Keep Away From Mutual Enmity


By Shaykh Muhammad al-Ghazali

When a quarrel intensifies, when its roots go deeper, its thorns become branches and branches increase in number, then the freshness of the fruits of faith is adversely affected. Softness, sympathy, satisfaction and peace, which are encouraged by the Islamic teachings, receive a setback. Performance of worship loses its righteousness, while the self get no benefit from it.

Many a time mutual quarrels perturb the persons who claim to be wise. When this happens, they take recourse to lowly and superficial things, and sometimes indulge in dangerous acts which only increase difficulties and bring troubles. When a man is displeased, his eyes become prejudiced and ignore the camel and object to gnat. Such eyes do not appreciate the beauty of the peacock, for they only see its ugly feet and claws. If a slight defect is present, it turns the molehill into a mountain. And sometimes the internal rancour and jealousy affect them so badly that no hesitation is felt in inventing imaginary stories. Islam disapproves of all these manifestations of ill feeling and advises to abstain from them. It declares their avoidance as the most virtuous form of worship.

The Prophet said: “Listen, may I not tell you something more important than salat, fasting and charity?” The people requested him to do so. He said: “To keep the mutual relationship on the right footing, because the defect in the mutual relationship is a thing which shaves a thing clean. I do not mean that it shaves the hair, but that it shaves (removes) the religion.” (at-Tirmidhi)

Many a time Satan is not able to persuade wise men to worship idols, but since he is very keen on misguiding and ruining men, he manages to succeed in driving them away from God, so much so that these wise men become more indifferent in respecting the rights of God than the idolaters themselves. The best method adopted by the devil for this purpose is to sow the seeds of enmity in the hearts of the people. When this enmity develops into a fire and open hostilities result, he enjoys the scene. This fire burns man’s present and future into ashes and totally destroys their relationship and virtues.

The Messenger of Allah said: “The Satan has been disappointed that he would not be worshipped in the Arabian Peninsula, but he has not been disappointed from kindling the fire of fighting among the people.” (Muslim)

It means that when wickedness takes roots in the hearts, when people start hating love and brotherhood, and when these are destroyed, people then revert to cruelty and enmity, and break all those relations and links which Allah has commanded to be kept; thus spreading corruption on this earth.

The Muslim Is Friendly And Likeable


By Dr. Muhammad Ali Al-Hashimi

The Muslim who truly understands the teachings of his religion is gentle, friendly and likeable. He mixes with people and gets along with them. This is something which should be a characteristic of the Muslim who understands that keeping in touch with people and earning their trust is one of the most important duties of the Muslim. It is an effective means of conveying the message of truth to them, and exposing them to its moral values, because people only listen to those whom they like, trust and accept. Hence there are many hadiths which commend the type of person who is friendly and liked by others. Such a person is one of those chosen ones who are beloved by the Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) and will be closest to him on the Day of Resurrection:

“Shall I not tell you who among you is most beloved to me and will be closest to me on the Day of Resurrection?” He repeated it two or three times, and they said, “Yes, O Messenger of Allah (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam).”  He said: “Those of you who are the best in attitude and character.” [Reported by Ahmad and its isnad is jayyid]

Some reports add: “Those who are down to earth and humble, who get along with others and with whom others feel comfortable.”

One of the attributes of the believer is that he gets along with others and others feel comfortable with him. He likes people and they like him. If he is not like this, then he will not be able to convey the message or achieve anything of significance. Whoever is like that has no goodness in him, as in the hadith:

“The believer gets along with people and they feel comfortable with him. There is no goodness in the one who does not get along with people and with whom they do not feel comfortable. ” [Reported by Abmad and al-Bazar; the men of Ahmad’s isnad are rijal as-sahih]

The Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) set the highest example of good behaviour towards people. He was skilful in softening their hearts and called them to follow him in word and deed. He demonstrated how to reach people’s hearts and win their love and admiration.

He was always cheerful and easy-going, never harsh. When he came to any gathering, he would sit wherever there was a free space, and he told others to do likewise. He treated everyone equally, so that no one who was present in a gathering would feel that anyone else was receiving preferential treatment. If anyone came to him and asked for something, he would give it to them, or at least respond with kind words. His good attitude extended to everyone and he was like a father to them. The people gathered around him were truly equal, distinguished only by their level of taqwa.  They were humble, respecting their elders, showing compassion to young ones, giving priority to those in need and taking care of strangers.

The Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) never used to disappoint anyone who came to ask from him. There are three characteristics that he did not possess: he was not argumentative, he did not talk too much, and he did not concern himself with matters that were not his business.

There are three things that he never did to people: he never criticized any one, he never said “Shame on you!” to anyone, and he never looked for anyone’s faults. He never said anything but that for which he hoped to earn reward. When he spoke, the people around him would listen earnestly, sitting still as if there were birds on their heads. When he was silent, then they would speak. They never argued with one another in his presence.

They would smile at whatever he smiled at, and would be impressed by whatever impressed him. He would be patient with a stranger who might be harsh in his requests or questions, and his Companions would ask the stranger to speak gently. He said, “If you see someone in need, then help him.” He never accepted praise except from someone who was thanking him for a favour, and he never cut off anyone who was speaking; he would wait until the person indicated that he had finished, or stood up.

`A’ishah tells us that he used to be cautious of the worst type of people, and he would speak gently to them and treat them well. A man sought permission to enter upon him and he said, “Let him in, what a bad brother of his tribe he is!”

When the man came in, he spoke gently to him. `A’ishah said: “O Messenger of Allah (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam), you said what you said, then you spoke gently to him.” He (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) said, “O `A’ishah, the worst of people is the one whom people avoid (or are gentle towards) because they fear his slander.” (Bukhari and Muslim)

The true Muslim follows in the footsteps of his Prophet in his dealings with all people, whether they are good or bad, so that he is liked and accepted by all people.

Work and Earning Livelihood in the Light Quran and Sunnah


It is He Who has made the earth submissive to you; so traverse its paths and eat of what He provides you….(67:15)

The fundamental attitude of Islam toward man’s position in the world is that Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala has made the earth for the benefit of man, to whom He has given control over it. It is the duty of man to profit from this favor and to exert himself to seek Allah’s bounties throughout the earth.

 

The Obligation to Work If One Is Able

It is not permitted to the Muslim to avoid working for a living on the pretext of devoting his life to worship or trust in Allah, as gold and silver certainly do not fall from the sky. It is also not permissible for him to depend on charity while he is able to earn what is sufficient for his own and his family’s needs through his own efforts. In this regard, the Prophet (peace be on him) has said, 

“Charity is halal neither for the rich nor for the able bodied.” (‘Reported by al-Tirmidhi.)

The Prophet (peace be on him) made it haram for the Muslim to beg from others without dire necessity thus losing his honor and his dignity. He said, 

“He who begs without need is like a person holding a burning coal in his hand.” (Reported by al-Bayhaqi and by Ibn Khazimah in his Sahih.) 

He also said, Anyone who begs from people in order to increase his wealth will have his face scratched on the Day of Resurrection, and will eat burning stones from hell; so let him reduce it (his punishment) or let him increase it as he pleases. (Reported by al-Tirmidhi. (The meaning here is that it is up to him to decrease his punishment by not begging, and vice-versa. Trans.)) 

Again, he said, “A person keeps on begging until he meets Allah (on the Day of Resurrection) with no flesh on his face.” (Reported by al-Bukhari and Muslim.) 

By such strong admonitions, the Prophet (peace be on him) intended to train the Muslim to safeguard his dignity, to develop self-reliance, and to be far-removed from dependence on others.

 

When Begging is Allowable

The Prophet (peace be on him) was, however, aware of situations of necessity. If, under the pressure of need, one is forced to ask for financial help from the government or from individuals, he is blameless. Said Allah’s messenger (peace be on him): Begging is similar to scratching the flesh off your face; so if someone wants to save his face he should avoid it, except for asking from the ruler or asking in case of dire need. (Reported by Abu Daoud and al-Nisai.)

In his Sahih, Muslim reported Abu Bishr Qubaysah ibn al-Makharaf as saying, “I agreed to pay himalah (an amount of money paid to two quarreling parties in order to make peace between them) and came to the Messenger of Allah (peace be on him) asking for help. Thereupon the Prophet (peace be on him) said, ‘Wait until alms (sadaqah) are brought to us and we will give you from that. Qubaysah,’ he continued, ‘asking for money is not permissible except in three cases: for a man who takes it upon himself to pay himalah, he may ask people for help until the designated amount is received and then he should stop asking. For a man who suffers calamity and loses his property, it is permissible for him to ask until he is able to stand on his own feet. For a man who is starving, until three reliable persons from his community say, “That man is reduced to hunger; it is permissible for him to ask until he is able to stand on his own feet.” Except for these, Qubaysah, begging is fire, it is eating fire.’ (Reported by Abu Daoud and al-Nisai.)

 

Dignity of Work

Some people regard certain kinds of work or professions as contemptible. However, the Prophet (peace be on him) denied the validity of this notion. He taught his Companions that the whole of a human being’s dignity is tied up with his work—any sort of work —and that real disgrace and humiliation consist of depending on other people’s help.

He said, It is better that a person should take a rope and bring a bundle of wood on his back to sell so that Allah may preserve his honor, than that he should beg from people, (regardless of) whether they give to him or refuse him. (Reported by al-Bukhari and Muslim.)

The Muslim can earn his livelihood by agriculture, trade, or industry or by any profession or employment as long as it does not involve doing, supporting, or propagating anything haram.

 

Earning Through Agriculture

In the Qur’an, while referring to His bounties and favors to man, Allah Ta’ala mentions the principles required for the pursuit of agriculture. He has spread out the earth and made it suitable and fertile for cultivation and production; this is a bounty to human beings which they ought to recall and to be thankful for: And Allah has spread out the earth for you, so that you may make your way through its spacious paths. (71:19-20)


And He has spread out the earth for (His) creatures. In it is fruit, and date palms with spathes, and husked corn, and scented herbs. Then which of the favors of your Lord will you deny? (55:10-13)

He has also provided water in abundance. He sends it down as rain and makes it flow in streams to revive the earth after it is dead. 

And it is He Who sends down water from the sky. With it We then bring forth vegetation of all kinds; from some We produce green (crops) out of which We produce grain heaped up at the harvest…. (6:99) 

Then let man look at his food, how We pour forth water in abundance, then We split the earth into fragments and produce therein corn and grapes and nutritious plants. (80:24-28)

Further, He sends the winds, with “good tidings” to drive the clouds and scatter the seeds: And We have spread out the earth and placed firm hills therein, and produced in it all kinds of things in due balance. And We have made means of sustenance in it for you and for those whom you are not the providers. And there is not a thing but its sources are with Us, and We send it down only in appointed measures. And We send the fertilizing winds, and send down the rain from the sky and give it to you to drink, although you are not the guardians of its stores. (15:19-22)

In all these Qur’anic verses there is encouragement for man to engage in agricultural activity, for it has been made easy for him as a divine favor.

The Prophet (peace be on him) said, When a Muslim plants a plant or cultivates a crop, no bird or human being eats from it without its being accounted as a (rewardable) charity for him. (Reported by al-Bukhari and Muslim.) 

He also said, When a Muslim plants a plant, anything eaten of it or stolen from it, until the Day of Ressurection, is accounted as a charity for him. (Reported by Muslim.) 

The implication of these ahadith is that the reward of the person who plants a tree or a crop continues as long as the produce of this tree or crop is eaten or used, even though he may have sold it to someone else. The scholars have said,
It is Allah’s generosity that He continues to add to the reward of a person even after his death, just as when he was alive, for six things: for the charity whose benefits continue, for knowledge which is used, for righteous children who pray for him, for the trees he planted, for the crops he sowed, and for territorial borders he guarded.

Once a man passed Abu al-Darda while he was planting a walnut tree. The man said, “Are you planting this even though you are a very old man? This tree will not bear fruit for many years.” “What of it?” Abu al-Darda replied. “Others will eat of its fruit, and the reward will be mine.”

One of the Companions of the Prophet (peace be on him) said that he had heard the Messenger of Allah say, If anyone plants a tree, patiently protects it, and looks after it until it bears fruit, Allah the Mighty and Glorious will count as charity for him anything for which its fruits are used. (Reported by Ahmad.)

On the basis of these sayings of the Prophet (peace be on him), some scholars have argued that agriculture is the best of occupations. Others say that manufacturing and working with the hands are best, while still others consider trade to be the best. (See al-Qastalani’s commentary on al-Bukhari.) In trying to reconcile these positions, some researchersay that it all dependupon circumstances: if food is scarce, agriculture is the best if people need goods, trade is the best; while if manufactured goods are needed, industry is the best. This conditional preference seems to be in the closest agreement with modern scientific thought.

 

Prohibited Crops

It is haram to cultivate a plant, such as hashish and the like which is haram for eating or which has no other known use except what is harmful. The case of tobacco is of this nature; whatever be the classification of smoking, whetherharam or makruh, the growing of tobacco is similarly classified. We ourselves prefer to classify smoking as haram.

It is not a valid excuse for the Muslim to say that he is growing the haram crop in order to sell it to non-Muslims, for the Muslim is never permitted to be a party to the propagation of what is haram. This is similar to a Muslim’s raising pigs in order to sell them to Christians, which is clearly unlawful. As we have seen, even a halal item such as grapes cannot be sold to others if it is known that they will use them to make wine.

 

Industries and Professions

Agriculture is essential, and Islam persuades people to engage in it by pointing to the benefits in this world, and the rewards in the Hereafter resulting from it. However, from the Islamic point of view it would be extremely undesirable if people limited their economic efforts solely to agriculture, a situation analagous to supposing that the inexhaustible oceans had no use other than the extraction of pearls from their depths. Warning Muslims that confining their activity only to agriculture and pastoral pursuits would expose them to various dangers such as defeat, humiliation, and the loss of religious freedom, the Prophet (peace be on him) said, 

If you deal in usury, calling it by other names, and hang onto the tails of cows, being satisfied with cultivation and ceasing to perform jihad, (Striving or fighting in the cause of Allah. (Trans.))Allah will inflict a disgrace upon you which will not be removed until you return to your religion. (Reported by Abu Daoud.)

Thus, in addition to agriculture, the Muslim must develop such industries, crafts, and professions as are essential for the life of a community, for the strength of a free and powerful nation, and for the posterity and wealth of a country. As the great scholars and jurists have explained, the essential industries and professions are not merely permitted by the Islamic Shari’ah, they are in fact an obligation on the Muslim community as a whole. Such obligations are termed “the obligations of sufficiency” (fard kifiyah); that is to say, the Muslim community must include among its members people engaged in every essential science, industry, and profession in numbers sufficient to meet its needs. If there is a shortage of qualified persons in some field of essential science or industry, the entire Muslim community is blameworthy, especially those in positions of authority. Imam al-Ghazzali says:

Sciences whose knowledge is deemed fard kifayah comprise every area which is indispensable for the welfare of this world, such as the following: medicine, which is necessary for the life of the body; arithmetic, for daily transactions and the division of legacies and inheritances, as well as others besides. These are the sciences without which, because of their absence, a community would be reduced to narrow straits. But should one who can practice them arise in the community, it would suffice, and the obligation to acquire their knowledge would cease to be binding upon the rest of the community.


