son. What have you named him?’ ‘Harb,’ we replied. He said, “He is Husayn.’

When we had a third son, I named him Harb. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came and said, ‘Show me your son. What have you named him?’ ‘Harb,’ we replied. He said, “He is Muhassin.” Then he said, ‘I have named them according to the names of the sons of Harun: Shabr, Shubayr, and Mushabbir.'”

363. Ghurab (meaning “crow”)

824. It is reported that al-Harith ibn Abza said, “I was present at Hunayn with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he asked me, ‘What is your name?’ ‘Ghurab,’ I replied. He said, ‘No, your name is Muslim.'”

364. Shihab (meaning “flame”)

825. ‘A’isha said, “A man called Shihab (flame) was mentioned in the presence of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘Rather you are Hisham.'”

365. Al-‘As (meaning “rebel”)

826. Muti’ said, “I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say on the day of the Conquest of Makka, ‘No Qurayshi will be killed in custody from today until the Day of Rising.'” Noneof the rebels of Quraysh except Muti’ became Muslim. His name had been al-‘As and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, renamed him Muti’ (obedient).

366. Someone who calls his companion and shortens or leaves out part of his name

827. ‘A’isha said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “‘A’ish!

Jibril sends you greetings.” She said, “And peace be upon him and the mercy of Allah.” She remarked,

“He sees what I do not see.”

828. Umm Kulthum, the daughter of Thumama, related that she went out to answer a call of nature,. Her brother, al-Makhariq ibn Thumama, said, “Go to ‘A’isha and ask her about ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan.

People have said a lot about him. She said, “I went to her and said, ‘One of your brothers sends you greetings and asks you about ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan.’ ‘A’isha said, ‘Peace be upon and the mercy of Allah.’

‘A’isha then went on, ‘I testify that I saw ‘Uthman in this house one hot night when the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had received revelation through Jibril. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, struck the palm or held the hand of Ibn ‘Affan, saying, ‘Write, ‘Uthma! Allah has placed in this house with His Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, only a man who is honoured with Him. If anyone curses Ibn ‘Affan, the curse of Allah is on him.'”

367. Zahm (meaning “crowd”)

829. Bashir ibn Nuhayk said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came and said, ‘What is your name?’ ‘Zahm,’ I said. He said, ‘You are Bashir (bringer of good news).’

While I was walking and keeping pace with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, he said, ‘Ibn al-Khasasiyya! Are you resentful towards Allah? Do you keep pace with the Messenger of Allah?’ I said, ‘May my mother and father be your ransom, I do not hold any resentment against Allah. I have every blessing.’

The Prophet came to the graves of the idolaters and said, ‘These people have missed a lot of good. Then he came to the graves of the Muslims and said, ‘These people have obtained much good.’

There was a man wearing ox-hide sandals walking between the graves. The Prophet said, ‘You with the ox-hide sandals! Remove your sandals!’ So he removed his sandals.”

830. Part of previous hadith.

368. Barra (meaning “pious”)

831. Ibn ‘Abbas said that Juwayriyya’s name had been Barra and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had renamed her Juwayriyya.

832. Abu Hurayra said, “Maymuna’s name was Barra and then the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, renamed her Maymuna.”

369. Aflah (meaning “most successful”)

833. Jabir reported: “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘If I will, I will prohibit my community, if Allah so wills, from any of them taking the name Baraka (blessing), Nafi’ (Helper) or Aflah (Most Successful),’ and I do not know if he said, Rafi’ (one who elevates) or not. Someone asks, ‘Is Baraka (blessing) here?’ and is told, ‘He (or it) is not here.’ The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, died because he could forbid that (using those names).”

834. Jabir ibn ‘Abdullah said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, wanted to forbid people calling themselves Ya’la (to rise), Baraka (blessing), Nafi’ (Helper), Yasar (good fortune), Aflah (most successful) and names like that. Then he was silent about that matter and did not say anything.”

370. Rabah (meaning “profit”)

835. ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab said, “When the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, withdrew from his wives, I was with Rabah, the slave of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and I called, ‘Rabah, ask permission for me to come in to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.'”

371. The Names of the Prophets

836. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Name yourselves with the names of the Prophets, but do not use my kunya.” I am Abu’l-Qasim.”

837. Anas ibn Malik said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was in the market when a man said, ‘Abu’l-Qasim!’ The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, turned towards him. He said, ‘Messenger of Allah, I was calling this man.’ The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘Call yourselves with my name but do no use my kunya.'”

838. Yusuf ibn ‘Abdullah ibn Sallam said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, named me Yusuf and let me sit in his room and stroked my head.”

839. Jabir ibn ‘Abdullah said, “One of our men among the Ansar had a son and wanted to call him Muhammad. The Ansari said, ‘I put him on my shoulder and took him to the Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. [Another variant has: “He had a son and they wanted to name him Muhammad.”]

The Prophet said, ‘Name yourselves with my name but do not use my kunya. I have been made the distributor (Qasim) to divide things between you.'” Husayn said that he added, “I was sent as a distributor to divide between you.”

840. Abu Musa said, “I had a son and I brought him to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he named him Ibrahim. He chewed up a date and gave it to him and made supplication for him to be blessed and then gave him back to me.” He was Abu Musa’s oldest son.

372. Hazn (meaning “rough”)

841. Sa’id ibn al-Musayyab reported that his grandfather went to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. He asked, “What is your name?” “Hazn (rough),” he replied. The Prophet said, “You are Sahl (easy).” He said, “I will not change a name which my father gave me.” Ibn al-Musayyab said,

“Roughness (hazuna) remained among us afterwards.”

XXXIV. Kunyas

373. The Prophet’s name and kunya, may Allah bless him and grant him peace

842. Jabir said, “One of our men had a son and named him al-Qasim. The Ansar said, “We will not give you the kunya of Abu’l-Qasim to make you happy.’ He went to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and told him what the Ansar had said. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘The Ansar did well. Call yourselves with my name but do not use my kunya. I am Qasim (the divider).”

843. Ibn al-Hanafiyya was heard to say, “There was an allowance made for ‘Ali. He asked, ‘Messenger of Allah, if I have a son after you can I name him with your name and use your kunya?’ Yes,’ he replied.”

844. Abu Hurayra said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade for someone to have both his name and his kunya. He said, ‘I am Abu’l-Qasim. Allah gives and I distribute.'”

845. See hadith 837.

374. Can one use a kunya for an idolater?

846. Usama ibn Zayd reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, arrived at a gathering which included ‘Abdullah ibn Ubayy ibn Salul before ‘Abdullah ibn Ubayy had become Muslim. He said, “Do not bother us in our gathering.” The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went to Sa’d ibn ‘Ubada and said, “Sa’d, did you not hear what Abu Hubab said?” He meant ‘Abdullah ibn Ubayy ibn Salul.

375. A kunya for a child

847. Anas said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, visited us. I had a young brother who used the kunya of Abu ‘Umayr. He had a sparrow which he used to play with it and it had died. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came it and saw that he was sad. He asked, ‘What is wrong with him?’ He was told, ‘His sparrow has died.’ The Prophet said, ‘Abu ‘Umayr, what has happened to the little sparrow?'”

376. Having a kunya before having a child

848. ‘Abdullah gave ‘Alqama the kunya Abu Shibl when he had no children.

849. ‘Alqama said, “‘Abdullah gave me a kunya before I had a child.”

377. Kunyas for women

850. ‘A’isha said, “I went to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said,

‘Messenger of Allah, you give your wives kunyas, so give me a kunya.’ He said, ‘Take the kunya of your nephew, ‘Abdullah.'”

851. ‘A’isha said, “Prophet of Allah, will you not give me a kunya?” He said, “Use the kunya of your son,” i.e. ‘Abdullah ibn az-Zubayr. She was given the kunya Umm ‘Abdullah.

378. Someone who gives a man of kunya because of something he is doing or with one of their names

852. Sahl ibn Sa’d related that the name which ‘Ali, may Allah be pleased with him, liked best was Abu Turab and that he was happy when he was called that. Only the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, called him that. One day ‘Ali was cross with Fatima and went out and reclined against the wall of the mosque. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came to look

for him and was told that he was leaning against the wall. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant

him peace, went up to him and found that his back was covered with dust. The Prophet, may Allah

bless him and grant him peace, began to wipe the dust off his back and said, ‘Sit down Abu Turab

(father of dust)!'”

379. How does a person walk with the great men and people of superiority

853. Anas said, “While the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was in one of our palm groves where the trees belonged to Abu Talha, he went out to answer a call of nature. Bilal was walking behind him. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, honoured him by asking him to walk at his side. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, passed by a grave and stood there until Bilal reached him. he said, ‘Woe to you, Bilal. Did you hear what I heard?’ He replied, ‘I did not hear anything.’ He said, ‘The man in the grave is being punished.’ He found that it was a Jew.”