No one should be surprised when we say that medicine as well as arithmetic are of the sciences which are fard kifayah, as are the basic industries, such as agriculture, weaving, politics, and even cupping and tailoring. For if a town should lack a cupper, extinction would overtake its people and they would be driven to expose themselves to destruction. Has not He Who has sent down the malady also sent down the remedy, given guidance for its use, and prepared the means for administering it? It is not, therefore, permissible to expose oneself to destruction by neglecting the remedy. (Ihya ‘Ulum al-Din, vol. 1 (The Book of Knowledge) translated by Nabih Amin Faris Sh. Muhammad Ashraf, Lahore, Pakistan, 1966, p. 37)

The Qur’an mentions many industries, terming them Allah’s favor and bounty. Allah Ta’ala says concerning David (Daoud), 

…And We made iron soft for him (commanding): Make thou coats of mail and balance the links…. (34:10-11) 

And We taught him the art of making garments (of mail) to protect you from your violence. Will you then be thankful? (21:80)


He says about Solomon: …And We made a fountain of molten copper flow for him; and of the jinn there were those who worked in front of him by his Lord’s permission. And if any of them turned aside from Our command, We made him taste the penalty of the blazing fire. They worked for him as he desired, (making) synagogues and statues, basins as large as reservoirs and boilers built into the ground. Give thanks, O House of David…. (34:12-13)


And He says about Duhl-Qarnayn and his building the high dam: He said, ‘That in which my Lord has established me is better (than tribute). Therefore, (if you) help me with your strength, I will erect a barrier between you and them. Give me blocks of iron.’ Then when he had filled up the space between the two cliffs, he said, ‘Blow (with your billows).’ Then when he had set it afire, he said, ‘Give me molten copper to pour on it.’ Thus, they were unable to scale it, nor were they able to dig through it.’ (18:95-97)

Allah mentions the story of Noah (Nuh) and the construction of the ark, and He also mentions great ships the size of mountains which sail the seas: 

And among His signs are the ships on the sea, like mountains. (42:32)

The Qur’an also mentions hunting in all its varied forms, from the catching of fish and the pursuit of land animals to diving in the deep for pearls, coral, and the like.

In addition to this, the Qur’an has informed us about the value of iron in such emphatic terms as are apt to be found in any other previous book, religious or secular. After mentioning the sending of prophets to the people and revealing the scriptures, Allah Ta’ala says: 

…And We send down iron, in which there is great strength and benefits for mankind….(57:25)

It is not surprising that the surah containing this verse was given the title of Al-Hadid (Iron).

Any sort of work which fills a need in the society or brings real benefit is regarded as good, provided the person performs it in a proper manner, as is required by Islam. Islam gave dignity to many professions which people considered lowly and degrading—for example, the occupation of shepherding. Although people do not usually look upon shepherds with esteem or honor, the Prophet (peace be on him) said,

 ‘Allah did not send a prophet without his having tended sheep’, They asked, ‘You too, O Messenger of Allah? He replied, ‘Yes. I tended sheep for wages for the people of Makkah’.(‘Reported by al-Bukhari.)

Muhammad (peace be on him), the Messenger of Allah and the Seal of the Prophets, used to tend sheep! Moreover they were not even his own sheep but belonged to the people of Makkah, and he tended them for fixed wages. He told his Companions this in order to teach them that honor belongs to those who work, and not to those who sit idle and are parasites.

The Qur’an tells the story of the Prophet Moses (Muse) (peace be on him) who worked for eight years as a hired man to gain the hand of an old man’s daughter in marriage. Moses was an excellent worker and employee; the old man’s daughter had displayed real insight into his character. She said, 

O my father, employ him; truly, the best for thee to employ is the strong and trustworthy one. (28:26)

Ibn ‘Abbas said, “David was a maker of coats of mail and shields, Adam was a farmer, Noah a carpenter, Idris a tailor, and Moses a shepherd.”(Reported by al-Hakim.) 

Since every prophet of Allah had some occupation, the Muslim should derive satisfaction in his occupation or profession. A hadith states: 

Noone earns his food better than the onewho worked with his hands, and the prophet of Allah, David earned his food by working with his hands. (Reported by al-Bukhari and others.)

 

Industries and Professions Condemned by Islam

Islam has prohibited certain professions and industries to its followers because they are harmful to the beliefs, morals, honor, or good manners of the society.

Prostitution: 

Prostitution, for example, is legal in many countries of the West; permits and licenses are issued to those who ply this trade, and prostitutes enjoy rights similar to other professionals. Islam absolutely rejects and condemns this practice, and forbids any female, free or slave, to earn money by selling her sexuality.

During the period of jahiliyyah some people used to exact a daily tribute from their female slaves without caring in what manner they earned this money to pay their masters. A majority of them had to resort to prostitution; some masters even forced their slave-girls to prostitution in order to earn a paltry fee. When Islam came, it lifted this disgraceful burden from its sons and daughters. Allah Ta’ala revealed, 

…And do not force your slave-girls to prostitution if they desire chastity, in order that you may seek the pleasures of this world’s life…. (24:33)

Ibn ‘Abbas narrated that Ibn Ubayy, the chief of the hypocrites of Madinah, came to the Prophet (peace be on him), bringing with him a very beautiful slave-girl named M’uadhah, and saying, “O Messenger of Allah! She belongs to such and such orphans. Will you not allow her to commit fornication so that they may receive the price of it?” “No!” replied the Prophet (peace be on him). (Tafsir of Fakhr al-Deen al-Razi, vol. 23, p. 320.)

Thus the Messenger of Allah (peace be on him) forbade this abominable profession, regardless of who might derive benefit from it, rejecting any claim concerning need, distress, or any other worthy purpose in order that Muslim society might remain pure of such degrading practices.

Dancing and Other Erotic Arts: 

Similarly, Islam does not permit sexually exciting dancing or any other erotic activity, such as suggestive or obscene songs, provocative dramas, and every type of rubbish which some people today term “art” and “progress.”

The fact is that Islam prohibits every sort of sexual contact and sexual relationship outside marriage. This is the secret behind the significant words of the Qur’an prohibiting fornication and adultery (both of which are known as zinain Arabic). 

And do not come near zina; indeed, it is an abomination and an evil way. (17:32)

This indicates that not only is zina forbidden, but likewise anything which brings one near to it. Everything to which we have referred above, as people are well aware, for example, provocative dances and songs, constitutes “coming near zina;” these things are certainly intended to tempt, excite, and lead one toward such sin. And what havoc they wreak in the lives of people!

Making Statues and Similar Articles: 

As we have already seen, Islam prohibits the acquisition of statues and even more strongly the making of them. Al-Bukhari reported on the authority of Sa’id ibn Abu al-Hasan that the latter said, “I was with Ibn ‘Abbas when a man came and said to him, ‘O Ibn ‘Abbas, I earn my living with my own hands. I make these figures.’ ‘I shall tell you,’ said Ibn ‘Abbas ‘only what I heard from the Messenger of Allah (peace be on him). I heard him say, 

‘Allah will punish anyone who makes figures until he breathes spirit into them, which he can never do.’


Seeing the man extremely upset, Ibn ‘Abbas added, ‘What ails you? If you must make figures, then make them of trees or of something which has no soul.’ ”(Reported by al-Bukhari.) 

And the same obviously applies to the making of idols and the like.

As for drawing, painting, or photography, we stated previously that they are either permitted or at worst disapproved, depending on what comes closest to the spirit of the Islamic legislation. Of course, as was explained earlier, their subject matter should not be sexually provocative, as, for example, the erotic parts of the female body or a man and woman in a state of intimacy, and should not be of someone sacred or respected, such as the angels or the prophets.

Manufacturing Intoxicants and Drugs: 

Earlier we saw that Islam prohibits any participation in the promotion of alcoholic beverages, whether it be in their manufacture, distribution, or consumption, and that anyone who participates in any of these is cursed by the Messenger of Allah (peace be on him). The case of other intoxicants and drugs, such as hashish, cocaine, and the like, is the same; manufacturing, distributing, or consuming any of them isharam. In short, Islam prohibits the Muslim to work in any industry, business or profession which deals in, or promotes, anything which is haram.

 

Trade

The Qur’an and the Hadith of the Prophet (peace be on him) urge Muslims to engage in trade and commerce, and to undertake journeys for what the Qur’an refers to as “seeking the bounty of Allah.” In fact, Allah mentions those who travel for the purpose of trade side by side with those who fight in His cause: 

…Others travel through the land, seeking the bounty of Allah, and still others fight in the cause of Allah…. (73:20)

Allah mentions merchant ships, which are the principal means of transporting goods throughout the world, as one of His favors to mankind, encouraging people to engage in exports and imports. He says: 

…And thou sees the ships in it (the ocean), cleaving the waves, that you may seek of His bounty and that you may be thankful. (35:12)

In other places He describes the winds, associating them with the movement of ships: 

And among His signs is that He sends the winds as heralds of good tidings and in order that you may taste His mercy, and that the ships may sail by His command and that you may seek of His bounty, and in order that you may be thankful. (30:46)

The Qur’an mentions this at other places as a reminder of Allah’s power and wisdom: 

Verily, in the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the alternation of night and day, and in the ships which sail upon the ocean with what is of benefit to mankind…are signs…. (2:164) 

And among His signs are the ships on the sea, like mountains. (42:32)

Allah reminds the people of Makkah that He caused their city to become a commercial center of the Arabian peninsula: 

…And have We not established for them a secure sanctuary, to which is brought produce of all kinds, provision from Ourselves…? (28:57)

Thus was answered Abraham’s prayer: Our Lord! Verily, I have settled some of my progeny in a valley without cultivation by Thy Sacred House, Our Lord, in order that they may establish salat. Then incline the hearts of some of the people with love toward them, and provide them with fruits in order that they may be grateful. (14:37)

Allah counted it as His favor upon the Quraish that He facilitated for them their two commercial journeys each year, the journey to Yemen in winter and to Syria in summer; they traveled in security because of their guardianship of the House (Ka’aba). Accordingly, they should show their gratitude to the Lord of the House by acknowledging and worshipping Him alone: 

For the security of the Quraish, their security in journeying by winter and summer, let them worship the Lord of this House, Who provides them with food against hunger and makes them safe against fear. (106:1-4)

Islam has provided a great opportunity for international trade each year. The annual Hajj season brings together at one place millions of Muslims from all over the world: 

…They will come to thee (Makkah) on foot and on every (kind of) lean camel; they will come from every deep ravine, in order that they may witness the benefits (provided) for them and celebrate the name of Allah…. (22:27-28)


Commercial activity is unquestionably one of these benefits. Al-Bukhari reported that the Muslims were reluctant to do business during the hajj, fearing that this might compromise the sincerity of their intentions or the purity of their worship. The verses of the Qur’an were then revealed, stating clearly and distinctly that, 

It is no sin for youto seek the bounty of your Lord (during the hajj)…. (2:198)

The Qur’an lauds those who go to the mosques often, glorifying their Lord morning and evening: Men whom neither business nor sale can divert from the remembrance of Allah, nor from regularity in salat or from giving zakat…. (24:37) 


In the view of Islam, the true believers are not those who remain in the mosques, nor the mystics or recluses in their places of retreat. The true Believers are men of action, whose distinguishing characteristic is that the affairs of the busy world do not make them forget their obligations to their Creator. These are some of the teachings of the Qur’an concerning trade and commerce.

The Prophet (peace be on him), by his words and deeds, delineated the rules of trade, encouraging, indeed, urging the Muslims to engage in it. Among some of his sayings are the following: 

“An honest and trustworthy merchant will be with the martyrs on the Day of Resurrection.” (Reported by Ibn Majah and al-Hakim, who classified it as “sound.”) 

“An honest and trustworthy merchant will be with the prophets, the truthful, and the martyrs.” (Reported by al-Hakim and al-Tirmidhi, with good transmitters.) 

It is not surprising that the Prophet (peace be on him) held the status of an honest merchant to be equal to that of a soldier or a martyr in the cause of Allah. His evaluation is confirmed by the experiences of life, since striving in the cause of Allah is not limited to the battlefield but extends to the economic front as well.

The Prophet (peace be on him) promised merchants a high status with Allah and a great reward in the Hereafter. We observe that the motivating force behind much trading activity is greed and profit-making by any means; “Money makes money” and “Business begets business” are the motives of much trading activity. Any merchant who remains within the bounds of honesty and fair-dealing in such an atmosphere is a fighter against his desires, meriting the status of a warrior in the cause of Allah.

The lure of business is great, and it can turn a businessman’s attention exclusively to numbers, counting his capital and the profits of his business. Even during the Prophet’s own lifetime the following incident occurred: while the Prophet (peace be on him) was addressing a gathering, the news came that a caravan of merchandise had arrived. The people rushed out, leaving the Prophet (peace be on him) behind, upon which Allah Ta’ala admonished them: 

But when they see some business or amusement, they disperse to it and leave thee standing. Say: ‘What is with Allah is better than amusement and than business; and Allah is the best of providers.’ (62:11)

Accordingly, a person who, in a vortex of commercial activity, can remain steadfast, with the fear of Allah in his heart and the mention of Him on his lips, most certainly deserves to be in the company of the favored of Allah: the prophets, the witnesses to the truth, and the martyrs in His cause.

The example of the Prophet (peace be on him) in relation to business and trade is sufficient in itself. On the other hand he was eager to nurture the spiritual aspect; thus, he built the mosque in Madinah on the foundation of piety and seeking the pleasure of Allah, as a gathering place for worship, as a university for teaching and learning, as the headquarters for the call toward Islam, and as the seat of the government. On the other hand, he was equally eager to develop the economic aspect; thus, he established an Islamic marketplace in which the Jews had not the authority they had previously possessed in the marketplace of Banu Qaynqa’. The Prophet (peace be on him) himself organized the rules of business dealing, explaining and teaching its various aspects. There was to be no cheating nor misrepresentation, nor hoarding, nor undercutting, and the like. These topics will form the subject of our discussion under the heading of “Human Affairs” in the chapter entitled “The Halal and the Haram in the Daily Life of Muslims.”

Among the Companions of the Prophet (peace be n him) we find skilled traders as well as craftsmen, farmers, and every other kind of professional person and worker. In their midst was the Messenger of Allah (peace be on him) to whom the Speech of Allah came down, who was visited by Jibril, the Trustworthy Spirit, bringing the revelations from Allah, and who guided the people by the Light of these heavenly messages.

Each of the Companions loved this noble Messenger (peace be on him) from the depths of his being; he wished nothing more than to be in his company and disliked nothing more than being parted from him. Yet we find that each of them was busy with his work, this one journeying over the earth on a business trip, that one working in his palm-grove and farm, and yet another busy with his craft. Anyone who missed any part of the teaching of the Messenger (peace be on him) asked his friends about whatever he could, and the Prophet told those who listened to him to pass on his instructions to those who were absent. Among his Companions, the Helpers (Ansar, or people of Madinah) were, by and large, farmers and growers of date-palms, while the majority of the Immigrants from Makkah (Muhajireen) were engaged in trade and business.