380. Chapter

854. Qays said, “I heard Mu’awiya say to a young brother of his, ‘Mount your slave behind you.’ He refused. Mu’awiya said to him, ‘How badly you have been taught!’ I heard Abu Sufyan say, ‘leave your brother alone.'”

855. Musa ibn ‘Ali reported from his father that ‘Amr ibn al-‘As said, “When you have a lot of close friends, you have a lot of creditors.” The transmitter asked Musa, “What are creditors?” “Rights owed,” he replied.

XXXV. Poetry

381. There is some wisdom in poetry

856. Khalid ibn Kaysan said, “I was with Ibn ‘Umar when Iyyas ibn Khaythama got up and said to him, ‘Shall I recite some poetry, Ibn al-Faruq?’ ‘Yes,’ he replied, ‘but only recite good poetry to me.'”

He recited until he came to something which Ibn ‘Umar disliked whereupon he told him to stop.

857. Mutarrif said, “I accompanied ‘Imran ibn Husayn from Kufa to Basra. Very rarely did he arrive at my house without reciting some poetry to me. He said, ‘Indirect speech accords great scope in avoiding lies.'”

858. Ubayy ibn Ka’b mentioned that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “There is some wisdom in poetry.”

859. Al-Aswad ibn Suray’ said, “Messenger of Allah, I have praised my Lord, the Almighty and Exalted, in some words of praise.” He said, “Your Lord loves praise,” and did not say anything more.

860. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “It is better for a man to fill his belly with oozing pus than to fill it with poetry.”

861. Al-Aswad ibn Suray’ said, “I was a poet and went to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and asked, ‘Shall I recite some praises I have written for my Lord?’ He said, ‘Your Lord loves praise,’ and did not say anything more.”

862. ‘A’isha said, “Hassan ibn Thabit asked the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, for permission to satirise the idolaters. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘And what about my lineage?’ He said, ‘I will extract you from them as a hair is taken from dough.'”

863. Hisham reported that his father said, “I began to abuse Hassan [ibn Thabit] in the presence of ‘A’isha and she said, ‘Do not abuse him. He used to defend the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.'”

382. The good in poetry is like the good in words while some of it is bad

864. See hadith 858.

865. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Poetry is in the same position as speech. The good of it is like good words and its bad part is like bad words.”

866. ‘A’isha said, “Poetry is both good and bad. Take the good and leave the bad. I have related some of the poetry of Ka’b ibn Malik. That included an ode of forty verses and some less than that.”

867. Shurayh said, “I ask ‘A’isha, may Allah be pleased her with, ‘Did the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, recite any poetry?’ She said, ‘He used to recite some of the poetry of ‘Abdullah ibn Rawaha: ‘Someone to whom you have not given provision brings you news.'”

868. See hadith 859.

383. Someone who recites poetry

869. Ash-Sharid said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, asked me to recite the poetry of Umayya ibn Abi’s-Salt and I recited it. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, began to say, ‘Go on, go on!’ until I had recited a hundred lines.’ The Prophet said, ‘If only he had become Muslim.'”

384. Someone who dislikes for someone to be dominated by poetry

870. Ibn ‘Umar reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “It is better for one of you to fill his belly with pus than to fill it with poetry.”

871. In respect of “And as for the poets, is the misled who follow them. Do you not see how they ramble on in every style and that they say things which they do not do?” (26:223-225), Ibn ‘Abbas said that it was abrogated and that an exception was made in His words, “except for those who believe and do right actions Éthe kind of reversal they will receive.” (26:226)

385. Someone saying, “There is magic in eloquence”

872. Ibn ‘Abbas said that a man or a bedouin came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and spoke some eloquent words. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “There is some magic eloquence and some wisdom in poetry.”

873. ‘Abdu’l-Malik ibn Marwan entrusted the teaching of his children to ash-Sha’bi and said, “Teach them poetry so that they will possess dignity and vigour. Feed them meet so that their hearts will be strong. Cut off their hair so that their necks will be strong. Make them sit with men of distinction who will contradict them in words.”

386. Poetry which is disliked

874. ‘A’isha reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The greatest of criminals is the poet who satirises the entire tribe and a man who disclaims his father.”

XXXVI.Words

387. Too Many Words

875. Ibn ‘Umar said, “Two men came from the east as orators in the time of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. They stood up, spoke and then sat down. Thabit ibn Qays, the orator of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, stood up and spoke and the people liked what he said. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, stood up and said, ‘O people, say what you have to say. seeking to present words is the best manner is from Shaytan.’

Then the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘There is some magic in eloquence.'”

876. Anas said, “A man gave a speech in the presence of ‘Umar and said a lot. ‘Umar said, ‘Too many words in orations comes from the skills of shaytan.'”

877. Abu Yazid or Ma’n ibn Yazid reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Gather in your mosques. When the people are gathered, come and tell me.’ The first of those to whom he came was us and he sat down. One of the speakers spoke and said, ‘Praise be to Allah. No praise can be directed to anyone except Him nor is there any escape without Him.’

The

Prophet got angry, stood up and we blamed one another. Then he went to another mosque and sat in it. We sent to him and spoke to him. He came with us and sat where he had been sitting or near to it.

Then he said, ‘Praise be to Allah who puts whatever He wishes before Him and whatever He wishes behind Him. There is some magic in eloquence.’ Then he commanded us and taught us.”

388.Wishing

878. ‘A’isha said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was sleepless one night and said, ‘Would that a man of righteous action among my Companions would come and guard me tonight!’ Then he heard the sound of weapons. He asked, ‘Who is it?’ ‘Sa’d,’ came the answer. Sa’d said, ‘Messenger of Allah, I have come to guard you.’ The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, slept and we heard him snore.”

389.When someone says, “It is a sea” about a man, thing or horse

879. Anas ibn Malik, “There was some alarm in Madina and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, borrowed a horse belonging to Abu Talha called al-Mandub. He rode it, and when he returned he said, ‘We did not see anything and he found the horse to be a sea.”

[Referring to its running]

390. Beating someone for grammatical mistakes

880. Nafi’ said, “Ibn ‘Umar used to strike his son for making grammatical mistakes.”

881. ‘Abdu’r-Rahman ibn ‘Ajlan said, “‘Umar ibn al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, passed by two men who were shooting. One man said to another, ‘Do hit it (using the letter sîn instead of sâd).’ ‘Umar observed, ‘A bad grammatical mistake is worse than a bad shot.'”

391. Someone describing something by saying, “It is nothing,” meaning that it is not true

882. ‘A’isha, the wife of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “People asked the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, about soothsayers. He told them, ‘They are nothing.’ They said, But, Messenger of Allah, they speak about things which are true!’

The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, responded, ‘That is a word which Shaytan steals and then he mumbles it into the ear of his protégé with a sound like the clucking of a chicken. Then they mix a hundred lies with it.'”

392. Indirect Allusion

883. Anas ibn Malik said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was on one of his journeys and the camel-drive was chanting (to make the camels move). The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘Gently, Anjasha! Be careful with the glass vessels (meaning the women).'”

884. ‘Umar said, “A man is reckoned to be lying when he gives voice to all that he hearts.” He said, “As for cases of indirect allusion, are they enough to keep a Muslim from lying?”

885. Mutarrif ibn ‘Imran ibn ash-Shakhir said, “I accompanied ‘Imran ibn Husayn to Basra. Every day he used to recite poetry to us and he said, ‘Indirect allusions give ample scope to avoid lying.'”

393. Divulging secrets

886. ‘Amr ibn al-‘As said, “I am astonished at a man who flees from fate when he is all the time attacking it and who sees the mote in his brother’s eye and not the trunk in his own eye. He uncovers the rancour in his brother’s heart and not the rancour in himself. I have never entrusted anyone with a secret of mine and then blamed him for divulging it. How could I blame him when I have given him something he is incapable of doing?”

394. Mockery

887. ‘A’isha said, “A man suffering from an affliction passed by some women and they laughed together, mocking him, and so one of them got that same affliction.”

XXXVII. General Behaviour

395. Deliberation in things

888. Az-Zuhri reported that a man from Bali said, “I came to visit the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, with my father. My father spoke to him while I was not there. I said to my father, ‘What did he say to you?’ He replied, ‘When you desire something, then you must proceed slowly until Allah shows you a way out of it or until Allah makes a way out for you.'”

889. Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyya said, “Not wise is he who does not deal correctly with a person whose company he cannot avoid until Allah appoints for him a release or a way out.”

396. Someone who guides down an alley or on a path

890. Al-Bara’ ibn ‘Azib related that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “If anyone gives a gift or guides down a land or a path that, for him, is equivalent to freeing a slave.”

891. Abu Dharr is reported as saying, “Your putting some of the water from your bucket in your brother’s bucket is sadaqa. Your removing stones. thorns and bones from people’s path is sadaqa. Your guiding a man in a place where there are no guides is sadaqa.”