Here is ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Auf, the Muhajir, and here is Sa’d ibn al-Rabi’, the Ansar, who were made brothers-in-Allah by the Prophet (peace be on him) when the Muslims of Makkah migrated to Madinah. S’ad offered ‘Abdur Rahman half of his property, one of his two houses, and asked him to choose one of his two wives so that he might divorce her. This noble sacrifice was gratefully declined by a noble excuse. “May Allah bless you in your wealth and your family,” said ‘Abdur Rahman to Sa’d. “I have no need for them. Only tell me which market has the most trading activity.” “The Bani Qaynqa’ Market,” said Sa’d. ‘Abdur Rahman went to the market with some cheese and butter, and spent the day buying and selling. He continued his trading activity until he became one of the wealthiest men among the Muslims, leaving behind a huge estate when he died.

And here is Abu Bakr al-Siddiq who was a trader. Even on the day on which he was elected caliph by the Muslims, he had been planning to go to the market. And here is ‘Umar, who said about himself, “Going to the market kept me from listening to the hadith of Allah’s Messenger (peace be on him).” And here are also ‘Uthman and great many others who were engaged in trade and commerce.

 

Prohibited Kinds of Trade

Islam does not prohibit any trade except those which involve injustice, cheating, making exorbitant profits, or the promotion of something which is haram.

It is haram to do business in alcoholic beverages, intoxicants, drugs, swine, idols, statues, or anything of this sort whose consumption and use Islam has prohibited. Any earnings from such business are sinful earnings, and the Fire is likely to be the abode for the flesh which has been nourished on such earnings. Honesty and trustworthiness in such businesses will not be counted as meritorious’ for Islam came to fight and destroy such practices.

However, there is no objection to trading in gold and silk because they are permitted to women, except if something is made of these materials exclusively for the use of men.

Even if the trading is in entirely halal things, a merchant must still adhere to many moral considerations so that he may not join the ranks of the wicked, for, 

“Indeed, the wicked will be in hell.” (82:14). One day when the Prophet (peace be on him) was going to the mosque, he saw some people engaged in selling.

“O merchants,” he called out to them. When they turned their faces toward him, some of them craning their necks to listen to what he had to say, he said,

Merchants will be raised up on the Day of Resurrection as wicked people, with the exception of those who fear Allah, do righteous deeds, and are truthful. (Reported by al-Tirmidhi Ibn Majah, Ibn Hibban, and al-Hakim.)

Waithelah ibn al-Asqa’ said, “We were business people. The Prophet (peace be on him) frequently came to us, and he would say, 

“Merchants, beware of lying.” (Reported by al-Tabarani)

Thus, he warned tagainst lying about their merchandise, since this is the weakness of merchants. Lying leads to wrongdoing, and that in turn leads to the Fire. The Prophet (peace be on him) warned in general against swearing and, in particular, against swearing to a lie, saying, 

On the Day of Ressurection Allah will not look at three (kinds of) persons nor purify them. One of them is the person who swears (to the truth) while lying about his merchandise. (Reported by Muslim and others.)

Abu Sa’id narrated, “An Arab with a sheep passed by me and I said, ‘Will you sell it for three dirhams?’ He replied, ‘No, by Allah!’ but then he sold it to me. I mentioned this to the Messenger of Allah (peace be on him), who remarked, He sold his Hereafter for this world. (Reported by Ibn Hibban in his Sahih.)

The merchant should beware of cheating, for the cheater is outside the community of Islam; he should beware of tampering with the scales when weighing; beware of hoarding lest he forfeit the protection of Allah and His Messenger (peace be on him); and beware of dealing in usury or interest (riba), for Allah has prohibited it, and the Prophet (peace be on him) has said, 

“A dirham of riba which a person consumes knowingly is worse than committing zina thirty-six times.” (Reported by Ahmad on the authority of sound transmitters.) We will elaborate on all these matters when we come to the topic “Human Affairs.”

 

Salaried Employment

The Muslim is free to seek employment in the service of the government, an organization, or an individual as long as he is able to do his work satisfactorily and carry out his duties. However, he is not permitted to seek a job for which he is unfit, especially if the job carries judicial or executive authority. Abu Hurairah reported the Prophet (peace be on him) as saying, 

Woe to the rulers, the leaders, and the trustees! On the Day of Resurrection some people will wish that they could be suspended between heaven and earth rather than having had the burden of their responsibilities. (Reported by Ibn Hibban in his Sahih, and by al-Hakim who authenticated its transmitters.)

Abu Dharr narrated, “I said, ‘Messenger of Allah! Will you not appoint me?’ The Prophet (peace be on him) patted me on the shoulder and then said, Abu Dharr, you are a weak person, and this is a trust; and on the Day of Resurrection it will be a cause of regret and shame except for the one who qualifies for it and fulfills his I responsibilities.” (Reported by Muslim.) 

The Prophet (peace be on him) said, There are three classes of judges, one of whom will be in the Garden and the other two in the Fire. The one who will be in the Garden is a man who knew the truth and judged accordingly. The one who knew the truth but misjudged and the one who judged for the people in ignorance will be in the fire. (Reported by Abu Daoud, al-Tirmidhi, and Ibn Majah.)

It is better for the Muslim not to aspire to a high position, even though he may be suited for it, and to seek for something else; for whoever considers the position as a means of fording it over others is a slave of that position, and whoever turns his face toward worldly glories will not receive guidance from heaven.

Narrated ‘Abdur Rahman ibn Samrah, “The Messenger of Allah (peace be on him) told me, Abdur Rahman, do not ask for governorship, for if you are appointed to it without asking, you will be helped, while if you are appointed to it at your request, you alone will be held responsible. (Reported by al-Bukhari and Muslim.)


Anas narrated that the Prophet (peace be on him) said, He who seeks the office of a judge, collecting recommendations, is left to himself, but for him who is compelled to accept it, Allah sends an angel to guide him. (Reported by Abu Daoud and al-Tirmidhi.)

If, however, a person knows that there is no one else qualified to do a particular job except himself, and that if he does not come forward to take it, public interests will be damaged, he should come forward. The Qur’an tells us the story of the prophet Joseph in which Joseph tells the ruler, 

Set me over the storehouses of the land; I am surely a knowledgeable custodian. (12:55)

These are the Islamic guidelines in relation to seeking positions in government and the like.

 

Prohibited Types of Employment

What we have said above concerning the permissibility of working as an employee of a government, organization, or individual, excludes those jobs which are injurious to the cause of Islam or which harm Muslims. Accordingly, it is not permissible for a Muslim to be an officer or soldier in an army which is fighting against Muslims, nor to work in a corporation or factory which manufactures armaments to be used against Muslims, nor in an organization which is hostile to Islam and fights its adherents.

Similarly, any service rendered in support of injustice or in promoting what is haram is itself haram. For example, it is prohibited to the Muslim to be an employee in an organization which deals in interest, in a bar or liquor shop, nightclub, dance hall, and the like.

It is not a valid excuse to say that one is neither using what is haram nor directly involved with it. As we have stated previously, it is a basic principle of Islam that whatever aids and assists the haram is itself haram. For this reason, the Prophet (peace be on him cursed the person who writes the document of interest and the person who witnesses it, as well as the person who consumes it. Similarly cursed is the person who brings the wine, the one who serves it, as well as the one who drinks it.

Again, under the compulsion of unavoidable necessity, the Muslim may seek temporary employment in such activities to the extent of what is required, but he should in the meantime be searching for other gainful employments until Allah opens a way for him, for indeed Allah does open the door for those who sincerely seek to avoid what is haram.

The Muslim is always to be on guard against temptation which may lead him toward doubtful activities, thereby weakening his faith and compromising his religion, no matter how large a profit or gain may be involved. The Prophet (peace be on him said), “Leave alone what puts you in doubt and turn toward what does not put you in doubt.” (Reported by Ahmad, al-Tirmidhi, al-Nisai, al- Hakim, and Ibn Hibban in his Sahih.)


He also said, “A person does not reach the rank of the God-fearing (muttaqeen) until he abandons what is harmless out of fear that it may be harmful.” (Reported by al-Tirmidhi.)

 

A General Rule in Earning a Living

The general rule in regard to earning a living is that Islam does not permit its followers to earn money in any way they like, rather it differentiates between lawful and unlawful methods based on the criterion of the overall well-being of the society. One may formulate as a general rule that any transaction in which one person’s gain results in another’s loss is unlawful, while any transaction which is fair and beneficial to all the parties concerned and which is transacted by mutual consent is lawful. 

O you who believe, do not consume your property among yourselves wrongfully, but let there be trade by mutual consent, and do not kill yourselves; indeed, Allah is ever merciful to you. And whoever does so in enmity and injustice, we shall cast him into the Fire; and that is easy for Allah. (4:29-30)

This verse lays down two conditions for a transaction: first, that the transaction should be with the mutual consent of the two parties; second, that the benefit to one party should not be a loss to the other.

In explaining the meaning of “Do not kill yourselves,” scholars give two interpretations, both of which are generally applicable here. The first is, “Do not kill each other,” and the second is, “do not kill yourselves by your own hands.” In either case, a person who makes someone else suffer for his own benefit is, in effect, shedding his blood and opening the door for others to do the same to him, thus leading to his own eventual ruin. Theft, bribery, gambling, cheating, fraud, misrepresentation, and interest, although some of these may carried out by mutual consent, do not satisfy the second condition implied in the saying of AlTa’ala, “And do not kill yourselves.” (See Abul ‘Ala Maududi’s book, Asas al-lqtisad (Economic Principles), p.152.)

APLASTIC ANEMIA ~ the simptoms, cause and treatment


Introduction

 

Background

 

Aplastic anemia is a syndrome of bone marrow failure characterized by peripheral pancytopenia and marrow hypoplasia, and mild macrocytosis is observed in association with stress erythropoiesis and an elevated fetal hemoglobin levels. Paul Ehrlich introduced the concept of aplastic anemia in 1888 when he studied the case of a pregnant woman who died of bone marrow failure. However, it was not until 1904 that Anatole Chauffard named this disorder aplastic anemia.

For excellent patient education resources, visit eMedicine‘s Blood and Lymphatic System Center. Also, see eMedicine’s patient education article Anemia.

 

Pathophysiology

The theoretical basis for marrow failure includes primary defects in or damage to the stem cell or the marrow microenvironment.1,2,3 The distinction between acquired and inherited disease may present a clinical challenge, but more than 80% of cases are acquired. In acquired aplastic anemia, clinical and laboratory observations suggest that this is an autoimmune disease.

On morphologic evaluation, the bone marrow is devoid of hematopoietic elements, showing largely fat cells. Flow cytometry shows that the CD34 cell population, which contains the stem cells and the early committed progenitors, is substantially reduced.2,4 Data from in vitro colony-culture assays suggest profound functional loss of the hematopoietic progenitors, so much so that they are unresponsive even to high levels of hematopoietic growth factors.

Little evidence points to a defective microenvironment as a cause of aplastic anemia. In patients with severe aplastic anemia (SAA), stromal cells have normal function, including growth factor production. Adequate stromal function is implicit in the success of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) in aplastic anemia because the stromal elements are frequently of host origin.

The role of an immune dysfunction was suggested in 1970, when autologous recovery was documented in a patient with aplastic anemia in whom engrafting failed after BMT. Mathe proposed that the immunosuppressive regimen used for conditioning promoted the return of normal marrow function. Since then, numerous studies have shown that, in approximately 70% of patients with acquired aplastic anemia, immunosuppressive therapy improves marrow function.3,5,6,7,8  Immunity is genetically regulated (by immune response genes), and it is also influenced by environment (eg, nutrition, aging, previous exposure).9,10 Although the inciting antigens that breach immune tolerance with subsequent autoimmunity are unknown, human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR2 is overrepresented among European and United States patients with aplastic anemia, suggesting a role for antigen recognition, and its presence is predictive of a better response to cyclosporine.

Suppression of hematopoiesis is likely mediated by an expanded population of the following cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs): CD8 and HLA-DR+, which are detectable in both the blood and bone marrow of patients with aplastic anemia. These cells produce inhibitory cytokines, such as gamma-interferon and tumor necrosis factor, which can suppress progenitor cell growth. Polymorphisms in these cytokine genes, associated with an increased immune response, are more prevalent in patients with aplastic anemia. These cytokines suppress hematopoiesis by affecting the mitotic cycle and cell killing by inducing Fas-mediated apoptosis. In addition, these cytokines induce nitric oxide synthase and nitric oxide production by marrow cells, which contributes to immune-mediated cytotoxicity and the elimination of hematopoietic cells.

Constitutive expression of Tbet, a transcriptional regulator that is critical to Th1 polarization, occurs in a majority of aplastic anemia patients.5 Perforin is a cytolytic protein expressed mainly in activated cytotoxic lymphocytes and natural-killer cells. Mutations in perforin gene are responsible for some cases of familial hemophagocytosis11 ; mutations in SAP, a gene encoding for a small modulator protein that inhibits undefined-interferon production, underlie X-linked lymphoproliferation, a fatal illness associated with an aberrant immune response to herpesviruses and aplastic anemia. Perforin and SAP protein levels are markedly diminished in a majority of acquired aplastic anemia cases.

Frequency

United States

No accurate prospective data are available regarding the incidence of aplastic anemia in the United States. Findings from several retrospective studies suggest that the incidence is 0.6-6.1 cases per million population; this rate was largely based on data from retrospective reviews of death registries.

International

The annual incidence of aplastic anemia in Europe, as detailed in large, formal epidemiologic studies, is similar to that in the United States, with 2 cases per million population. Aplastic anemia is thought to be more common in Asia than in the West. The incidence was accurately determined to be 4 cases per million population in Bangkok, but it may be closer to 6 cases per million population in the rural areas of Thailand and as high as 14 cases per million population in Japan, based on prospective studies. This increased incidence may be related to environmental factors, such as increased exposure to toxic chemicals, rather than to genetic factors because this increase is not observed in people of Asian ancestry who are presently living in the United States.

 

Mortality/Morbidity

The major causes of morbidity and mortality from aplastic anemia include infection and bleeding. Patients who undergo BMT have additional issues related to toxicity from the conditioning regimen and graft versus host disease (GVHD).10,12,13,14,15,16 With immunosuppression, aplastic anemia in approximately one third of patients does not respond. For the responders, relapse and late-onset clonal disease, such as paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and leukemia, are risks.6,17,18,19,20

 

Race

No racial predisposition is reported in the United States. However, the prevalence is increased in the Far East.

Sex

The male-to-female ratio for acquired aplastic anemia is approximately 1:1, although there are data to suggest that a male preponderance may be observed in the Far East.

 

Age

Aplastic anemia occurs in all age groups.

A small peak in the incidence is observed in childhood because of the inclusion of inherited marrow-failure syndromes.

The incidence of aplastic anemia peaks in people aged 20-25 years, and a subsequent peak is observed in people older than 60 years. The latter peak may be due to the inclusion of MDSs, which are syndromes of stem-cell failure unrelated to aplastic anemia. These syndromes must be considered in the differential diagnosis of any marrow-failure syndrome.