397. Someone who misguides a blind person

892. Ibn ‘Abbas reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Allah curses anyone who misguides a blind person and leads him away from the path.”

398. Tyranny (baghy)

893. Ibn ‘Abbas told Shahr (ibn Hawshab), “While the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was sitting in the courtyard of his house in Makka, ‘Uthman ibn Maz’un passed by and smiled at the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to him, ‘Why don’t you sit down?’ ‘I will,’ he said. So the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, sat facing him.

While he was conversing with him, the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, stared at the sky and said, ‘A messenger from Allah, ‘Abdullah came to me just now when you sat sown?’ He asked, ‘What did he say to you?’ He said, ‘Allah commands justice and doing good and giving to relatives. And He forbids indecency and doing wrong and tyranny. He warns you so that hopefully you will pay heed.’ (16:90) ‘Uthman said, ‘That was when belief was established in my heart and I loved Muhammad.'”

399. The punishment for outrage

894. Anas reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “I will enter the Garden with someone who brings up two daughters until they come of age, and we will be like these two,” and he indicated his index finger and middle finger.

895. “Two doors come quickly in this world: outrage and cutting off relatives.”

400. Noble descent

896. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The noble son of the noble son of the noble son of the noble one was Yusuf ibn Ya’qub ibn Ishaq ibn Ibrahim.”

897. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “My friends on the Day of Rising will be those with taqwa, even if one lineage is closer than another. People will not bring me their actions. They will come carrying this world on their shoulders and they will call out, ‘Muhammad!’ I will say, ‘no,’ to such-and-such, and I will have full power over them.”

898. Ibn ‘Abbas said, “I do not know anyone who acts by this ayat: ‘Mankind! We created you from a male and a female, and made you into peoples and tribes so that you might come to know each other. The noblest among you in Allah’s sight is the one with the most taqwa.’ (49:13) One man says to another man, ‘I am more noble than you are.’ No one is nobler than another person except by taqwa.”

899. Ibn ‘Abbas said, “What do you reckon to be nobility? Allah has made nobility clear. The noblest of you in the sight of Allah is the one with the greatest taqwa. What do you reckon as lineage? The best of you in lineage is the best of you in character.”

401. The arwah (spirits) are a massed army

900. ‘A’isha said, “I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, ‘The arwah are a massed army. When they already know each other, they are friendly. When they do not know each other, they disagree.'”

901. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The spirits are massed armies. Those of them that knew one another are friendly. Those that did not know one another disagree.”

402. A man saying, “Glory be to Allah!” when he is amazed

902. Abu Hurayra said, “I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, ‘While a shepherd was tending to his sheep, a wolf came and snatched one of the sheep. The shepherd went after the wolf which turned to him and said, ‘Who will look after them on the ‘Day of Wild Beasts’? They will have no shepherd but me.’

People said, ‘Glory be to Allah!’ The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘I believe it I, Abu Bakr and ‘Umar.'”

903. ‘Ali said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was in a funeral procession an he picked up something and began to scratch the ground with it. He said, ‘There is none of you who does not have his seat written either in the Fire or in the Garden.’ They said, ‘Messenger of Allah, thenshould we not rely on what is written for us and abandon action?’ ‘Act.’ he said. ‘Every thing is easy if you were created for it.’

He added, ‘As for someone who is one of the people of happiness, it is easy for him to perform the actions of happiness. As for someone who is one of the people of wretchedness, it is easy for him to perform the actions of wretchedness.’ Then he recited, ‘As for him who gives out and has taqwa and confirms the GoodÉ’ (92:5-10)

403.Wiping the ground with the hand

904. Usayd ibn Abi Usayd reported that his mother said, “I said to Abu Qatada, ‘Why don’t you relate something from the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace?’ Abu Qatada said, ‘I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, “Whoever tells lies about me, eases the way for himself to a bed in the Fire.” When the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said that, he began to wipe his hand on the ground.'”

404. Slings

905. ‘Abdullah ibn Mughaffal al-Muzani said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade slings. He said, ‘They do not kill game nor injure the enemy. They gouge the eye and break the teeth.'”

405. Do not curse the wind

906. Abu Hurayra said, “A fierce wind blew when the people were on the road to Makka while ‘Umar was making hajj. ‘Umar asked those around him, ‘What is the wind?’ They did not give any answer. I urged my camel forward and I caught up with him and said, ‘I have heard that you asked about the wind. I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say,

“The wind (rîh) is from the spirit (ruh) if Allah. It brings mercy and it brings punishment. Do not curse it. Ask Allah for the good of it and seek refuge from its evil.”‘”

XXXVIII. Omens

406. Someone’s words, “We have been given rain by the rising of such-and-such and such-and-such (a star)”

907. Zayd ibn Khalid al-Juhani said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, led us in the Subh prayer at Hudaybiyya after it had rained on us during the night. When he finished, he faced the people and said, ‘Do you know what your Lord has said?’ They replied, ‘Allah and His Messenger know best.’ He said, ‘This morning My slaves have become divided up into believers and unbelievers. Those who said, “We had rain by the favour and mercy of Allah,” believe in Me and reject the stars. Those who said that it was because of a certain star, disbelieve in Me and believe in the stars.”‘”

407.What someone says when he sees clouds

908. ‘A’isha said, “When the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, saw a cloud in the sky, he would get up and down and walk to and fro, and his face would change colour. When it rained, that would leave him.” When A’isha commented on that, the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “I do not know. Perhaps it will be as Allah Almighty says: ‘When they saw it as a storm cloud advancing on their valleys…’ (46:24)”

909. ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ud reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Paying attention to the bad omen (tayyara) is association (shirk). It has nothing to do with us. Allah will remove it by reliance on Him.”

408. The bad omen (tayyâra)

910. Abu Hurayra heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, “Bad omens. The best of that is the good omen. They asked, “What is the good omen?” “A good word which one of you hears,” he replied.

409. The excellence of someone who does not take note of omens

911. ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ud reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The nations were presented to me on the Festival in the days of hajj, and I was astonished at the great number of my community. They filled the plains and mountains.” They said, “Muhammad, are you content?” “Yes, O Lord!” he said.

He said, “In addition to these people there are seventy thousand who will enter the Garden without any reckoning. They are those who do not use charms nor cauterise themselves nor seek omens and who rely on their Lord.” ‘Ukkasha exclaimed, “Ask Allah to place me among them!” Then another man said, “Ask Allah to put me among them!” The Prophet said, “‘Ukkasha has beaten you to it.”

410. Bad omens taken from the jinn

912. ‘Alqama reported that ‘A’isha used to go to children when they were born and make supplication for them. She came to a child and removed its pillow and found a straight razor under his head. She asked about the razor and they said, “We put it there against the jinn. She took the razor, threw it away and forbade them to use it. She said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, disliked and hated seeing bad omens in things. She forbade doing that.

411. Good Omens

913. Anas reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “There is no infection and there are no bad omens, although I am pleased by a good omen a good word.”

914. Hiba at-Tamimi related from his father that he heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “There is no avenging spirit (hama*), and the most truthful of omens is the good omen. The Evil Eye is a reality.”

[Hama: a superstitious belief of the pre-Islamic Arabs, that the unavenged spirit of a murdered person took the form of a night bird.]]

412. Seeing blessing in a good name

915. ‘Abdullah ibn as-Sa’ib reported that in the year of al-Hudaybiyya, when ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan told the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, that Suhayl had been sent to him by his people to make a truce with them on the basis that, provided that he leave them this year, they would leave Makka empty for him for three days. When ‘Uthman came and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was told, “Suhayl has come,” he said, “Allah has made our business easy (sahhala).”

413. Bad luck in horses

916. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Bad luck can be found in houses, women and horses.”

917. Sahl ibn Sa’d said, “If there is bad luck in anything, it is in houses, women and horses.”

918. Anas ibn Malik said, “A man said, ‘Messenger of Allah, we were in a house and there were a large number of us and we had a lot of property in it. Then we moved to another house and our numbers decreased and our property became less in it (the new house).’ The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Go back to it (the first house) or leave it (the second house) it is bad.'”

XXXIX. Sneezing and Yawning

414. The Sneeze

919. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Allah loves sneezing and hates yawning. When one of you sneezes and praises Allah Almighty, it is a duty for every Muslim who hears him to say to him, ‘May Allah have mercy on you.’ Yawning comes from Shaytan. When one of you yawns, he should control it as much as possible. When a man says, ‘Aawh!,’ Shaytan laughs at him.”

415.What to say when you sneeze

920. Ibn ‘Abbas said, “When one of you sneezes and says, ‘Praise be to Allah,’ the angel says, ‘The Lord of the Worlds.’ When you say, ‘The Lord of the Worlds,’ the angel says, ‘May Allah have mercy on you.'”

921. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “When one of you sneezes, he should say, ‘Praise be to Allah,’ and his brother or companion should say to him, ‘May Allah have mercy on you.’ Then he should say, ‘May Allah guide you and put your affairs in order.'”