Clinical History

The clinical presentation of patients with aplastic anemia includes symptoms related to the decrease in bone-marrow production of hematopoietic cells. The onset is insidious, and the initial symptom is related to anemia or bleeding, although fever or infections are also often noted at presentation.

Anemia may manifest as pallor, headache, palpitations, dyspnea, fatigue, or foot swelling.

Thrombocytopenia may result in mucosal and gingival bleeding or petechial rashes.

Neutropenia may manifest as overt infections, recurrent infections, or mouth and pharyngeal ulcerations.

Although the search for an etiologic agent is often unproductive, an appropriately detailed work history, with emphasis on solvent and radiation exposure should be obtained, as should a family, environmental, travel, and infectious disease history.

In the absence of obvious phenotypic features, the presentation of a patient with an inherited marrow-failure syndrome is subtle, and a thorough family history may first suggest the condition.

With regard to environmental agents, the time course of aplastic anemia and exposure to the offending agent varies greatly, and only rarely is an environmental etiology identified.

 

Physical

Physical examination may show signs of anemia, such as pallor and tachycardia, and signs of thrombocytopenia, such as petechiae, purpura, or ecchymoses. Overt signs of infection are usually not apparent at diagnosis.

A subset of patients with aplastic anemia present with jaundice and evidence of clinical hepatitis.21,22

Findings of adenopathy or organomegaly should suggest an alternative diagnosis (eg, hepatosplenomegaly and supraclavicular adenopathy are observed more frequently in cases of leukemia and lymphoma than in cases of aplastic anemia).

In any case of aplastic anemia, look for physical stigmata of inherited marrow-failure syndromes, such as skin pigmentation, short stature, microcephaly, hypogonadism, mental retardation, and skeletal anomalies. The oral pharynx, hands, and nail beds should be carefully examined for clues of dyskeratosis congenita. Oral leukoplakia is shown in the image below.

 

Oral leukoplakia in dyskeratosis congenita

Causes

Congenital or inherited causes of aplastic anemia (20%):

  • Patients usually have dysmorphic features or physical stigmata. On occasion, marrow failure may be the initial presenting feature.
  • Fanconi anemia
  • Dyskeratosis congenita
  • Cartilage-hair hypoplasia
  • Pearson syndrome
  • Amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia (thrombocytopenia-absent radius [TAR] syndrome)
  • Shwachman-Diamond syndrome
  • Dubowitz syndrome
  • Diamond-Blackfan syndrome
  • Familial aplastic anemia

Acquired causes of aplastic anemia (80%):

  • Idiopathic factors
  • Infectious causes, such as hepatitis viruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), parvovirus, and mycobacteria
  • Toxic exposure to radiation and chemicals, such as benzene
  • Drugs and elements, such as chloramphenicol, phenylbutazone, and gold may cause aplasia of the marrow. The immune mechanism does not account for the marrow failure in idiosyncratic drug reactions. In such cases, direct toxicity may occur, perhaps due to genetically determined differences in metabolic detoxification pathways. For example, the null phenotype of certain glutathione transferases is overrepresented among patients with aplastic anemia.
  • PNH is caused by an acquired genetic defect limited to the stem-cell compartment affecting the PIGAgene. Mutations in the PIGA gene render cells of hematopoietic origin sensitive to increased complement lysis. Approximately 20% of patients with aplastic anemia have evidence of PNH at presentation, as detected by means of flow cytometry. Furthermore, patients whose disease responds after immunosuppressive therapy frequently recover with clonal hematopiesis and PNH.
  • Transfusional GVHD
  • Orthotopic liver transplantation for fulminant hepatitis
  • Pregnancy
  • Eosinophilic fasciitis

 

Differential Diagnoses

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Myelodysplastic Syndrome

Acute Myelogenous Leukemia Myelophthisic Anemia

Agnogenic Myeloid Metaplasia With Myelofibrosis Osteopetrosis

Human Herpesvirus Type 6 Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin

Megaloblastic Anemia

Multiple Myeloma

 

Other Problems to Be Considered

Congestive splenomegaly, resulting in hypersplenism Infectious etiology, such as infection with HIV, mycobacteria,cytomegalovirus (CMV), or EBV Sepsis

 

Workup Laboratory Studies

Determination of complete blood cell (CBC) count and peripheral smears

A paucity of platelets, red blood cells (RBCs), granulocytes, monocytes, and reticulocytes is found in patients with aplastic anemia. Mild macrocytosis is occasionally observed. The degree of cytopenia is useful in assessing the severity of aplastic anemia. The corrected reticulocyte count is uniformly low in aplastic anemia.

The peripheral blood smear is often helpful in distinguishing aplasia from infiltrative and dysplastic causes. Teardrop poikilocytes and leukoerythroblastic changes suggest an infiltrative process.

Patients with MDS often have certain characteristic abnormalities such as dyserythropoietic RBCs and neutrophils with hypogranulation, hypolobulation, or apoptotic nuclei reaching to the edges of the cytoplasm. Monocytes are similarly hypogranular, and their nuclei may contain nucleoli.

A leukemic process may result in evidence of blasts (myeloblasts) on the peripheral smear.

 

Peripheral blood testing

Hemoglobin electrophoresis and blood-group testing may show elevated levels fetal hemoglobin and red cell I antigen, suggesting stress erythropoiesis. These findings are observed in both aplastic anemia and MDS and are often proportional to the macrocytosis.

Ordering a biochemical profile is useful in evaluating the etiology and in the differential diagnosis. The profile includes a Coombs test; an analysis of kidney function; and measurement of transaminase, bilirubin, and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) levels.

Serologic testing for hepatitis and other viral entities, such as EBV, CMV, and HIV, may be useful.

An autoimmune-disease evaluation for evidence of collagen-vascular disease may be performed.

The Ham test, or the sucrose hemolysis test, is frequently performed to diagnose PNH. However, at present, the fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) profile of PIGA anchor proteins, such as CD55 and CD59, may be more accurate than the Ham test for excluding PNH.

Diepoxybutane incubation is performed to assess chromosomal breakage for Fanconi anemia. This test is required even in the absence of phenotypic features of Fanconi anemia, because 30% of patients may not have any clinical stigmata.

Histocompatibility testing should be conducted early to identify potential related donors, especially those for young patients. Because the extent of previous transfusion significantly affects the outcomes of patients undergoing BMT for aplastic anemia, the rapidity with which these data are obtained is crucial.

 

Imaging Studies

Radiologic studies are generally not needed to establish a diagnosis of aplastic anemia.

A skeletal survey is especially useful for the inherited marrow-failure syndromes, many of which cause skeletal abnormalities.

 

Procedures

Procedures include review of peripheral smears and bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, as described below.

 

Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy

Bone marrow biopsy is performed in addition to aspiration to assess cellularity both qualitatively and quantitatively. In aplastic anemia, the specimens are hypocellular. Aspiration samples alone may appear hypocellular because of technical reasons (eg, dilution with peripheral blood), or they may appear hypercellular because of areas of focal residual hematopoiesis.

By comparison, core biopsy better reveals cellularity: The specimen is considered hypocellular if it is 60 years. A relative or absolute increase in mast cells may be observed around the hypoplastic spicules. A proportion of marrow lymphocytes >70% is correlated with poor prognosis in aplastic anemia. Some dyserythropoiesis with megaloblastosis may be observed in aplastic anemia.

In MDS, the cellularity may be increased or decreased. Myelodysplastic features are usually observed in hematopoietic precursors and progeny. Islands of immature cells or abnormal localization of immature progenitors (ALIP) indicate MDS. These patients may have megakaryocytic abnormalities (micromegakaryocytes, megakaryocytes with dyskaryorrhexis), >5% ring sideroblasts (observed only on iron stains), and granulocytic abnormalities (pseudo – Pelger-Huët cells, hypogranulation, excess of blasts) On occasion, marrow fibrosis may be observed.

Leukemia and metastatic cancers may be diagnosed with bone marrow examination.

Chromosomal rearrangements are considered diagnostic of MDS, with trisomies of 8 and 21 and deletions of 5, 7, and 20 being the most common. However, the conventional karyotype technique reveals abnormalities in only about 50% of patients with MDS. In hypoplastic marrows, obtaining sufficient sample for karyotyping is often difficult.

The issue of malignant versus nonmalignant clonality in aplastic anemia can sometimes be resolved by using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) to visualize chromosomal abnormalities in interphase cells.

Bone marrow culture is useful in diagnosing mycobacterial and viral infections. However, the yield is generally low.

 

Histologic Findings

Histologic findings of aplastic anemia include hypocellular bone marrow with fatty replacement and relatively increased nonhematopoietic elements, such as plasma cells and mast cells. Perform careful examination to exclude metastatic tumor foci on biopsy.

 

Staging

Staging of aplastic anemia is based on the criteria of the International Aplastic Anemia Study Group, as follows :

  • Blood
    • Neutrophils – Less than 0.5 X 109/L
    • Platelets – Less than 20 X 109/L
    • Reticulocytes – Less than 1% corrected (percentage of actual hematocrit [Hct] to normal Hct)
  • Marrow
    • Severe hypocellularity
    • Moderate hypocellularity, with hematopoietic cells representing less than 30% of residual cells
  • Severe aplasia is defined as including any 2 or 3 peripheral blood criteria and either marrow criterion.
  • A further subclassification developed after the recognition that individuals with neutrophil counts lower than 0.2 X 109/L had very SAA (VSAA). This group is less likely than others to respond to immunosuppressive therapy.

 

Treatment Medical Care

Transfusion

Patients with aplastic anemia require transfusion support until the diagnosis is established and until specific therapy can be instituted.

For patients in whom BMT may be attempted, transfusions should be used judiciously because minimally transfused subjects have achieved superior therapeutic outcomes.

Avoiding transfusions from family members is important because of possible sensitization against non-HLA tissue antigens of the donors.

In considering blood-bank support, attempt to minimize the risk of CMV infection. If possible, the blood products should undergo leukopoor reduction to prevent alloimmunization, and they should be irradiated to prevent third-party GVHD in BMT candidates.

Judicious use of blood products is essential, and transfusion in conditions that are not life threatening should be performed in consultation with a physician who is experienced in the management of aplastic anemia.

 

Treatment of infections 

Infections are a major cause of mortality.

Risk factors include prolonged neutropenia and the indwelling catheters used for specific therapy. Fungal infections, especially those due to Aspergillus species pose a major risk.

Empirical antibiotic therapy should be broad based, with gram-negative and staphylococcal coverage based on local microbial sensitivities. Especially consider including anti-pseudomonal coverage at the start of treatment for patients with febrile neutropenia, and consider early introduction of antifungal agents for those with persistent fever.

Cytokine support with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) may be considered in refractory infections, although this therapy should be weighed against cost and efficacy.2,26,27,28

BMT with an HLA-matched sibling donor

HLA-matched sibling-donor BMT is the treatment of choice for a young patient with SAA (controversial but generally accepted for those aged

One of the major problems of BMT in aplastic anemia is the high 10% rate of rejection (range, 5-50%), and this is positively correlated with the number of transfusions and duration of disease before undergoing transplantation.

The conditioning regimen most often used includes a combination of antithymocyte globulin (ATG), cyclosporin (CSA), and cyclophosphamide.19,29,30,31,32 The addition of ATG and CSA to the conditioning regimen has resulted in reduction of graft rejection.8,26,27,33 When radiation was used as part of the conditioning regimen, the incidence of graft rejection was

Fludarabine- and cyclophosphamide-based reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens +/– ATG reduced rejection and improved outcome in Indian patients undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation for SAA.34 When compared with 26 patients previously transplanted using cyclophosphamide/antilymphocyte globulin, there was faster neutrophil engraftment (12 vs 16 days; P = 0.002) with significantly lower rejection rates (2.9% vs 30.7%; P= 0.003) and a superior event-free (82.8% vs 38.4%; P = 0.001) and overall survival (82.8% vs 46.1%; P = 0.005).34

GVHD is a complication of BMT. It is positively correlated with increasing age of the patient. Grafts depleted of T cells reduce the risk of GVHD but increase the risk of graft failure.

The addition of CSA along with methotrexate has substantially reduced the incidence of GVHD.33

BMT with an unrelated donor

BMT with an unrelated donor is associated with a high mortality rate.

Unrelated-donor BMT is probably justified only if the donor is a full match and only if immunosuppressive therapy or treatment as part of a clinical trial fails. Early referral to a transplantation center at diagnosis is recommended in all young patients, even if they lack a suitable related donor.9

Both increased graft rejection and increased GVHD remain obstacles to success for unrelated-donor BMT for patients with SAA.13 The probability of graft failure at 100 days after 1-antigen mismatched related donor was 21% 25% for >1-antigen mismatched related donor, 15% for matched unrelated donor, 18% for mismatched unrelated donor transplants.9 Partial T-cell depletion may decrease the risk of severe GVHD while still maintaining sufficient donor T lymphocytes to ensure engraftment.13

In unrelated-donor transplantation, radiation along with cyclophosphamide may be used to reduce graft rejection. Fludarabine-based conditioning regimens have been tried,14 along with ATG and cyclophosphamide.

Unrelated-donor BMT using high resolution allelic matching has improved outcome especially in younger patients.

A study by Maury et al indicated the increased survival of patients after unrelated-done stem cell transplantation for SAA has improved significantly in the past 15 years mainly due to better HLA matching. Maury et al found that results for young patients who are fully HLA-matched at the allelic level with their donor are comparable to those observed after stem cell transplantation from a related donor.35 An earlier Japanese study appeared to have reached a similar conclusion.36

A study by Chan et al suggests that unrelated-donor BMT is a feasible treatment strategy for children with refractory SAA who lack a well-matched adult donor.12 The investigators evaluated 9 children with refractory SAA (all had had at least 1 unsuccessful course of immunosuppression) who underwent such a transfusion with increasingly immunosuppressive preparative regimens.

Donor/recipient HLA matching was 6 of 6 (n = 1), 5 of 6 (n = 2), and 4 of 6 (n = 6). The median nucleated cell dose infused was 5.7 x 107 cells/kg (range 3.5-20 x 107 cells/kg). Six patients were engrafted after the first unrelated-donor BMT, and 2 of the 3 patients without hematopoietic reconstitution were engrafted after a second transfusion. All children who received ≥ 120 mg/kg of cyclophosphamide in the preparative regimen were engrafted. The median time to myeloid engraftment was 25 (17-59 days) days.12

Two patients developed acute GVHD, and 5 developed chronic GVHD. Five patients developed EBV viremia post transplant (lymphoproliferative disorder in 3 patients). At a median follow-up of 34 months, 7 patients were alive and transfusion independent.12

 

Immunosuppressive therapy

Immune suppression is especially useful if a matched sibling donor for BMT is not available or if the patient is older than 60 years.

Options include combination therapy, including ATG, CSA, and methylprednisolone, with or without cytokine support. ATG and CSA alone may also produce a response in aplastic anemia, but the combination improves the likelihood of a response.

In one study, response rates to CSA alone were 45% overall, 16% for VSSA, 47% for SAA, and 85% for moderate aplastic anemia.29 Therefore, the only predictor of response to CSA was an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) of 200/mm3 does not produce any additional advantage in reducing the infection rate or in increasing survival or therapeutic responses.

The response in aplastic anemia, unlike other autoimmune diseases, is slow. At least 4-12 weeks is usually needed to observe early improvement, and the patient continues to improve only slowly thereafter. About 50% patients respond by 3 months after ATG administration, and about 75% respond by 6 months. Most patients improve and become transfusion independent, but many still have evidence of a hypoproliferative bone marrow.

Although the initial response rate is good, relapses are common, and continued immune suppression is often needed. Approximately one third of patients have a relapse, most of whom have a relapse at the time of CSA taper. About one third of responders are CSA dependent. Of patients whose conditions have no response or who relapse, 40-50% respond to a second course of immunosuppressive therapy.

In rare cases, full hematologic recovery is observed, but most patients improve to a functional hematologic recovery that obviates further transfusion support. Furthermore, the risk of some form of clonal disease other than PNH is 15-30% and may be due to the inability of these therapies to completely correct bone marrow function, due to a missed diagnosis of MDS, or due to the fact that the stem cells under proliferative stress may be more prone than other cells to mutation.

Preliminary data suggested that high-dose cyclophosphamide may result in durable remissions in some patients with aplastic anemia. However, some of these patients develop PNH and cytogenetic abnormalities on follow-up. At present, the use of high-dose cyclophosphamide should be limited to clinical trials.

 

Surgical Care

A central venous catheter placement is required before the administration of immunosuppressive therapy or BMT.

 

Consultations

Consult a hematologist and/or BMT specialist.

 

Diet

The diet for the patient with aplastic anemia who has neutropenia or who is receiving immunosuppressive therapy should be tailored carefully to exclude raw meats, dairy products, or fruits and vegetables that are likely to be colonized with bacteria, fungus, or molds. Furthermore, a salt-limited diet is recommended during therapy with steroids or CSA.

 

Activity

The patient should avoid any activity that increases the risk of trauma during periods of thrombocytopenia.

The risk of community-acquired infections increases during periods of neutropenia.

 

Medication

The goals of pharmacotherapy in cases of aplastic anemia are to reduce morbidity, prevent complications, and eradicate malignancy.

Immunosuppressive Agents

The merits of additional immunosuppression versus the increased risk and cost should be considered. Data from a randomized prospective study indicated that an increased proportion of patients responded to the addition of CSA to ATG, but this did not translate into a long-term survival advantage.

For patients who cannot tolerate equine-based products, use of the commercially available rabbit-based ATG product (Thymoglobulin) may be considered. This product is currently approved in the United States and has been used for the treatment of aplastic anemia in Europe (although note the different dose schedule).

 

Cyclosporine (Sandimmune, Neoral)

Cyclic polypeptide that suppresses some humoral immunity and, to a greater extent, cell-mediated immune reactions (eg, delayed hypersensitivity, allograft rejection, experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, and graft vs host disease) for a variety of organs.

For children and adults, base the dosing on the ideal body weight. Frequent monitoring of drug levels is needed. To convert to the PO dose, use a IV-to-PO correction factor of 1:4. Dosage and duration of therapy may vary with different protocols.

  • Dosing
  • Interactions
  • Contraindications
  • Precautions

Adult

1.5-2 mg/kg IV q12h, adjust to trough level of 500-800 ng/mL in mo 1 or so; then adjust to trough level of 200 ng/mL

Pediatric

Administer as in adults.

 

Methylprednisolone (Medrol, Solu-Medrol)

Steroids ameliorate the delayed effects of anaphylactoid reactions and may limit biphasic anaphylaxis. In severe serum sickness (mediated by immune complexes), parenteral steroids may reduce the inflammatory effects. Hence, used with ATG to decrease the adverse effects (eg, allergic reactions, serum sickness). Also an additional immunosuppressive. High doses or long duration may be needed if serum sickness occurs with ATG. The doses and duration may vary with different protocols.

  • Dosing
  • Interactions
  • Contraindications
  • Precautions

Adult

5 mg/kg IV on days 1-8; then tapered by using PO 1 mg/kg on days 9-14; further tapering over days 15-29; stop after 1 mo except with evidence of serum sickness

Pediatric

Administer as in adults.

 

Lymphocyte immune globulin, equine (Atgam)

Inhibits cell-mediated immune response by altering T-cell function or eliminating antigen-reactive cells.There is little prospective randomized data to suggest a single schedule superior, but experience suggests that a short infusion is best tolerated.

  • Dosing
  • Interactions
  • Contraindications
  • Precautions

Adult

100-200 mg/kg IV total dose over variable number of days based on different protocols

Pediatric

Administer as in adults.

 

Cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan)

Chemically related to nitrogen mustards. As an alkylating agent, the mechanism of action of the active metabolites may involve cross-linking of DNA, which may interfere with the growth of normal and neoplastic cells. Monitor carefully; used only on an investigational basis.

  • Dosing
  • Interactions
  • Contraindications
  • Precautions

Adult

45 mg/kg/d IV for 4 d

Pediatric

Administer as in adults

 

Lymphocyte immune globulin, rabbit (Thymoglobulin)

May modify T-cell function and possibly eliminate antigen-reactive T lymphocytes in peripheral blood. The dose and duration of therapy vary with the investigational protocols.

  • Dosing
  • Interactions
  • Contraindications
  • Precautions

Adult

1.5 mg/kg IV qd for 7-14 d; up to 3.5 mg/kg for 5 d also used

Pediatric

Not established

 

Cytokines

Several preliminary studies have demonstrated that the addition of cytokines (eg, G-CSF, GM-CSF) may hasten the neutrophil recovery and that these agents may improve the response rate and survival, although long-term use may increase the risk of clonal evolution.

Sargramostim (Leukine, Prokine)

Recombinant human GM-CSF. Can activate mature granulocytes and macrophages. The dose and frequency of administration vary with the investigational protocol.

  • Dosing
  • Interactions
  • Contraindications
  • Precautions

Adult

250 mcg/m2 IV/SC with twice weekly monitoring of CBC count

Pediatric

Not established; 5 mcg/kg/d SC used in some studies

 

Filgrastim (Neupogen)

G-CSF that activates and stimulates the production, maturation, migration, and cytotoxicity of neutrophils.

  • Dosing
  • Interactions
  • Contraindications
  • Precautions

Adult

5 mcg/kg/d SC until ANC 5000/mm3

Pediatric

5-10 mcg/kg/d SC

 

Antineoplastic Agent, Antimetabolite (purine)

Antimetabolites are antineoplastic agent that inhibit cell growth and proliferation.

 

Fludarabine (Fludara)

Contains fludarabine phosphate, a fluorinated nucleotide analogue of the antiviral agent vidarabine, 9-b-D-arabinofuranosyladenine (ara-A) that enters the cell and is phosphorylated to form active metabolite 2-fluoro-ara-ATP, which inhibits DNA synthesis. Inhibits DNA polymerase, DNA primase, DNA ligase, and ribonucleotide reductase. This inhibits RNA function, RNA processing, and mRNA translation. Also activates apoptosis.

  • Dosing
  • Interactions
  • Contraindications
  • Precautions

Adult

30 mg/m2/dose for 4-6 d as IV infusion over 30 min-2 h

Pediatric

Administer as in adults

 

Follow-up

Further Inpatient Care

Inpatient care for patients with aplastic anemia may be needed during periods of infection and for specific therapies, such as ATG or BMT.

Further Outpatient Care

Frequent outpatient follow-up of patients with aplastic anemia is needed to monitor blood counts and adverse effects of various drugs.

Transfusions of packed RBCs and platelets are administered on an outpatient basis.

 

Inpatient & Outpatient Medications

The specific medications administered depend on the choice of therapy and whether it is supportive care only, immunosuppressive therapy, or BMT.

Transfer

Patients with aplastic anemia should be treated by physicians who are experts in the care of immunocompromised patients and in consultation with a BMT physician for patients younger than 65 years.

Complications

Complications of aplastic anemia include infections and bleeding.

Complications of BMT include GVHD and graft failure.

Prognosis

The outcome of patients with aplastic anemia has substantially improved because of improved supportive care. The natural history of aplastic anemia suggests that as many as one fifth of patients may spontaneously recover with supportive care; however, observational and/or supportive care therapy alone is rarely indicated.

The estimated 5-year survival rate for the typical patient receiving immunosuppression is 75%. The rate for those receiving a BMT from a matched sibling donor is greater than 90%. However, in case of immunosuppression, relapse and late clonal disease are risks.

In a single institution analysis of 183 patients who received immunosuppressive treatments for severe aplastic anemia, the telomere length of peripheral blood leukocytes was unrelated to treatment response. In a multivariate analysis, however, telomere length was associated with risk of relapse, clonal evolution, and overall survival. Additional studies are needed to validate these findings and to determine how this information might be incorporated into treatment algorithms.37

 

Patient Education

Patients should maintain hygiene to reduce the risks of infection.

Clinicians must stress the need for compliance with therapy.

 

Miscellaneous

Medicolegal Pitfalls

Failure to correctly diagnose aplastic anemia and initiate appropriate treatment is a pitfall.

Aplastic anemia has a >70% mortality rate with supportive care alone. It is a hematologic emergency, and care should be instituted promptly.

Video related : Bone Marrow Transplant, Aspiration & Biopsy

Liver Problems ~ the simptoms, cause and prevention


Definition

Liver problems include a wide range of diseases and conditions that can affect your liver. Your liver is an organ about the size of a football that sits just under your rib cage on the right side of your abdomen. Without your liver, you couldn’t digest food and absorb nutrients, get rid of toxic substances from your body or stay alive.

Liver problems can be inherited, or liver problems can occur in response to viruses and chemicals. Some liver problems are temporary and go away on their own, while other liver problems can last for a long time and lead to serious complications.

 

Symptoms

Signs and symptoms of liver problems include:

  • Discolored skin and eyes that appear yellowish
  • Abdominal pain and swelling
  • Itchy skin that doesn’t seem to go away
  • Dark urine color
  • Pale stool color
  • Bloody or tar-colored stool
  • Chronic fatigue
  • Nausea
  • Loss of appetite

When to see a doctor
Make an appointment with your doctor if you have any persistent signs or symptoms that worry you. Seek immediate medical attention if you have abdominal pain that is so severe that you can’t stay still.

Causes

Problems that can occur in the liver include:

Risk factors

Factors that may increase your risk of liver problems include:

  • A job that exposes you to other people’s blood and body fluids
  • Blood transfusion before 1992
  • Body piercings
  • Certain herbs and supplements
  • Certain prescription medications
  • Diabetes
  • Heavy alcohol use
  • High levels of triglycerides in your blood
  • Injecting drugs using shared needles
  • Obesity
  • Tattoos
  • Unprotected sex
  • Working with chemicals or toxins without following safety precautions

Preparing for your appointment

If you suspect you have a liver problem, start by seeing your family doctor or a general practitioner. If it’s determined that you may have liver problems, you may be referred to a doctor who specializes in the liver (hepatologist).

Because appointments can be brief, and because there’s often a lot of ground to cover, it’s a good idea to be well prepared. Here’s some information to help you get ready, and what to expect from your doctor.

What you can do

  • Be aware of any pre-appointment restrictions. At the time you make the appointment, be sure to ask if there’s anything you need to do in advance, such as restrict your diet.
  • Write down any symptoms you’re experiencing, including any that may seem unrelated to the reason for which you scheduled the appointment.
  • Write down key personal information, including any major stresses or recent life changes.
  • Make a list of all medications, vitamins or supplements that you’re taking.
  • Consider taking a family member or friend along. Sometimes it can be difficult to absorb all the information provided during an appointment. Someone who accompanies you may remember something that you missed or forgot.
  • Write down questions to ask your doctor.

Your time with your doctor is limited, so preparing a list of questions will help you make the most of your time together. List your questions from most important to least important in case time runs out. For liver problems, some basic questions to ask your doctor include:

  • What is likely causing my liver problems?
  • What kinds of tests do I need?
  • Are my liver problems temporary or chronic?
  • Can my liver problems be treated?
  • Are there treatments to relieve my signs and symptoms?
  • Should I stop taking certain medications or supplements?
  • Should I avoid alcohol?
  • Should I see a specialist? What will that cost, and will my insurance cover it?
  • Are there any brochures or other printed material that I can take with me? What websites do you recommend?

In addition to the questions that you’ve prepared to ask your doctor, don’t hesitate to ask other questions at any time during your appointment.

What to expect from your doctor
Your doctor is likely to ask you a number of questions. Being ready to answer them may allow more time later to cover other points you want to address. Your doctor may ask:

  • When did you first begin experiencing symptoms?
  • Have your symptoms been continuous or occasional?
  • How severe are your symptoms?
  • What, if anything, seems to improve your symptoms?
  • What, if anything, appears to worsen your symptoms?

Tests and diagnosis

Tests and procedures used to diagnose liver problems include:

  • Blood tests. A group of blood tests called liver function tests can be used to diagnose liver problems. Other blood tests can be done to look for specific liver problems or inherited conditions that affect the liver.
  • Imaging tests. Procedures that create pictures of your liver, such as computerized tomography (CT) scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound, can reveal liver problems.
  • Tests of liver tissue. A procedure to remove tissue from your liver (liver biopsy) may help in diagnosing liver problems. Liver biopsy is most often done using a long needle inserted through the skin to extract a tissue sample (needle biopsy). The tissue sample is sent to a laboratory where it can be examined under a microscope.

Treatments and drugs

Treatment for liver problems depends on your diagnosis. Some liver problems can be treated with medications. Others may require surgery.

Liver transplant may ultimately be required for liver problems that cause liver failure.

 

Alternative medicine

Some herbal supplements used as alternative medicine treatments can be harmful to your liver. To protect your liver, talk with your doctor about the potential risks before you take:

  • Black cohosh
  • Certain Chinese herbs, including ma-huang
  • Chaparral
  • Comfrey
  • Germander
  • Greater celandine
  • Kava
  • Mistletoe
  • Pennyroyal
  • Skullcap
  • Valerian

Prevention

Prevent liver problems by protecting your liver. For example:

  • Drink alcohol in moderation, if at all. Limit the amount of alcohol you drink to no more than one drink a day for women and no more than two drinks a day for men.
  • Avoid risky behavior. Get help if you use illicit intravenous drugs. Don’t share needles used to inject drugs. If you choose to have sex, use condoms. If you choose to have tattoos or body piercings, be picky about cleanliness and safety when it comes to selecting a shop.
  • Get vaccinated. If you’re at increased risk of contracting hepatitis or if you’ve already been infected with any form of the hepatitis virus, talk to your doctor about getting the hepatitis B vaccine. A vaccine is also available for hepatitis A.
  • Use medications wisely. Only use prescription and nonprescription drugs when you need them and take only the recommended doses. Don’t mix medications and alcohol. Talk to your doctor before mixing herbal supplements or prescription or nonprescription drugs.
  • Avoid contact with other people’s blood and body fluids.Hepatitis viruses can be spread by accidental needle sticks or improper cleanup of blood or body fluids. It’s also possible to become infected by sharing razor blades or toothbrushes.
  • Take care with aerosol sprays. When you use an aerosol cleaner, make sure the room is ventilated, or wear a mask. Take similar protective measures when spraying insecticides, fungicides, paint and other toxic chemicals. Always follow the manufacturer’s instructions.
  • Watch what gets on your skin. When using insecticides and other toxic chemicals, cover your skin with gloves, long sleeves, a hat and a mask.
  • Choose a healthy diet. Choose a plant-based diet with a variety of fruits and vegetables. Limit high-fat foods.
  • Maintain a healthy weight. Obesity can cause a condition called nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, which may include fatty liver, hepatitis and cirrhosis.