416.Wishing mercy on the sneezer

922. ‘Abdu’r-Rahman ibn Ziyad ibn An’am al-Ifriqi said, “My father told me that they were taking part in a sea raid in the time of Mu’awiya. He said, ‘Our ship was right up against the ship of Abu Ayyub al-Ansari. When it was time for our midday meal, we invited him and he came over. He said, “You invited me, but even though I am fasting, I cannot avoid accepting your invitation because I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say,

‘A Muslim owes six things to his brother. If he neglects any of them, he has neglected an obligatory duty owed to his brother. He should return his greeting when he greets him. He should accept when he gives him an invitation. He should ask for mercy on him when he sneezes. He should give him good counsel when he asks him for advice.'”‘”

He said, “There was a man with us who was giving to joking and he said to the man who served our food, ‘May Allah repay you good and piety.’ The man got angry at him when he said it to him a lot. Then the first man said to Abu Ayyub, ‘What do you think about a man who becomes angry and reviles me when I say to him, “May Allah repay you good and piety”?’

Abu Ayyub remarked, ‘We used to say, ‘If someone is not put right by good, he will be put right by evil.”‘ So he turned to the man and said to him when he came, ‘May Allah repay you with evil and disgrace!’ The man laughed and was pleased and said, ‘Will you not stop joking?’ The man said, ‘May Allah repay Abu Ayyub al-Ansari with good!'”

923. Ibn Mas’ud reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “There are four things that one Muslim owes another Muslim: to visit him when he is ill, to be with him when he dies, to accept when he invites him, and to ask for mercy on him when he sneezes.”

924. Al-Bara’ ibn ‘Azib said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, instructed us to do seven things and forbade us seven. He instructed us to visit the sick, to join funeral processions, to bless people who sneeze, to fulfil our oaths, to help the wronged, to return the greeting, and to accept invitations. He forbade us gold rings, silver vessels, red (silk) saddle clothes, Qassi (silk and flax) garments, thick brocade, embroidered silk, and pure silk.”

925. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “A Muslim owes another Muslim six duties.” He was asked, “And what are they, Messenger of Allah?” He said, “To greet him when he meets him, to accept when he gives him an invitation, to give him good counsel when he asks for advice, to wish mercy on him when he sneezes and says, ‘Praise be to Allah,’ to visit him when he is ill, and to join the funeral procession when he dies.”

417.When you hear a sneeze, you should say, “Praise be to Allah”

926. ‘Ali said, “When someone hears a sneeze and says, ‘Praise be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds, in every situation,’ he will never get a toothache or earache.”

418. How to wish for mercy on a person when you hear a sneeze

927. Abu Salih reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “When one of you sneezes, he should say, ‘Praise be to Allah.’ When he says, ‘Praise be to Allah, ‘ his brother or companion should say to him, ‘May Allah have mercy on you.’ Then let the person who sneezed say, ‘May Allah guide you and put your affairs in order.'”

928. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Allah loves the sneeze and dislikes yawning. When one you sneezes and praises Allah, it is a duty for every Muslim who hears him to say, ‘May Allah have mercy on you.;’ As for the yawn, it comes from Shaytan. When one of you yawns, he should repress it as much as possible. When one of you yawns, Shaytan laughs at him.”

929. Ibn ‘Abbas said, “When someone is wished mercy, he should say, ‘May Allah protect us and you from the Fire. May Allah have mercy on you.'”

930. Abu Hurayra said, “We were sitting with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, when a man sneezed and praised Allah. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to him, ‘May Allah have mercy on you.’ Then another man sneezed but the Prophet did not say anything to him. The man, ‘Messenger of Allah! you responded to the other man, but did not say anything to me!’ The Prophet replied, ‘He praised Allah and you were silent.'”

419.When someone does not praise Allah, do not wish mercy on him

931. Similar to 930, but from Anas.

932. Abu Hurayra said, “Two men sat in the presence of the Prophet may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and one of them was from a noble family than the other. The nobler of the two sneezed and did not praise Allah, so the Prophet did not ask for mercy for him. Then the other man sneezed and praised Allah, so the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, asked for mercy on him. The noble man said, ‘I sneezed in your presence and you did not ask for mercy for me. This other than sneezed and you asked for mercy on him.’ The Prophet said, ‘This man mentioned Allah, so I mentioned him. You forgot Allah, so I forgot you.'”

420.What should someone who sneezes say first?

933. Nafi’ said that when ‘Abdullah ibn ÒUmar sneezed, they said to him, “May Allah have mercy on you,” and Ibn ‘Umar said, “May He have mercy on us and you. May He forgive us and you.”

934. ‘Abdullah said, “When one of you sneezes, he should say, ‘Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds.’ Let anyone responding to him say ‘May Allah have mercy on you.’ Then the person who sneezed should say’May Allah forgive me and you.'”

935. Iyas ibn Salama related that his father said, “A man sneezed in the presence of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and the Prophet said, ‘May Allah have mercy on you.’ Then the man sneezed again and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘This man has a cold.'”

421. Someone who says, “May Allah have mercy on you if you praised Allah.”

936. Makhul al-Azdi said, “I was beside Ibn ‘Umar when a man sneezed on one side of the mosque. Ibn ‘Umar said, ‘May Allah have mercy on you if you praised Allah.'”

422. Do not say, “Ab”

937. Mujahid said, “When a son of ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar, either Abu Bakr or ‘Umar, sneezed, he said, ‘Ab!’ Ibn ‘Umar said, ‘What is this “Ab”? Ab is the name of one of the shaytans who comes between the sneeze and the praise.'”

423.When someone sneezes several times

938. See hadith 935.

939. Abu Hurayra said, “Wish mercy on a person once, twice and three times. Anything more than that is a cold.”

424.When a Jew sneezes

940. Abu Musa said, “The Jews used to sneeze in the presence of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, hoping that he would say to them, ‘May Allah have mercy on you.’ He used to say to them, ‘May Allah guide you and put you in order.'”

425. How a man wishes mercy on a woman when she sneezes

941. Abu Burda said, “I came to Abu Musa while he was in the house of Umm al-Fadl ibn al-‘Abbas and I sneezed and Abu Musa did not wish mercy on me. Umm al-Fadl sneezed and he wished mercy on her. I told my mother, so when Abu Musa came to her, she confronted him and said, ‘My son sneezed and you did not wish mercy on him. She (Umm al-Fadl) sneezed and you wished mercy on her.’

Abu Musa replied, ‘I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, “When one of you sneezes and praises Allah, you should wish mercy on him, if he does not praise Allah, do not wish mercy on him.” My son sneezed and did not praise Allah, so I did not wish mercy on him. She sneezed and praised Allah, so I wished mercy on her.’ She said, ‘You did well.'”

426. Yawning

942. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “When one of you yawns, he should repress it as much as possible.”

427. Someone who says, “At your service (Labbayk)” when he answers

943. Mu’adh said, “I was riding behind the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he called out, ‘Mu’adh!’ ‘At your service!’ I replied. Then the Prophet said the same thing three times and went on, ‘Do you know what is Allah’s right on His slaves? That they should worship Him and not associate anything with Him.’

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946. Anas said, “There is no one that people loved to see more than the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. But when they saw him, they did not stand up for him since they knew that he disliked that.”

947. ‘A’isha, the Umm al-Mu’minin, said, “I have not seen anyone who more resembled the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in words or speech or manner of sitting than Fatima.”

‘A’isha continued, “When the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, saw that she had come, he would greet her and then he stood up for her, kissed her, took her hand and brought her forward and made her sit in hi place. When the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, visited her, she greeted him, stood up for him, and kissed him. She came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in his final illness and he greeted her, kissed her, and told her a secret. She wept. Then he confided something else to her and she laughed.

I said to the women, ‘I see that this woman is superior to other women, let she is one of them. First she wept and then she laughed.’ I asked her, ‘What did he say to you?’ She replied, ‘I would be telling a secret.’ When the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, died, Fatima said, ‘He confided to me, “I am dying,” so I wept.

Then he confided to me, “You will be the first of my family to join me,” so I was happy and pleased at that.'”

429. A man standing up for someone sitting down

948. Jabir said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was ill and we prayed behind him while he was sitting down. Abu Bakr relayed his takbir to the people. The Prophet turned towards us and saw that we were standing. He indicated to us that we should sit down. So we prayed sitting down with him. When he said the taslim, he said, ‘You were about to do what the Persians and Romans do. They stand in front of their kings when they are seated. Do not do that. Follow your Imams. If the Imam prays standing, then pray standing. If he prays sitting down, then pray sitting down.”

430.When someone yawns, he should put his hand over his mouth

949. Abu Sa’id reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “When one of you yawns, he should put his hand over his mouth. Otherwise Shaytan might enter it.”