Better than a Doctorate Degree from Harvard !!!


If you see anyone drinking tea, and you ask him what he is drinking, he will tell you “tea.” There is sugar in the tea, but he will not mention the sugar, no one ever says he is drinking tea-and-sugar. No doubt the sweetness of the sugar fills the tea, but the person drinks and says nothing about it.

The long standing tradition of Qur’anic memorization is analogous to the sugar, doing its work in secret. In a child who embarks on the journey of memorizing Qur’an we see that the hands, nose, ears, eyes, and tongue are dynamic, but no one can see what the soul is accomplishing. Their ears come across as listening, and their tongues seems to be talking. But no matter what it may seem to be, it is not only the tongue that talks. And in spite of form, it is not only the ears that hear. That which speaks and hears is the invisible soul within. The effect of the long standing tradition of Qur’anic memorization on a child is similarly invisible.

And this is what happens to a child when he memorizes the words of Allah, the Exalted. We might think they are just memorizing words. But in actuality, every letter they say, every sound they make, makes an imprint in their hearts and minds which enables them to take the imitated step of converting his oral recognition of Qur’anic language into a physical act.

The best education we can give our children is the memorization of the Holy Qur’an. As Rasulullah (saw) said:

“No group of people gathers in one of the houses of Allah to recite the Book of Allah and study it together, but tranquility descends upon them, the angels surround them, mercy comes down upon them, and Allah mentions them to those who are with Him.” (Muslim).

The first group of students I ever taught was a group of 9 year-olds in a Hafidh Program in 1998. I was merely their English teacher. As each day passed by, I saw little beings change from being passive to being connected. I witnessed what seemed at the time insignificant moments of sharing between classmates evolve into brotherhood. I saw the honor of one being defended by all, and I saw the grief of a few being shared by many. They finished the school year with highest class percentage of 98% in all subjects, and to this day continue to excel academically. This is rare to find in America today. There was nothing magical in it. They were revolutionized because they entrusted their time with Allah, by the memorization of the Holy Qur’an, the words of Allah, the Exalted.

The vessels for preservation of Islam are in our children’s hearts. Allah says:

Nay, but they, the clear ayat, are preserved in the breasts of those who have been given knowledge…” [Qur’an 29:49]

It is our duty to plant these seeds in our children for we must equip them for what lay ahead of them. There is no better time to preserve our heritage than today, in these critical times.

As there are numerous full-time schools sprouting in the west, it is time that we as parents invest our children’s time memorizing the Qur’an and join the ranks of thousands who seek to earn the pleasure of Allah (azza wajal) and preserve the very foundation of our Islamic identity. Yes! It’s better than a doctorate degree from Harvard as we are reminded by the words of the Prophet (saw) about its reward:

Buraydah (r) said: “I was sitting with the Prophet (saw) and I heard him say: ..The Qur’an will meet its companion on the Day of Resurrection when his grave is opened for him, looking like a pale man, and it will say to him, ‘Do you know who I am?’ He will say, I do not know you.’ It will say to him, ‘Do you know who I am?’ He will say, I do not know you.’ It will say, ‘I am your companion the Qur’an, who made you thirsty on hot days and kept you awake at night. Every merchant will benefit from his trade, and today you will benefit too.’ He will be given power in his right hand and immortality in his left, and on his head will be placed a crown of dignity. His parents will be given two garments the like of which could never be made by the people of this world and they will say, ‘How did we earn these?’ It will be said, ‘Because your child learned the Qur’an.’ Then it will be said to him, ‘Read and go up through the levels and rooms of Paradise. He will keep on ascending as long as he reads or recites.'” (Ahmad).

The Muslim Home: 40 Recommendations [40 Naseeha Li-Islaah il-Booyout ]


 Contents

  1. Introduction
  2. Forming the Household
  3. Creating an atmosphere of Faith in the Home
  4. Islamic Knowledge in the Home
  5. Meetings at Home
  6. Good Manners at Home
  7. Evils in the Home
  8. The Home inside and out

Introduction

All praise be to Allah, we praise Him and seek His help and forgiveness. We seek refuge with Allah from the evil of our own selves and from our evil deeds. Whomsoever Allah guides, no one can lead astray, and whomsoever Allah leaves astray, no one can guide. I bear witness that there is no god but Allah Alone, with no partner or associate, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger.

The home is a blessing.Allah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“And Allah has made for you in your homes an abode…”[al-Nahl 16:80]

Ibn Katheer (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

“Here Allah, may He be blessed and exalted, is mentioning His complete blessing to His slaves: He has given them homes which are a peaceful abode for them, to which they retreat as a haven which covers them and gives them all kinds of benefits.”

What does the home represent to each one of us? Is it not the place where he eats, enjoys intimacy with his wife, sleeps and rests? Is it not the place where he can be alone and can meet with his wife and children?

Is the home not the place that offers cover and protection to women? Allah tells us (interpretation of the meaning):

“And stay in your houses, and do not display yourselves like that of the times of ignorance…”[al-Ahzaab 33:33]

If you think about those who are homeless, who live in shelters, or on the streets, or as refugees scattered in temporary camps, then you will realize the blessing of having a home. If you listen to a distressed homeless person saying, “I have nowhere to settle, no fixed place to stay. Sometimes I sleep in so and so’s house, sometimes in a café or park or on the sea-front, and I keep my clothes in my car”, then you will realize the disruption that results from not having the blessing of a home.

When Allah punished the Jews of Banu Nadeer, He took away this blessing and expelled them from their homes, as He said (interpretation of the meaning):

“He it is Who drove out the disbelievers among the people of the Scripture (i.e. the Jews of the tribe of Banu al-Nadeer) from their homes at the first gathering.”

Then He said:

“…they destroyed their own dwellings with their own hands and the hands of the believers. Then take admonition, O you with eyes (to see).”[al-Hashr59:2]

There are many motives for the believer to pay attention to putting his house in order.

Firstly: protecting himself and his family from the Fire of Hell, and keeping them safe from the burning punishment:

“O you who believe! Ward off from yourselves and your families a Fire (Hell) whose fuel is men and stones, over which are (appointed) angels stern (and) severe, who disobey not, (from executing) the Commands they receive from Allah, but do that which they are commanded.” [al-Tahreem 66:6]

Secondly: the great responsibility borne by the head of the household on the Day of Reckoning The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said:

“Allah will ask every shepherd (or responsible person) about his flock (those for whom he was responsible), whether he took care of it or neglected it, until He asks a man about his household.”

Thirdly: the home is a place to protect oneself, to keep away from evil and to keep one’s own evil away from people. It is the refuge prescribed by Islam at times of fitnah (strife, tribulation).

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said:

“Blessed is the one who controls his tongue, whose house is sufficient for him, and who weeps over his mistakes.”

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said:

“There are five things, whoever does one of them, Allah will be with him: visiting the sick, going out for jihad, entering upon his leader with the intention of rebuking and respecting him, or sitting in his home so that the people are safe from him and he is safe from the people.”

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said:

“The safety of a man at times of fitnah is in his staying home.”

The Muslim can see the benefit of this advice when he is residing in a foreign land where he is unable to change much of the evil around him. Then he will have a refuge which, when he enters it, will protect him from doing haram things or looking at haram things, and will protect his wife from wanton display and unveiling, and will protect his children from bad company.

Fourthly: people usually spend most of their time at home, especially when it is very hot or very cold, when it is raining, early or late in the day, and after finishing work or school, so this time should be spent in worship and halal pursuits, otherwise it will be spent in wrongdoing.

Fifthly and most importantly, paying attention to the home is the most important means of building a Muslim society, because the society is formed of the households and families that form its building blocks. Households form neighborhoods, and neighborhoods form societies. If the building blocks are sound, the society will be based on the laws of Allah, standing firm in the face of enemies and filled with goodness that evil cannot penetrate. Then Muslim homes will produce pillars of society who will reform and guide it aright, such as exemplary dai’yahs, seekers of knowledge, sincere mujahideen, righteous wives, caring mothers and all other types of reformers.

Because this subject is so important, and our homes are full of so many shortcomings and evils and examples of negligence, this begs the very important question: What are the means of reforming our homes?

The following contains advice on this topic. May Allah benefit us from it, and cause the Muslims to focus their efforts on reviving the Muslim home.

All the following advice revolves around two things: achieving our interests, which is by establishing that which is right and good, and warding off evil, by removing that which can cause it or bring it into our homes.

Forming the Household

Making a good choice when choosing a wife:

“And marry those among you who are single (i.e., a man who has no wife and a woman who has no husband) and (also marry) the saalihoon (pious, fit and capable ones) of your (male) slaves and maid-servants (female slaves). If they be poor, Allah will enrich them out of His Bounty. And Allah is All-Sufficient for His creatures’ needs, All-Knowing (about the state of the people).” [al-Noor 24:32]

The head of the household must select a righteous and suitable wife based on the following conditions described in various Ahaadeeth:

“A woman may be married for four things: her wealth, her lineage, her beauty or her religion. Choose the one who is religious, may your hands be rubbed with dust [i.e., may you prosper]!” (Agreed upon).

“This world is all temporary conveniences, and the greatest joy in this life is a righteous wife.” (Reported by Muslim, 1468).

“Let every one of you have a thankful heart, a remembering tongue [remembering Allah] and a believing wife who will help him with regard to the Hereafter.” (Reported by Ahmad, 5/282, and al-Tirmidhi and Ibn Maajah from Thawbaan. Sahih al-Jaami’, 5231).

According to another report: “A righteous wife to help you with your worldly and religious affairs is the best treasure anyone could have.” (Reported by al-Bayhaqi. Sahih al-Jaami’, 4285).

“Marry one who is loving and fertile, for I will be proud before the other Prophets of your great numbers on the Day of Resurrection.” (Reported by Ahmad. Sahih al-Irwa’, 6/195).

“I advise you to marry virgins, for their wombs are more fresh, their mouths are more sweet and they are more content with little.” According to another report: “… and they are less likely to deceive.” (Reported by Ibn Maajah. Al-Silsilah al-Sahih, 623).

Just as a righteous wife is one of the four elements of happiness, so a bad wife is one of the four elements of misery, as it says in the Sahih hadeeth:

“One of (the elements of) happiness is a righteous wife, who when you see her you feel pleased, and when you are away, you feel that you can trust her with regard to herself and your property. And one of (the elements of) misery is a bad wife who when you see her, you feel upset, she keeps attacking you verbally, and when you are away, you do not feel that you can trust her with regard to herself and your property.”

On the other hand, it is also essential to look at the situation of the prospective husband who is proposing marriage to the Muslim woman, and to agree to his proposal in accordance with the following conditions:

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said:

“If there comes to you one with whose religion and character you are pleased, then marry your daughter [or sister, etc.] to him, otherwise there will be fitnah and great corruption in the land.”

All of the above must be achieved through asking the right questions, verifying facts, gathering information and checking sources, so that the home will not be corrupted or destroyed.

“The righteous man and righteous woman together will build a righteous home, because the vegetation of a good land comes forth (easily) by the Permission of its Lord, and that which is bad, brings forth nothing but a little with difficulty…” [al-A’raaf 7:58}

Striving to guide ones wife

If one’s wife is righteous, this is a blessing indeed, and this is from the Bounty of Allah. If she is not that righteous, then it is the duty of the head of the household to strive to guide her. Any of the following scenarios may apply:

A man may marry a woman who is not religious in the first place, because he himself is not religious at first, or he may have married her in the hope of guiding her, or under pressure from his relatives, for example. In these cases he must strive hard to guide her.

A man must also realize from the outset that guidance comes from Allah, and that Allah is the One Who reforms people. One of His blessings to his slave Zakariya was, as He said (interpretation of the meaning):

“… and [We] cured his wife for him…”[al-Anbiya’ 21:90].

This curing or reforming may have been physical or religious. Ibn ‘Abbaas said:

“She was barren and could not have children, then she had a child.”

Ataa’ said:

“She was harsh of tongue, and Allah reformed her.”

There are various means of guiding or reforming ones wife, such as:

  • Paying attention to correcting her worship of Allah in all its aspects, as will be discussed in detail below.
  • Striving to strengthen her eemaan, such as:
    • Encouraging her to pray at night (qiyaam al-layl)
    • Encouraging her to read Qur’an
    • Encouraging her to memorize adhikaar (remembrance of Allah) and remember the appropriate times and occasions for saying them
    • Encouraging her to give charity
    • Encouraging her to read useful Islamic books
    • Encouraging her to listen to useful Islamic cassettes that can increase knowledge and strengthen eemaan – and continuing to supply her with them.
    • Choosing good, religious friends for her, with whom she can form ties of sisterhood and have good conversations and purposeful visits.
    • Protecting her from evil and blocking off all avenues for it to reach her, by keeping her away from bad companions and bad places.

Creating an Atmosphere of Faith in the Home

Making the home a place for the remembrance of Allah

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said:

“The likeness of a house in which Allah is remembered and the house in which Allah is not remembered is that of the living and the dead, respectively.”

We must make our homes places where Allah is remembered in all kinds of ways, whether in our hearts, verbally, during prayer, by reading Qur’an, by discussing Islamic issues, or by reading different kinds of Islamic books.

How many Muslim homes nowadays are dead because there is no remembrance of Allah, as mentioned in the hadeeth. What must they be like when all that is heard therein is the music of Shaytan with instruments and singing, and backbiting, slander and gossip?

What must they be like when they are filled with evil and sin, such as the haram mixing of the sexes and wanton display between relatives who are not mahram or with neighbors who enter the home?

How can the angels enter a home like this? Revive your homes with all kinds of dhikr, may Allah have mercy on you!


What is meant is taking the home as a place of worship?

Allah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“And We inspired Moosa and his brother (saying): ‘Take dwellings for your people in Egypt, and make your dwellings as places for your worship, and perform al-salah, and give glad tidings to the believers.”
[Qur’an Yoonus 10:87]

Ibn ‘Abbaas said:

“They were commanded to take their dwellings as places of prayer [lit. mosques].”

Ibn Katheer said:

“This – and Allah knows best – was because of the intensity of the tribulation that they were facing from Pharaoh and his people. They were commanded to pray much, as Allah says (interpretation of the meaning):‘O you who believe! Seek help with patience and prayer…’ [al-Baqarah 2:153], and as it was reported in the hadeeth that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), when he was distressed by something, would pray.”

This explains the importance of worshipping at home, especially at times when the Muslims are in a position of weakness, as happens in some places where the Muslims cannot pray openly in front of the kuffaar. In this context we may think of the mihraab of Maryam, which was her place of worship, as Allah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“… Every time Zakariya entered the mihraab to visit her, he found her supplied with sustenance…”[Aal ‘Imraan 3:37]

The Sahabah (may Allah be pleased with them) used to be keen to pray at home – apart from the fard or obligatory prayers (which they prayed in congregation in the mosque) – and there is a moving story concerning this.