950. Ibn Abbas said, “When someone yawns, he should place his hand over his mouth. Yawning comes from Shaytan.”

951. Same as 949.

XD. Gestures

431. Should anyone delouse someone else’s head

952. Anas ibn Malik said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to visit Umm Hiram, the daughter of Milhan who was married to ‘Ubada ibn as-Samit, and she would give him food and delouse his head. Then he slept and woke up laughing.”

953. Qays ibn ‘Asim as-Sa’idi said, “I came to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he said, ‘This is the master of the people of the desert.’ I said, ‘Messenger of Allah, how much property can I have without owning anything to someone who comes with a request or a guest?’

The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘The best property isforty. A lot of property is sixty. Woe to those who have hundreds except for he who gives away something precious, lends an animal with abundant milk or sacrifices a fat animal to eat and feeds beggars and the poor.’

I asked, ‘Messenger of Allah, which is the noblest of these qualities?’ The valley where I am does not support many flocks.’ The Prophet replied, ‘So what do you give as a gift?’ I replied, ‘I give virgin camels and she-camels.’ The Prophet asked, ‘How much do you give as a loan?’ I said, ‘I lend a hundred.’ He asked, ‘What do you do with she-camels that are ready to be mated?’ He replied, ‘People bring their ropes (to use as halters for the male camels) and no man is prevented from taking a camel on which he puts a halter. He takes the male camel he thinks is the proper one (for mating and keeps it) until he returns it.’

The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘Which do you love more ? your property or your mawali (i.e. your heirs).’ (‘My property,’ he replied.) The Prophet said, ‘Your share is what you eat of your property and consume or what you give away and spend. The rest of it belongs to your heirs.’ I said, ‘When I go back, I must lessen it.'”

When he was neat death, his sons gathered around and he said, ‘My sons, listen to me. You will not listen to anyone who will give you better advice than me. Do not wail over me. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was not wailed for. I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbid wailing. Shroud me in the garment in which I used to pray. Make the eldest of you your leader. If you make the eldest of you your leader, you will continue to have a successor from your father among you. If you make the youngest of you your leader, then the eldest of you will be debased in front of people. Be abstinent among yourselves. Have a good livelihood and you will be free of the need to ask from other people. Beware of begging. It is the lowest of a man’s earnings. When you bury me, flatten my grave. There was some bad feelings between me and the tribe of Bakr ibn Wa’il in this area because of wounds I inflicted. Do not trust a fool to bring something which might bring about disgrace in your deen (i.e. if he were to reveal the site of the grave.'”

432. Shaking the head and biting the lip when surprised

954. ‘Abdullah ibn as-Samit said, “I questioned my close friend Abu Dharr who said, ‘I brought some water for wudu’ to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. He shook his head and bit his lip.

I said, “May my father and mother be your ransom, have I injured you?” “No,” he replied, “but you will meet amirs ? or imams ? who will delay the prayer until it is past its time.” “So what do you command me to do?” I asked. He replied, “Pray the prayer at the proper time. If you come across them, then pray with them and do not say, ‘I have already prayed, so I will not pray again.'”‘”

433. A man striking his hand on his thigh when he is amazed or for some other reason

955. ‘Ali reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, knocked at the door of ‘Ali and Fatima, the daughter of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, “Don’t you pray?” ‘Ali said, “I said, ‘Messenger of Allah, our spirits are with Allah. When He wishes to wake us up, we will make up.’ The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, left without saying anything to me. Then I heard him strike him thigh after his back was turned. He said, ‘More than anything else, man is argumentative.’ (18:54)”

956. Abu Razin said about Abu Hurayra, “I saw him striking his brow with his hand whole saying, ‘People of Iraq, do you claim that I lie against the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace? Do you have enjoyment while I have the wrong action? I testify that I heard the , Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, “When one of you breaks his sandal-strap, he should not walk in his other sandal until it is mended.”‘”

434.When a man strikes his brother’s thigh and does not intend anything bad by it

957. Abu’l-‘Aliyya al-Bara’ said, “‘Abdullah ibn as-Samit passed by me and I gave him a chair. He sat down. I told him, ‘Ibn Ziyad has delayed the prayer. What do you command?’ He hit my thigh (and I think he said, ‘So that it left a mark on me’) and then he said, ‘I asked Abu Dharr as you asked me and he hit my thigh as I have hit yours. He said, “Pray the prayer at the proper time, but if you come across some of them, pray with them and do not say, ‘I have already prayed,’ and then not pray.”‘”

958. It is related that ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar reported that ‘Umar went with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, with a group to visit Ibn Sayyad. They found him playing with some children in the hills of Banu Maghala. Ibn Sayyad, who was approaching puberty, did not notice them until the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, patted him with his hand and then said to him, ‘Do you testify that I am the Messenger of Allah?’

Ibn Sayyad looked at him and said, ‘I testify that you are the Messenger of the unlettered.’ Ibn Sayyad said to the Prophet, ‘Do you testify that I am the Messenger of Allah?’ He refuted it and said, ‘I have believed in Allah and His Messengers.’ Then he said to him, ‘What dreams do you have?’ Ibn Sayyad replied, ‘Both truthful people and liars come to me.’ The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘You are in a state of confusion.’

Then the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to him, ‘I am concealing something from you.’ Ibn Sayyad said, ‘It is just smoke.’ He said, ‘Shame on you! You will not go too far.’ ‘Umar said, ‘Messenger of Allah, let me cut his head off?’ The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘If it is him (i.e. the Dajjal), you will not be able to get the better of him. If it is not him, there is no point in killing him.'”

Salim reported that he heard ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar say, “After that, the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went with Ubayy ibn Ka’b al-Ansari to the palm-grove where Ibn Sayyad was staying. He wanted to hear something from Ibn Sayyad without Ibn Sayyad seeing him. The Prophet, Messenger of Allah entered and hid behind the palm trunks, trying to hear something from Ibn Sayyad before he saw him. Ibn Sayyad was lying on his bed, covered by a wrapper and there was a murmuring sound coming from him.

The mother of Ibn Sayyad saw the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, hiding behind the palm trunk and she said to Ibn Sayyad, ‘Saf! (which was a name of Ibn Sayyad) Muhammad is here.’ So Ibn Sayyad got up. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘If she had left him, the business would have been clear.'”

Salim reported that he heard ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar say, ” “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, stood up among the people and praised Allah as He deserves and then he mentioned the Dajjal and said, ‘I warn you about him, and there is no Prophet who did not warn his people about him. Nuh warned his people about him, but I will say something to you which no Prophet has said to his people. You should know that he is one-eyed and that Allah is not one-eyed.'”

959. Jabir said, “When the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was in janaba, he would pour three cupfuls of water over his head.”

Al-Hasan ibn Muhammad [ibn al-Hanafiyya] said, “Abu ‘Abdullah, I have more hair than that.” Jabir struck his hand on al-Hasan’s thigh and said, “Nephew, the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had more hair than you have and better hair as well.”

435. The person who dislikes people sitting and rising for him

960. Jabir said, “In Madina, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was thrown from a horse onto a palm trunk and dislocated his foot. We used to visit him in the room of ‘A’isha. We came upon him while he was praying sitting down and we prayed standing behind him.

He indicates to us that we should sit down. When he finished the prayer, he said, ‘When the Imam prays sitting, then pray sitting. When he prays standing, then pray standing. Do not stand while the imam is sitting as the Persians do with their great men.'”

961. He also said, “One of the slaves of the Ansar had a son whom he named Muhammad, The Ansar said, ‘We will not give you the kunya of the Messenger of Allah until we have sat in the road and asked the Prophet about the Final Hour.’ The Prophet said, ‘You have come to me to ask me about the Hour?’ ‘Yes,’ we replied. He said, ‘There is no one alive now who will see it, even if he lives a hundred years.’ We said, ‘A slave of the Ansar has had a son and named him Muhammad. The Ansar said, “We will not call you by the kunya of the Messenger of Allah.”‘ The Prophet said, ‘You have done well. Call yourselves with my name, but do not use my kunya.'”

436. Chapter

962. Jabir ibn ‘Abdullah reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, passed through the market, entering from part of the high part of the city and the people were on both sides of him. He passed by a dead one-eared goat and reached out and took its ear. Then he said, “Who would like to buy this for a dirham?” They said, “Why would we want it when it is worthless? What would we do with it?” He said, “Would you like to have it?” “No,” they replied. He asked them that three times and they said, “No, by Allah! If it were alive, it would have a defect as it only has one ear. Why would we want it when it is dead?” The Prophet said, “By Allah, this world is less in the sight of Allah than this goat is to you.”