Mahmood ibn al-Rabee’ al-Ansaari reported that ‘Utbaan ibn Maalik – who was one of the Companions of the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and was one of the Ansaar who had been present at Badr – came to the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and said: “I am losing my sight, and I lead my people in prayer. When it rains, the valley between me and them gets flooded and I cannot get to their mosque to lead them in prayer. O Messenger of Allah, I would like you to come to come and pray in my house so that I can take it as a place for prayer.” The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said, “I will do that, in sha Allah.”; ‘Utbaan said: “The next day the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and Abu Bakr came in the morning. The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) asked for permission to enter, and I gave him permission. He did not sit down until he entered the house, then he said, ‘Where would you like me to pray in your house?’ I showed him a corner of the house, then the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) stood up, said Takbeer, and we stood in a row behind him, and he prayed two rak’ahs and gave the salaam at the end of the prayer.” (Reported by al-Bukhari, al-Fath, 1/519)

Spiritual training for the members of the household

Aa’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) said: “The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) used to pray qiyaam at night, and when he prayed witr he would say, ‘Get up and pray witr, O ‘Aa’ishah’” (Reported by Muslim, Muslim bi Sharh al-Nawawi, 6/23).

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “May Allah have mercy on a man who gets up at night and prays, then he wakes up his wife to pray, and if she refuses he throws water in her face.” (Reported by Ahmad and Abu Dawood. Sahih al-Jaami’, 3488).

Encouraging the women of one’s household to give charity is another means of increasing faith. This is something very important which the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) encouraged, when he said, “O women! Give in charity, for I have seen that you form the majority of the inhabitants of Hell.” (Reported by al-Bukhari, al-Fath, 1/405).

One of the new ideas is to have a box at home for donations to the poor and needy: whatever is put in the box belongs to them, because it is their vessel in the Muslim home.

If the family members see an example among them fasting on al-Ayyaam al-Beed (the 13th, 14th and 15th of each Hijri month), Mondays and Thursdays, Taasoo’aa’ and ‘Aashooraa’ (the 9th and 10th of Muharram), ‘Arafaah, and frequently in Muharram and Sha’baan, this will be a motive for them to do likewise.

Paying attention to adhkaar and Sunnah du’a’s that have to do with the home

Adkhaar for entering the home:

Muslim reported in his Sahih that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said:

“When any one of you enters his home and mentions the Name of Allah when he enters and when he eats, the Shaytan says: ‘You have no place to stay and nothing to eat here.’ If he enters and does not mention the name of Allah when he enters, [the Shaytan] says, ‘You have a place to stay.’ If he does not mention the name of Allah when he eats, [the Shaytan says], ‘You have a place to stay and something to eat.’” (Reported by Imam Ahmad, al-Musnad, 3/346; Muslim, 3/1599).

Abu Dawood reported in his Sunan that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said:

“If a man goes out of his house and says, ‘Bismillaah, tawakkaltu ‘ala Allah, laa hawla wa laa quwwata illaa Billaah (In the name of Allah, I put my trust in Allah, there is no help and no strength except in Allah),’ it will be said to him, ‘This will take care of you, you are guided, you have what you need and you are protected.’ The Shaytan will stay away from him, and another shaytan will say to him, ‘What can you do with a man who is guided, provided for and protected?’” (Reported by Abu Dawood and al-Tirmidhi. Sahih al-Jaami’, no. 499)

Siwaak

Imam Muslim reported in his Sahih that ‘Aa’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) said:

“When the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) entered his house, the first thing he would do was use siwaak.” (Reported by Muslim, Kitaab al-Tahaarah, chapter 15, no. 44).

Continuously reciting Surah al-Baqarah in the house to ward off the Shaytan

There are a number of Ahaadeeth concerning this, such as:

the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “Do not make your houses into graves. The Shaytan flees from a house in which Surah al-Baqarah is recited.” (Reported by Muslim, 1/539)

The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “Recite Surah al-Baqarah in your houses, for the Shaytan does not enter a house in which Surah al-Baqarah is recited.” (Reported by al-Haakim in al-Mustadrak. 1/561; Sahih al-Jaami’, 1170).

Concerning the virtues of the last two aayaat of this soorah, and the effect of reciting them in one’s house, he (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said:

“Allah wrote a document two thousand years before He created the heavens and the earth, which is kept near the Throne, and He revealed two aayaat of it with which He concluded Surah al-Baqarah. If they are recited in a house for three consecutive nights, the Shaytan will not approach it.” (Reported by Imam Ahmad in al-Musnad, 4/274, and others. Sahih al-Jaami’, 1799).

Islamic Knowledge in the Home

Teaching the family

This is an obligation which the head of the household must undertake, in obedience to the command of Allah (interpretation of the meaning):

“O you who believe! Ward off from yourselves and your families a Fire (Hell) whose fuel is men and stones…” [al-Tahreem 66:6]

This aayah is the basic principle regarding the teaching and upbringing of one’s family, and enjoining them to do what is good and forbidding them to do what is evil. There follow some of the comments of the mufassireen on this aayah, in so far as it pertains to the duties of the head of the household.

Qutaadah said:

“He should command them to obey Allah, and forbid them to disobey Him, and direct them in accordance with the commands of Allah, and help them to do that.”

Dahhaak and Muqaatil said:

“It is the Muslim’s duty to teach his family, including relatives and female slaves, what Allah has enjoined upon them and what He has forbidden.”

‘Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) said:

“Teach them and discipline them.”

Al-Tabari (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

“We must teach our children and wives the religion and goodness, and whatever they need of good manners. If the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) used to urge the teaching of female servants, who were slaves, what do you think about your children and wives, who are free?”

Al-Bukhari (may Allah have mercy on him) said in his Sahih:

“Chapter: a man’s teaching his female slaves and wife.”

Then he quoted the hadeeth of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him):

“There are three who will have two rewards: … a man who has a female slave whom he teaches good manners and teaches her well, and teaches her knowledge, and teaches her well, then he frees her and marries her: he will have two rewards.”

Ibn Hajar (may Allah have mercy on him) said, commenting on this hadeeth:

“The chapter heading refers specifically to female slaves, and to wives by analogy, i.e., teaching one’s free wife about her duties towards Allah and the Sunnah of His Messenger is more clearly essential than teaching one’s female slaves.”

In the midst of all a man’s activities, work and other commitments, he may forget to allow himself time for teaching his wife. One solution to this is to allocate some time for the family, and even for others such as relatives, to hold a study-circle at home. He can let everyone know the time and encourage them to come regularly, so that it will be an ongoing commitment for him and for them. Something similar happened at the time of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him).

Al-Bukhari (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

“Chapter: can the women be given a day exclusively for them to seek knowledge?”

and quoted the hadeeth of Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri (may Allah be pleased with him):

“The women said to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him): ‘The men always crowd us out and we cannot reach you, so set aside a day for us when we can come to you.’ So he set aside a day when he would meet them and teach them.”

Ibn Hajar said:

“A similar report was narrated by Sahl ibn Abi Saalih from Abu Hurayrah, according to which [the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him)] said: ‘Your appointment is in the house of so and so,’ and he came to them and spoke to them.’”

What we learn from this is that women should be taught in their houses, and we see how keen the women of the Sahaabah were to learn. Directing teaching efforts to men alone, and not to women, is a serious shortcoming on the part of dai’yahs and heads of households.

Some readers may ask, suppose we set aside a day, and tell our families about it – what should we study in these gatherings? Where do we begin?

I suggest that you begin with a simple program to teach your family in general, and the women in particular, using the following books:

  • The tafseer of al-‘Allaamah Ibn Sa’di, entitled Tayseer al-Kareem al-Rahmaan fi Tafseer Kalaam al-Mannaan, which is published in seven volumes and is written in an easy style; you can read it or teach somes soorahs and passages from it.
  • Riyaadh al-Saaliheen – you could discuss the ahaadeeth quoted, along with the footnotes and the lessons learned from them. You could also refer to the book Nuzhat al-Muttaqeen.
  • Hasan al-Uswah bimaa thubita ‘an Allahi wa Rasoolihi fi’l-Nuswah, by al-‘Allaamah Siddeeq Hasan Khaan.

It is also important to teach women some of the ahkaam of fiqh, such as the rulings on tahaarah (purity) and menstrual and post-partum bleeding, salah, Zakaah, siyam (fasting) and hajj, if she is able to go; some of the rulings on food and drink, clothing and adornment, the Sunan al-fitrah, rulings on maharim (who is a mahram relative and who is not), rulings on singing and photography, and so on. Among the important sources of such information are the fatwas (rulings or edicts) of the scholars, such as the collections of fatwas by Shaykh ‘Abd al-‘Azeez ibn Baaz and Shaykh Muhammad ibn Saalih al-‘Uthaymeen, and other scholars, whether they are written fatwas or fatwas recorded on tapes.

Another matter that may be included in a syllabus for teaching women and family members is reminding them of lessons or public lectures given by trustworthy scholars and seekers of knowledge which they can attend, so they can have a variety of excellent sources for learning. We should not forget either the radio programs of Idhaa’at al-Qur’an al-Kareem; another means of teaching is reminding family members of the particular days when women can attend Islamic bookstores, and taking them there, within the guidelines of sharee’ah [i.e., proper hijab, etc.]

Start building an Islamic “library” in your home

Another thing that will help in teaching your family and letting them develop a understanding of their religion and help them adhere to its rules, is having one’s own Islamic library at home. It does not have to be extensive; what matters is choosing good books, putting them in a place where they are readily accessible, and encouraging family members to read them.

You could put books in a clean and tidy corner of the living room and in a suitable place in a bedroom or guest room; this will make it easy for any member of the family to read constantly.

In order to build a library properly – and Allah loves things to be done properly – you should include references so that family members can research various matters and children can use them for their studies. You should also include books of varying levels, so that old and young, men and women can all use them. You should also have books for giving to guests, children’s friends and family visitors, but try to get books that are attractively presented, edited properly and with the sources and classification of the Ahaadeeth properly given. You can make the most of Islamic bookstores and exhibitions to build a home library, after consulting and seeking advice from those who have experience in the field of books. One way in which you can help family members to find a book when they want it is to organize the books according to subject, with books of Tafseer on one shelf, books of hadeeth on another, fiqh on a third, and so on. One of the family members could also compile alphabetical or subject indexes of the library, to make it easier to look for books.

Many of those who want to start a home library may ask for titles of Islamic books. Here are a few suggestions: Many of these books have now been translated into english.

Tafseer:

  • Tafseer Ibn Katheer
  • Tafseer Ibn Sa’di
  • Zubdat al-Tafseer by al-Ashkar
  • Badaa’i’ al-Tafseer by Ibn al-Qayyim
  • Usool al-Tafseer by Ibn ‘Uthaymeen
  • Lamahaat fi ‘Uloom al-Qur’an by Muhammad al-Sabbaagh

Hadeeth

  • Sahih al-Kalim al-Tayyib
  • ‘Aml al-Muslim fi’l-Yawm wa’l-Laylah (or: Al-Sahih al-Musnad min Adhkaar al-Yawm wa’l-Laylah)
  • Riyaadh al-Saaliheen and its commentary Nuzhat al-Muttaqeen
  • Mukhtasar Sahih al-Bukhari by al-Zubaydi
  • Mukhtasar Sahih Muslim by al-Mundhiri and al-Albaani
  • Sahih al-Jaami’ al-Sagheer
  • Da’eef al-Jaami’ al-Sagheer
  • Sahih al-Targheeb wa’l-Tarheeb
  • Al-Sunnah wa Makaanatuhaa fi’l-Tashree’
  • Qawaa’id wa fawaa’id min al-Arba’een al-Nawawiyyah by Naazim Sultaan

Aqeedah

  • Fath al-Majeed Sharh Kitaab al-Tawheed (edited by al-Arnaa’oot)
  • A’laam al-Sunnah al-Manshoorah by al-Hakami (ed.)
  • Sharh al-‘Aqeedah al-Tahhaawiyyah, edited by al-Albaani
  • The series on ‘Aqeedah by Umar Sulaymaan al-Ashqar in 8 parts
  • Ashraat al-Saa’ah by Dr. Yoosuf al-Waabil

Fiqh

  • Manaar al-Sabeel by Ibn Duwiyyaan
  • Irwa’ al-Ghaleel by al-Albaani
  • Zaad al-Ma’aad
  • al-Mughni by Ibn Qudaamah
  • Fiqh al-Sunnah [also available in English translation]
  • Al-Mulakhkhas al-Fiqhi by Saalih al-Fawzaan
  • Collections of fatwas by different scholars (‘Abd al-‘Azeez ibn Baaz, Muhammad Saalih al-‘Uthaymeen, ‘Abd-Allah ibn Jibreen)
  • Sifat Salah al-Nabi (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) by Shaykh al-Albaani and Shaykh ‘Abd al-‘Azeez ibn Baaz [available in English under the title The Prophet’s Prayer Described]
  • Mukhtasar Ahkaam al-Janaa’iz by al-Albaani
  • Good manners and purification of the soul:
  • Tahdheeb Madaarij al-Saalikeen
  • Al-Fawaa’id
  • Al-Jawaab al-Kaafi
  • Tareeq al-Hijratayn wa Baab al-Sa’aadatayn
  • Al-Waabil al-Sayib
  • Raafi’ al-Kalim al-Tayyib by Ibn al-Qayyim
  • Lataa’if al-Ma’aarif by Ibn Rajab
  • Tahdheeb Maw’izat al-Mu’mineen
  • Ghadhaa’ al-Albaab
  • Seerah and biographies
  • Al-Bidaayah wa’l-Nihaayah by Ibn Katheer
  • Mukhtasar al-Shamaa’il al-Muhammadiyyah by al-Tirmidhi, abridged by al-Albaani
  • Al-Raheeq al-Makhtoom by al-Mubaarakpoori [available in English translation]
  • Al-‘Awaasim min al-Qawaasim by Ibn al-‘Arabi, ed. by al-Khateeb and al-Istanbooli
  • Al-Mujtama’ al-Madani (2 vols.) by Shaykh Akram al-‘Umari [available in English under the title Madinan Society at the Time of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him)]
  • Siyar A’lam al-Nubala’
  • Minhaj Kitaabat al-Taareekh al-Islaami by Muhammad ibn Saamil al-Salami

There are many other good books on various topics, such as those by:

  • Shaykh Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhaab
  • Shaykh ‘Abd al-Rahmaan ibn Naasir al-Sa’di
  • Shaykh ‘Umar Sulaymaan ibn Ashqar
  • Shaykh Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Ismaa’eel al-Muqaddim
  • Prof. Muhammad Muhammad Husayn
  • Shaykh Muhammad Jameel Zayno
  • Prof. Husayn al-‘Awayishah’s books on al-Raqaa’iq (topics to soften the heart and strengthen eemaan)
  • Al-Eemaan by Muhammad Na’eem Yaaseen
  • Al-Walaa’ wa’l-Baraa’ by Shaykh Muhammad Sa’eed al-Qahtaani [available in English translation]
  • Al-Inhiraafaat al-‘Aqdiyyah fi’l-Qarnayn al-Thaani ‘Ashara wa’l-Thaalith ‘Ashara by ‘Ali ibn Bukhayt al-Zahraani
  • Al-Muslimoon wa Zaahirat al-Hazeemah al-Nafsiyyah by ‘Abd-Allah al-Shabaanah
  • Al-Mar’ah bayn al-Fiqh wa’l-Qaanoon by Mustafa al-Sibaa’i
  • Al-Usrah al-Muslimah amaam al-video wa’l-tilifiziyon by Marwaan Kijik
  • Al-Mar’ah al-Muslimah I’daadaatuhaa wa mas’ooliyaatuhaa by Ahmad Abu Bateen
  • Mas’ooliyat al-Abb al-Muslim fi Tarbiyat Waladihi by ‘Adnaan Baahaarith
  • hijab al-Muslimah by Ahmad al-Baaraazi
  • Wa Jaa’a Dawr al-Maajoos by ‘Abd-Allah Muhammad al-Ghareeb
  • Books by Shaykh Bakr Abu Zayd
  • Abhaath al-Shaykh Mashoor Hasan Salmaan

There are many other useful, good books – what we have mentioned is only by way of example, and is by no means a complete list. There are also many useful pamphlets and booklets, but it would take too long to list everything. The Muslim should consult others and think hard. Whomever Allah wishes good for, He helps him to understand His religion.