963. ‘Utayy ibn Damura said, “I saw a man with my father who was consoling another man in the way people used to console each other in the Jahiliyya. My father bit him and would not use his kunya. His companions looked at my father and he said, ‘It appears that you disapprove of that.’ He said, ‘I will never respect anyone who does this! I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, “If someone consoles people in the way people consoled each other in the days of the Jahiliyya, then bite him, and do not use his kunya.”‘”

437.What a man says when his foot goes to sleep

964. ‘Abdu’r-Rahman ibn Sa’d said, “Ibn ‘Umar’s foot went to sleep and a man said to him, ‘Mention the person you love most.’ He said, ‘Muhammad.'”

XDI. Greetings

438. Chapter

965. It is related that Abu Musa was with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in one of the gardens of Madina. He said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had a twig in his hand with which he was striking the water and mud. A man came and asked for the garden to be opened, and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘Open it for him and give him the good news of the Garden.’

I went and it was Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him. I opened the gate for him and gave him the good news of the Garden. Then another man asked to be letin and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘Open the door and give him the good news of the Garden.’ It was ‘Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, and I let him in and gave him the good news of the Garden. Then yet another man asked to be let in. The Prophet had been reclining, but he then sat up and said, ‘Open it for him and give him the good news of the Garden along with an affliction which will befall him ? or which will happen.’

I went and it was ‘Uthman, I opened the door and told him what the Prophet had said. He said, ‘Allah is the One who is asked for help. ‘”

439. Shaking hands with children

966. Salama ibn Wardan said, “I saw Anas ibn Malik shake hands with some people and he asked me, ‘And who are you?’ I said, ‘The mawla of the Banu Layth.’ He stroked my head three times and said, ‘May Allah bless you.'”

440. Shaking Hands

967. Anas ibn Malik said, “When the people of Yemen came, the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘The people of Yemen have arrived and they have gentler hearts than you. They are the first to offer the handshake.'”

968. Al-Bara’ ibn ‘Azib said, “Part of the full greeting is to shake your brother’s hand.”

441. A woman stroking a child’s head

969. Ibrahim ibn Marzuq ath-Thaqafi related that his father (who had belonged to Allah ibn azZubayr) told him, “‘Abdullah ibn az-Zubayr sent me to his mother, Asma’ bint Abi Bakr and he told her how al-Hajjaj was treating them. She made supplication for me and stroked my head. I was a young boy at that time.”

970. Jabir ibn ‘Abdullah said, “I purchased a camel and rode it hard for a month until I reached Syria. ‘Abdullah ibn Unays was there, and I sent word to him, saying, ‘Jabir is at the door.’ The messenger returned and said, ‘Jabir ibn ‘Abdullah?’ ‘Yes,’ I replied. So ‘Abdullah came out and embraced me. I said, ‘A hadith reached me which I had not heard before and I feared that one of us might die.'”

He went on, “I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, ‘Allah will gather His slaves ? or people ? naked, uncircumcised, without anything.’ We asked, ‘What is meant by “without anything”?’ The Prophet said, ‘They will have nothing with them.’ (The Prophet went on,) ‘They will be called by a voice that is heard from afar (and I think that he said, ‘as if it was from close at hand’), saying, “I am the King. None of the people of the Garden will enter the Garden while any of the people of the Fire are seeking him for some injustice he did to him. None of the people of the Fire will enter the Fire while any of the people of the Garden are seeking him for an injustice he did to him.”‘ I asked, ‘How is this? We come to Allah naked and without any worldly goods?’ He said, ‘This applies to good actions and evil actions.'”

443. A man kissing his daughter

971. ‘A’isha, the Umm al-Mu’minin, said, “I did not see anyone who more resembled the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in manner of speaking that Fatima. When she came to him, he stood up for her, made her welcome, kissed her and had her sit in his place. When the Prophet came to her, she stood up for him, took his hand, made him welcome, kissed him, and made him sit in her place. She came to him during his final illness and he greeted her and kissed her.”

444. Kissing the hand

972. Ibn ‘Umar said, “We were on a raid and the people fled. We said, ‘How can we meet the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, when we have run away? It has been revealed, “unless he is withdrawing to rejoin the fight” (8:16).” We said, ‘We will not go to Madina and then no one will see us.’ Then we said, ‘Perhaps we should go.’ The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came from the Fajr prayer and we said, ‘We fled.’ He said, ‘You are those rejoining the fight.”‘ We kissed his hand. He said, ‘I am your group.*'”

[* The ayat continues, “or withdrawing to support another groupÉ”]

973. ‘Abdu’r-Rahman ibn Razin said, “We passed by az-Zubda and were told, ‘There is Salama ibn al-Akwa’. I went to him and he greeted us. Then he brought out his hands and stated, ‘With these two hands I offered allegiance to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.’ He held out his palm which was as huge as a camel’s foot, and we got up and kissed it.”

974. Anas was asked, “Did you touch the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, with your hand?” He replied, “Yes,” so they kissed it.

445. Kissing the Foot

975. Al-Wazi’ ibn ‘Amir said, “We came and were told, ‘That is the Messenger of Allah.’ We took his hands and feet and kissed them.”

976. Suhayb said, “I saw ‘Ali kiss the hands and feet of al-‘Abbas.”

446. A man rising out of respect for another man

977. Abu Mijaz said, “Mu’awiya came while ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amir and ‘Abdullah ibn az-Zubayr were seated. Ibn ‘Amir got up while Ibn az-Zubayr remained seated, and he was weightier of the two.

Mu’awiya said, ‘The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Whoever likes to have the slaves of Allah stand up out of respect for him should take his place in the Fire.”‘”

447. Giving the greeting first

978. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Allahcreated Adam, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and his height was 60 spans. He said, ‘Go and greet those (a group of angels who were sitting down) and listen to how they answer you. It is your greeting and the greeting of your descendants.’

He said, ‘Peace be upon you,’ and they replied, ‘Peace be upon you and the mercy of Allah.’ They added, ‘and the mercy of Allah’. All who enter the Garden will have his form, but creation has continued to decline until now.'”

448. Giving the greeting to people

979. Al-Bara’ reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Make the greeting common practice among you and you will be safe.”

980. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “You will not enter the Garden until you believe and you will not believe until you love one another. Shall I tell you something the doing of which will give you love of one another?” “Yes, Messenger of Allah,” they replied. The Prophet said, “Make the greeting common practice among you.”

981. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Worship the All-Merciful and feed people. Make the greeting common practice among you and you will enter the Garden.”

449. The person who greets first

982. Bashir ibn Yasar said, “No one preceded ? or got ahead of ? Ibn ‘Umar when giving the greeting.”

983. Jabir said, ” “Someone riding should greet someone walking, and someone walking should greet someone sitting down. When there are two people walking, the better of them is the one who gives the greeting first.”

984. Ibn ‘Umar said that al-Agharr (who was a man from Muzayna and had been a Companion of the Prophet) was owed some measures of dates by a man from the Banu ‘Amr ibn ‘Awf who came to him many times. He said, “I went to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he sent Abu Bakr as-Siddiq with me.” He continues, “Everyone we met greeted us. Abu Bakr said, ‘Don’t you know that when people give the greeting before us, they have the reward? Give the greeting before them and you will have the reward.'”

985. Abu Ayyub reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “It is not lawful for a Muslim man to separate himself from his brother for more than three days. When they meet, and one turns away and the other turns away, the better of them is the one who gives the greeting first.”

450. The excellence of the greeting

986. Abu Hurayra reported that a man passed by the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, while hew as in an assembly and said, “Peace be upon you.”

“Ten good deeds,” he said. Another man passed by and said, “Peace be upon you and the mercy of Allah.” The Prophet said,

“Twenty good deeds.” Then yet another man passed by and said, “Peace be upon you and the mercy of

Allah and His blessing,” and the Prophet said, “Thirty good deeds.” Then a man in the gathering got up and did not give the greeting. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “How quickly your companion forgets! When one of you comes to an assembly, he should give the greeting. If he thinks he should sit down, he sits down. When he stands up, he gives the greeting. Neither is a greater duty than the other.”

987. ‘Umar said, “I was riding behind Abu Bakr and he passed by some people. He said, ‘Peace be upon you.’ They said, ‘Peace be upon you and the mercy of Allah.’ He said, ‘Peace be upon you and the mercy of Allah.’ They said, ‘Peace be upon you and the mercy of Allah and His blessings.’ Abu Bakr said, ‘Today the people have been very much better than us.'”

988. ‘A’isha reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The Jews do not envy you for anything the way that they envy you for the salam and the Amin.”

 

451. Peace (as-Salam) is one of the Name so Allah

989. Anas reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “As-Salam (peace) is one of the Names of Allah Almighty which Allah has placed in the earth. Therefore give the greeting among yourselves.”

990. Ibn Mas’ud said, ” They were doing the prayer with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and someone said, ‘Peace be upon Allah.’ When the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, finished the prayer, he said, ‘Who said “Peace be upon Allah”? Allah is Peace. Rather say, “Greetings belong to Allah and good words and prayers. Peace be upon you, O Prophet and the mercy of Allah and His blessings. Peace be upon us and upon all the right-acting slaves of Allah. I testify that there is no god but Allah and I testify that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger.”‘”

Ibn Mas’ud said, “They used to learn that as one of you would learn a sura from the Qur’an.”

 

452. It is a duty for one Muslim to greet another Muslim when he meets him

991. Abu Hurayra said, “I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, ‘The rights a Muslim has over another Muslim are five.” He was asked, “What are they?” He replied, “When he meets him, he should greet him, When he gives him an invitation, he should accept.

When he asks him for advice, he should give him good counsel. When he sneezes and praises Allah, he should wish him mercy. when he is ill, he should visit him. When he dies, he should accompany him.”

 

453. Someone walking greets the person sitting down

992. ‘Abdu’r-Rahman ibn Shibl said that he heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The person riding should greet the person on foot. The person on foot should greet the person who is seated. The smaller group should greet the large. Whoever answers the greeting, that is for him. Whoever does not answer it, has nothing.”

993. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The person riding greets the person walking. The person walking greets the person sitting. The small group greets the large group.”

994. Jabir said, “When two people walking meet, then the one who gives the greeting first is the better of them.”

 

454. The person riding greets the person sitting

995. See 993.

996. Fadala reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The person riding greets the person sitting and the small group greets the larger.”

 

455. Does the person walking greet the person riding?

997. Ash-Sha’bi said that he met a rider and gave the greeting first. I said, “Did you give the greeting first?” He said, “I saw Shurayh walking and he gave the greeting first.”

 

456. A small group greets the large group

998. See 996.

999. See 996.

 

457. The young person greets the old

1000. See 993.

1001. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The young person greets the old person, the person walking greets the person sitting down, and the small group greets the large group.”

 

458. The end of the greeting

1001. (sic) Abu’z-Zinad said, “Kharija (ibn Zayd ibn Thabit) used to write on the letter of Zayd when he said the salam, ‘Peace be upon you, Amir al-Mu’minin, and the mercy of Allah and His blessings and His forgiveness and the best of His prayers.”

 

459. The person who greets by a gesture

1002. Abu Qurra al-Khurasani said, “I saw Anas pass by us and he indicated to us with his hand that he was giving the greeting., The gesture made that clear. I saw al-Hasan using yellow dye while wearing a black turban. Asma’ said, ‘The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, waved his hand to indicate the greeting to women.”

1003. Sa’d reported that he went with ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar and al-Qasim ibn Muhammad. They stopped at place and ‘Abdullah ibn az-Zubayr commanded and made a gesture of greeting to them and it was answered.

1004. ‘Ata’ ibn Abi Rabah said, “They used to dislike a greeting made with the hand,” or he said, “He disliked greeting with the hand.”

 

460. Make it heard when you greet

1005. Thabit ibn ‘Ubayd said, “I came to a group which included ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar who said, ‘When you greet, make it clearly audible, for it is a greeting from Allah containing great blessing.:

 

461. Someone who goes out, greets and is greeted

1006. At-Tufayl ibn Ubayy ibn Ka’b related that he used to visit ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar and would go with him to the market. He said, “When we went to the market, ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar did not pass by any rubbish collector nor merchant nor poor person nor anyone else without greeting them.”

At-Tufayl said, “I came to ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar one day and he asked me to follow him to the market. I said, ‘What is the point of you going to the market? You do not engage in selling nor ask about goods nor bargain for them nor sit in any of the groups in the market. Let us sit here and talk.’ ‘Abdullah said to me, ‘You with the belly! (at-Tufayl had a large belly.) We go out in the morning only for the sake of the greeting we give to those we meet.”

 

462. The greeting when someone comes to a gathering

1007. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “When one of you comes to a gathering, he should give the greeting. If he leaves, he should give the greeting. Neither is more of a duty than the other.”

 

463. The greeting when someone leaves a gathering

1008. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “When a man comes to a gathering, he should give the greeting. When he sits down and then thinks that he should leave before the gathering has broken up, he should give the greeting. Neither is more of a duty than the other.”

 

464. The duty of someone who gives the greeting when he stands up

1009. Mu’awiya ibn Qurra said, “My father told me, ‘If you sit in a gathering expecting good to come from, but then something occurs which makes you leave, say, ‘Peace be upon you,’ and you will share in any good that they obtain in that gathering. There are no people who sit in a gathering and then split up without Allah having been mentioned, but that it is as if they were leaving the corpse of a donkey.'”

1010. Abu Hurayra said, “Whoever meets his brother should greet him. If a tree or wall comes between them and then he meets him, he should greet him on the other side.”

1011. Anas ibn Malik reported that the Companions of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to gather and they would turn towards the tree and a group of them would go to the right and a group to its left. When they met again, they would greet one another.

 

465. The person who oils his hand for the handshake

1012. It is reported by Thabit al-Bannani that Anas used to oil his hand with scented oil in the morning for the sake of shaking hands with his brothers.

 

466. Greeting those you know and those you do not know

1013. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr reported that a man said, “Messenger of Allah, which aspect of Islam is best?” He replied, “Feeding people and greeting those you know and those you do not know.”

 

467. Chapter

1014. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade people to sit in courtyards and roads. The Muslims said, “We will not be able to avoid it. We cannot undertake it.” He said, “If not, then give it its due.” They said, “What is it due?” He said, “Lower the eye, guide the traveller, wish for mercy on the person who sneezes when he praises Allah and return the greeting.”

1015. Abu Hurayra said, “The most miserly of people is the person who is miserly with the greeting. The one who is cheated of good is the one who does not return it. if a tree comes between you and your brother, and you are able to be the first to begin the greeting before the other person, then do it.”

1016. Salim, the mawla of ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr, said, “When Ibn ‘Umar was greeted, he returned it with increase. I came upon him sitting down and said, ‘Peace be upon you,’ and he said, ‘Peace be upon you and the mercy of Allah.’ Then I came another time and said, ‘Peace be upon you and the mercy of Allah,; and he said, ‘Peace be upon you and the mercy of Allah and His blessings.’ Then I came to him another time and said, ‘Peace be upon you and the mercy of Allah and His blessings,’ and he said, ‘Peace be upon you and the mercy of Allah and His blessings and the bet of His prayers.'”

 

468. Do not greet a deviant person

1017. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr ibn al-‘as said, “Do not greet anyone who drinks wine.”

1018. Al-Hasan said, “There should be not sense of respect between you and a deviant person.”

1019. ‘Ali ibn ‘Abdullah was heard expressing his dislike for chess and said, “Do not greet someone who plays it. It is a kind of gambling.”

 

469. Not greeting a man wearing khaluq-perfume and those in rebellion (against Allah)

1020. ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, walked past some people who included a man who used khaluq perfume. He looked at them and gave them the greeting, but turns away from that man. The man asked, ‘Have you turned away from me?’ He replied, ‘There is redness between your eyes.'”

[Khaluq is a reddish-yellow perfume usually used by women.]

1021. Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullah reported that a man came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, wearing a gold signet-ring on his finger. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, turned away from him. When the man saw his dislike of the gold, he threw the ring away. He made an iron ring and wore that. He came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, who said, “This is worse. This is the ornament of the people of the Fire.”

The man went away, threw it off and put on a silver ring and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did not say anything about it.”

1022. Abu Sa’id said, “A man came from al-Bahrayn to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and greeted him, but the Prophet did not answer him. The man was wearing a gold ring and a silk robe. The man went away in sorrow. He complained to his wife and she said, ‘Perhaps the Messenger of Allah objects to your robe and your ring. Throw them away and then go back.; he did that and then the Prophet returned his greeting. he said, ‘I came to you yesterday and you turned away from me.’ He said, ‘You had a coal of the Fire on your hand.’

He said, ‘I came then with any coals.’ He said, ‘As for what you brought, there is no one who is free from dependence on these stones. But it is the enjoyment of the life of this world.’ He said, ‘What should I make a ring from?’ ‘From silver, brass, or iron,’ he replied.

 

470. Greeting the Amir

1023. ‘Umar ibn ‘Abdu’l-‘Aziz asked Abu Bakr ibn Abi Hathama, “Why did Abu Bakr write, ‘From Abu Bakr, the Khalifa (Successor) of the Messenger of Allah’ and then ‘Umar wrote after him, ‘From ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab, the khalifa (successor) of Abu Bakr’? Who was the first to write ‘the Amir al-Mu’minin’?” He replied, “My grandmother, ash-Shifa’, related to me, and she was one of the first to write ‘the Amir al-Mu’minin’?” He said, “My grandfather, ash-Shifa’ related to me, (and she was one of the first Muhajirun and when ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab entered the market, he visited her), saying, ”Umar ibn al-Khattab wrote to the governor of Iraq requesting him to send him two trustworthy noble men so that he could question them about Iraq and its people. He sent him a master of Iraq, Labid ibn Rabi’a and also ‘Adi ibn Hatim, and they came to Madina. They made their camels kneel in the courtyard of the mosque, entered it and found ‘Amr ibn al-‘As.

They said to him, ”Amr, ask permission for us to visit the Amir al-Mu’minin, ‘Umar.’ ‘Amr got up and went to ‘Umar. He said, ‘Peace be upon you, Amir al-Mu’minin.’ ‘Umar said to him, ‘Ibn al-‘As, what made you use this name? You have deviated from what you normally say.’ He said, ‘Yes, Labid ibn Rabi’a and ‘Adi ibn Hatim came and said to me, “Ask permission for us to visit the Amir al-Mu’minin.” I said, “You two, by Allah, have hit upon the correct name. He is the amir and we are the believers.”‘ The title originated on that day.”

1024. ‘Ubaydullah ibn ‘Abdullah said, “Mu’awiya went on his first hajj when he was the khalifa and ‘Uthman ibn Hanif al-Ansari came to him and said, ‘Peace be upon you, Amir, and the mercy of Allah.’ The people of Syria objected to that and said, ‘Who is this hypocrite who shortens the greeting of the Amir al-Mu’minin!’ ‘

Uthman made his camel kneel and said, ‘Amir al-Mu’minin! These men object to something which you know better than them. By Allah, I used to this greeting for Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, and ‘Uthman, and none of them objected to it.’ Mu’awiya said to those of the people of Syria who had spoken, ‘Take it easy! It was partly as he stated. But when the civil war engaged the people of Syria, they said, “Do not shorten the greeting of our khalifa in our presence (i.e. from Amir al-Mu’minin to Amir).” People of Madina, I will treat you as friends even though you use ‘Amir” for a zakat collector.'”

1025. Jabir said, “I visited al-Hajjaj and did not greet him.”

1026. Tamim ibn Hadhlam said, “I will mention the first to be greeted as ‘Amir’ in Kufa. Al-Mughira ibn Shu’ba left by the Bab ar-Rahba and a man of Kinda came up to him. They claim that it was Abu Qurra al-Kindi. He greeted him and said, ‘Peace be upon you, O Amir, and the mercy of Allah.’ He disliked it. So the man said, ‘Peace be upon you, O Amir, and the mercy of Allah. Peace be upon you. Am I one of you or not?'” Sammak ibn Salama ad-Dabi said, “After that it became an established practice.”

1027. Ziyad ibn ‘Ubayd (ar-Ru’ayni) said, “We went to Ruwayfa’, the Amir of Antabulis. A man came and greeted him, saying, ‘Peace be upon the Amir.’ From ‘Abda, he said, ‘Peace be upon the Amir.’

Ruwayfa’ said to him, ‘If you had greeted us, we would have returned the greeting. But you greeted Maslama ibn Mukhallad (Maslama was in charge of Egypt). Go to him and he will return your greeting.'” Ziyad said, “When we arrived, we greeted Ruwayfa’ while he was in his assembly, saying, ‘Peace be upon you.'”

 

471. Greeting someone asleep

1028. Al-Miqdad ibn al-Aswad said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to come at night and would give the greeting in such a way that it would not awaken anyone asleep, but the person who was awake would hear it.”

 

472. May Allah preserve you

1029. ‘Umar said to ‘Adi ibn Hatim, “May Allah preserve you from recognition.”

 

473.Welcome

1030. ‘A’isha said, “Fatima walked in the same manner that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, walked. He used to say to her, ‘Welcome, my daughter!’ Then he would have her sit down on his right or his left.”

1031. ‘Ali said, “‘Ammar asked for permission to enter to visit the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and the Prophet recognised his voice and said, ‘Welcome with the best and purest greeting!'”

 

474. How to return the greeting

1032. ‘Uqba ibn ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr who said, “While we were sitting with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in the shade of a tree while travelling between Makka and Madina, a bedouin, who was an example of the coarsest and fiercest kind of people came up and said, ‘Peace be upon you,’ and they said, ‘And upon you.'”

1033. Abu Jamra said, “I heard Ibn ‘Abbas say when he was greeted, ‘And upon you and the mercy of Allah.'”

1034. Qayla reported that a mans aid, “Peace be upon you, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.” He said, “And peace be upon you and the mercy of Allah.”

1035. Abu Dharr said, “I came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, when he had finished his prayer. I was the first person to be greeted with the greeting of Islam. He said, ‘And on you and the mercy of Allah. From where have you come?’ I said, ‘From Ghifar.'”

1036. ‘A’isha reported, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ”A’ish! This is Jibril who sends you greetings.’ I said, ‘And peace be upon him and the mercy of Allah and His blessings. You see what I do not see.” By that she meant the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.

1037. Mu’awiya ibn Qurra said that his father said to him, “My son, when a man passes by you and says, ‘Peace be upon you (plural).’ Do not say, ‘And on you (singular)’ as if you were singling out that greeting out for him alone. Rather say, ‘Peace be upon you (plural).'”

 

475. Someone who does not return the greeting

1038. ‘Abdullah ibn as-Samit said, “I said to Abu Dharr, ‘I passed by ‘Abdu’r-Rahman ibn Umm al-Hakam and I greeted him and he did not answer me at all. He said, ‘Nephew, what harm have suffered from that? Someone better than him answered you ? the angel on his right.”

1039. ‘Abdullah said, “Peace is one of the Names of Allah which Allah has placed on the earth. Extend it among you. When a man greets people and they answer him, then he has a higher degree than them because he reminds them of peace. If no one answers him, he will be answered by one who is better and more excellent.'”

1040. Al-Hasan said, “Greeting is an act of obedience while the answer is a duty.”

 

476. Someone who is miserly with the greeting

1041. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr ibn al-‘As said, “A liar is someone who lies in his oath. A miser is someone who is miserly with the greeting. A thief is someone who steals the prayer.”

1042. Abu Hurayra said, “The most miserly of people is the one who is miserly with the greeting. The most incapable of people of people is the one who is the most incapable of supplication.”

 

477. The Greeting to Children

1043. Thabit al-Bannani reported that Anas ibn Malik walked by some children and greeted them. He said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to do that.”

1044. ‘Anbas said, “I saw Ibn ‘Umar greet children in the schools.”

 

478.Women greeting men

1045. Umm Hani’, the daughter of Abu Talib, said, “I went to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, while he was performing a major ablution. I greeted him and he asked, ‘Who is this?’ ‘Umm Hani’,’ I replied. He said, ‘Welcome.'”

1046. Al-Hasan said, “Be women who greet men.”

 

479. Greeting women

1047. Asma’ was heard to say that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, passed by a group of women sitting down in the mosque. He said to the salam with his hand and said, “Beware of the ingratitude of those with blessings. Beware of the ingratitude of those with blessings.” One of them said, “We seek refuge with Prophet, Prophet of Allah, from ingratitude for the blessings of Allah.” He said, “Yes. One of you women might have been without a husband for a long time (and then Allah provides her with one) and she becomes angry and says, ‘By Allah, I have never seen a hour of good from you. That is ingratitude for the blessings of Allah. That is the ingratitude of those with blessings.'”

1048. Asma’, the daughter of Yazid al-Ansari, said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, passed by me while I was with some young slavegirls belonging to me. He greeted us and said, ‘Beware of the ingratitude of those with blessings.’ I was the boldest of them in coming forward to question him and I said, ‘Messenger of Allah, what is the ingratitude of those with blessings?’ He replied, ‘Perhaps one of them with remain unmarried for a long time with her parents and then Allah provides her with a husband and provides her with children from him and then she gets angry and is ungrateful and says, “I have never seen any good at all from you.”‘”

 

480. Someone who dislikes to greet a particular person

1049. Tariq said, “We were sitting with ‘Abdullah when his doorkeeper came and said, ‘The iqama for the prayer has been given.’ He got up and we got up as well and went to the mosque. He saw the people doing ruku’ at the front of the mosque. He said the takbir, bowed, and we went and did the same thing that he had done. Then a man rushed past and said, ‘Peace be upon you, Abu ‘Abdu’r-Rahman.’ He said, ‘Allah has spoken the truth and His Messenger conveyed the Message.’ When we finished the prayer, he returned and went back to is people. We remained sitting in out places, waiting for him until he came out. We said to each other, ‘Which of us will ask him?’ Tariq said, ‘I will ask him,’ and he did so. ‘Abdullah said, ‘From the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, who said, “Before the Final Hour people will single out one individual for the greeting, commerce will increase until a woman helps her husband in business, people will sever their links with their relatives, knowledge will spread, false testimony will appear and true testimony will be concealed.”‘”

1050. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr reported that a man asked the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, “Which is the best of Islam?” He replied, “Feeding people and giving the greeting to those you know and those you do not know.”

 

Insha Allah will be continue to Part 5, Chapter XDII : Asking permission to enter

 

Taken From The Book “Al-Adab al-Mufrad” by Imam Al-Bukhari

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