Home audio library

Having a cassette player in every home may be used for good or for evil. How can we use it in a manner that is pleasing to Allah?

One of the ways in which we can achieve this is to have a home audio library containing good Islamic tapes by scholars, fuqaha’, lecturers, and preachers.

Listening to tapes of Qur’an recitation by some Imam’s, for example those recorded during Taraaweeh prayers, will have a great impact on family members, whether by impressing upon them the meanings of the Revelation, or by helping them to memorize Qur’an because of repeated listening. It will also protect them by letting them hear Qur’anic recitation rather than the music and singing of the shaytan, because it is not right for the words of al-Rahman (Allah) to be mixed with the music of the Shaytan in the heart of the believer.

Tapes of fatwas may have a great effect on family members and help them to understand various rulings, which will have an impact on their daily lives.

Muslims must also pay attention to the sources from which they take fatwas, because this is the matter of religion, so look to where you take your religion from. You should take it from someone who is known to be righteous and pious, who bases his fatwas on sound Ahaadeeth, who is not fanatical in his adherence to a Madhab, who follows sound evidence and adheres to a middle path without being either extreme or too lenient. Ask an expert.

“… Allah, Most Gracious: ask, then about Him of any acquainted (with such things).” [al-Furqan 25:59]

Listening to lectures by those who are striving to raise the awareness of the ummah, establish proof and denounce evil, is very important for establishing individual personalities in the Muslim home.

There are many tapes and lectures, and the Muslim needs to know the features of the sound methodology so as to distinguish sound lecturers from others and look for their tapes, which they can listen to with confidence. Among these features are:

  • The lecturer should be a believer in the ‘Aqeedah of, Ahl al-Sunnah wa’l-Jamaa’ah, adhering to the Sunnah. The speaker should be moderate, neither extremist nor lenient.
  • He should base his talks on sound Ahaadeeth, and beware of weak and fabricated Ahaadeeth.
  • He should have insight and understanding as to people’s situations and the realities of the ummah, and should offer the appropriate remedy for any problem, giving the people what they need.
  • He should speak the truth as much as he can, and not utter falsehood or please the people by angering Allah.

We often find that tapes for children have a great influence on them, whether by helping them to memorize Qur’an by listening to a young reader, or du’a’s to be recited at various times of day and night, or Islamic manners, or nasheeds (religious “songs” with no instrumental accompaniment except the duff) with a useful message, and so on.

Putting tapes in drawers in an organized fashion will make it easier to find them, and will also protect them from getting damaged or from being played with by young children. We should distribute good tapes by giving or lending them to others after listening to them. Having a recorder in the kitchen will be very useful for the lady of the house, and having a recorder in the bedroom will help a person make good use of time until the last moments of the day.

Inviting good and righteous people and seekers of knowledge to visit the home.

“My Lord! Forgive me, and my parents, and him who enters my home as a believer, and all the believing men and women…” [Nooh 71:28]

If people of faith enter your home, it will increase in light (noor), and will bring many benefits because of your conversations and discussion with them. The bearer of musk will either give you some, or you will buy from him, or you will find that he has a pleasant scent. When children, brothers and parents sit with such visitors, and women listen from behind a curtain or screen to what is said, this offers an educational experience to all. If you bring good people into your home, by doing so you keep bad people from coming in a wreaking havoc.

Learning the Islamic rulings with regard to houses.

These include:

Praying in the house

With regard to men, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said:

“The best of prayer is a man’s prayer in his house – apart from the prescribed prayers.” (Reported by al-Bukhari, al-Fath, no. 731)

It is obligatory to pray (the five daily prayers) in the mosque, except if there is a valid excuse. The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) also said:

“A man’s voluntary prayers in his house will bring more reward than his voluntary prayers at other people’s places, just as his obligatory prayers with the people are better than his obligatory prayers alone.” (Reported by Ibn Abi Shaybah. Sahih al-Jaami’, 2953)

With regard to women, the deeper inside her home her place of prayer is, the better, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said:

“The best prayer for women is [that offered] in the furthest part of their houses.” (Reported by al-Tabaraani. Sahih al-Jaami’, 3311)

A man should not be led in prayer in his own home, and no one should sit in the place where the master of the house usually sits, except with his permission. The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said:

“A man should not be led in prayer in his place of authority, and no one should sit in his place in his house, except with his permission.” (Reported by al-Tirmidhi, no. 2772)

I.e., no one should go forward to lead him in prayer, even if they recite Qur’an better than he does, in a place that he owns or where he has authority, such as a householder in his home, or an Imam in a mosque. Similarly, it is not permitted to sit in the private spot of the head of the master of the house, such as a bed or mattress, etc., except with his permission.

Seeking permission to enter

“O you who believe! Enter not houses other than your own, until you have asked permission and greeted those in them, that is better for you, in order that you may remember. And if you find no one therein, still, enter not until permission has been given. And if you are asked to go back, go back, for it is purer for you. And Allah is All-Knower of what you do.” [al-Noor 24:27-28 ]

“… so enter houses through their proper doors…” [al-Baqarah 2:189]

It is permissible to enter houses that are empty if one has some legitimate business there, such as a house prepared for guests.

“There is no sin on you that you enter (without taking permission) houses uninhabited (i.e., not possessed by anybody), (when) you have any interest in them. And Allah has knowledge of what you reveal and what you conceal.” [al-Noor 24:29]

Not feeling too shy to eat in the houses of friends and relatives, and in houses of friends and relatives and others to which one has the keys, if they have no objection to that.

“There is no restriction on the blind, nor any restriction on the lame, nor any restriction on the sick, nor on yourselves, if you eat from your houses, or the houses of your fathers, or the houses of your mothers, or the houses of your brothers, or the houses of your sisters, or the houses of your father’s brothers, or the houses of your father’s sisters, or the houses of your mother’s brothers, or the houses of your mother’s sisters, or (from that) whereof you hold keys, or (from the house) of a friend. No sin on you whether you eat together or apart…” [al-Noor 24:61]

Telling children and servants not to barge in to the parents’ bedroom without permission at the times when people usually sleep, i.e., before Fajr, at siesta time and after ‘Isha’, lest they see something inappropriate. If they see something accidentally at other times, this is forgivable, because they are tawwaafeen (those who go about in the house) and it is difficult to stop them. Allah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“O you who believe! Let your legal slaves and slave-girls, and those among you who have not come to the age of puberty ask your permission (before they come to your presence) on three occasions: before Fajr prayer, and while you put off your clothes for the noonday (rest), and after the ‘Isha prayer. (These) three times are of privacy for you; other than these times there is no sin on you or on them to move about, – attending (helping) you each other. Thus Allah makes clear the ayat (verses of this Qur’an, showing proofs for the legal aspects of permission for visits, etc.) to you. And Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise.” [al-Noor 24:57]

It is forbidden to look into the houses of other people without their permission. The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said:

“Whoever looks into someone’s house without their permission, put his eyes out, and there is no diyah or qisaas [blood money or retaliation] in this case.” (Reported by Ahmad, al-Musnad, 2/385; Sahih al-Jaami, 6046)

A woman who has been divorced by talaq for a first or second time [and could still go back to her husband] should not leave or be made to leave her home during the ‘iddah, and she should still be supported financially. Allah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“O Prophet! When you divorce women, divorce them at their ‘iddah (prescribed periods), and count (accurately) their ‘iddah (periods). And fear Allah your Lord (O Muslims), and turn them not out of their (husband’s) homes, nor shall they (themselves) leave, except in case they are guilty of some open illegal sexual intercourse. And those are the set limits of Allah. And whoever transgresses the set limits of Allah, then indeed he has wronged himself. You (the one who divorces his wife) know not, it may be that Allah will afterward bring some new thing to pass (i.e., to return her back to you, if this as the first or second divorce).” [al-Talaaq 65:1]

It is permissible for a man to forsake his rebellious wife inside or outside the home, according to the interests prescribed by sharee’ah in any given case. The evidence for forsaking her inside the home is the ayah (interpretation of the meaning): “… refuse to share their beds…” [al-Nisa’ 4:34]. With regard to forsaking women outside the home, this is what happened when the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) forsook his wives, leaving them in their apartments and staying in a room outside the houses of his wives. (Reported by al-Bukhari, Kitab al-Talaq, Baab fi’l-Eelaa’).

One should not stay alone overnight in the house. Ibn ‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) forbade being alone and said that a man should not stay overnight alone or travel alone. (Reported by Ahmad in al-Musnad, 2/91). This is because of the feelings of loneliness etc., that come from being alone, and also because of the possibility of attacks by enemies or robbers, or the possibility of sickness. If one has a companion, he can help fight off attacks, and can help if one gets sick. (See al-Fath al-Rabbaani, 5/64).

Not sleeping on the roof of a house that has no protecting wall, lest one fall. The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said:

“Whoever sleeps on the roof of a house that has no protecting wall, nobody is responsible for what happens to him.” (Reported by Abu Dawood, al-Sunan, no. 5041; Sahih al-Jaami, 6113; its commentary is in ‘Awn al-Ma’bood, 13/384)

This is because one who is asleep may roll over in his sleep, and if there is no wall he may fall off the roof and be killed. In such a case, nobody would be to blame for his death; or his negligence would cause Allah to lift His protection from him, because he did not take the necessary precautions. The hadeeth may mean either.

Pet cats do not make vessels naajis (impure) if they drink from them, or make food naajis if they eat from it. ‘Abd-Allah ibn Abi Qutaadah reported from his father that water was put out for him to make wudoo’, and a cat came and lapped at the water. He took the water and did wudoo’ with it, and they said, “O Abu Qutaadah! The cat drank from it.” He said, I heard the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) say:

‘Cats are part of the household, and they are among those who go around in your houses.’ (Reported by Ahmad in al-Musnad, 5/309; Sahih al-Jaami’, 3694)

According to another report he said:

“They [cats] are not naajis; they are among those who go around [al-tawwaafeen wa’l-tawwaafaat – refers to children, servants, etc.] in your houses.” (Reported by Ahmad in al-Musnad, 5/309; Sahih al-Jaami’, 2437)

Knowing the advantages of khushoo’ in Salah

These include:

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said:

“There is no Muslim man who, when the time for a prescribed prayer comes, he does wudoo’ properly, has the proper attitude of khushoo’, and bows properly, but it will be an expiation for all his previous sins, so long as they were not major sins (kabeerah). And this is the case for life” (Reported by Muslim, 1/206, no. 7/4/2)

The reward recorded is in proportion to the degree of khushoo’, as the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said:

“A slave may pray and have nothing recorded for it except a tenth of it, or a ninth, or an eighth, or a seventh, or a sixth, or a fifth, or a quarter, or a third, or a half.” (Reported by Imam Ahmad; Sahih al-Jaami’, 1626).

Only the parts of his prayer where he focused and concentrated properly will be of any avail to him. It was reported that Ibn ‘Abbaas (May Allah be pleased with him) said:

“You will only have from your prayer that which you focused on.”

Sins will be forgiven if you concentrate properly and have full khushoo’, as the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said:

“When a slave stands and prays, all his sins are brought and placed on his head and shoulders. Every time he bows or prostrates, some of them fall from him.” (Reported by al-Bayhaqi in al-Sunan al-Kubraa, 3/10; see also Sahih al-Jaami’)

Al-Manaawi said: “What is meant is that every time a pillar (essential part) of the prayer is completed, part of his sins fall from him, until when he finishes his prayer, all his sins will be removed. This is in a prayer where all the conditions are met and the essential parts are complete. What we understand from the words “slave” and “stands” is that he is standing before the King of Kings [Allah] in the position of a humble slave.” (Reported by al-Bayhaqi in al-Sunan al-Kubraa, 3/10; see also Sahih al-Jaami’)

The one who prays with khushoo’ will feel lighter when he finishes his prayer, as if his burdens have been lifted from him. He will feel at ease and refreshed, so that he will wish he had not stopped praying, because it is such a source of joy and comfort for him in this world. He will keep feeling that he is in a constricting prison until he starts to pray again; he will find comfort in prayer instead of wanting just to get it over and done with. Those who love prayer say: we pray and find comfort in our prayer, just as their leader, example and Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said, “O Bilaal, let us find comfort in prayer.” He did not say “Let us get it over and done with.”- The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said, “My joy has been made in prayer.” So whoever finds his joy in prayer, how can he bear to look for joy anywhere else, or to keep away from it?

(Al-Waabil al-Sayib, 37).

Striving to offer du’a’ at the appropriate times during the prayer, especially in sujood

There is no doubt that talking to Allah, humbling oneself before Him, asking things from Him and earnestly seeking His help, all help to strengthen the slave’s ties to his Lord and increase his khushoo’. Du’a’ is an act of worship, and we are commanded to make du’a’. Allah says (interpretation of the meaning): “… call upon Him in humility and in secret…” [al-An’aam 6:63]. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “Whoever does not call on Allah, Allah will be angry with him.” (Reported by al-Tirmidhi, Kitaab al-Da’waat, 1/426; classed as hasan in Sahih al-Tirmidhi, 2686).

It was reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) used to make du’a’ at specific places in the prayer, i.e., in sujood, between the two prostration’s and after the Tashahhud. The greatest of these is in sujood, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said, “The closest that the slave can be to his Lord is when he is prostrating, so increase your du’a’ [at that time].” (Reported by Muslim, Kitaab al-Salah, Baab maa yuqaalu fi’l-rukoo’ wa’l-sujood. No. 215). And he said: “… As for sujood, strive hard to make du’a’ in it, for it is bound to be answered for you.” (Reported by Muslim, Kitaab al-Salah, Baab al-Nahy ‘an qiraa’at al-Qur’an fi’l rukoo’ wa’l-sujood, no. 207).

One of the du’a’s which the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) used to recite in his sujood was: “Allahumma’ghfir li dhanbi diqqahu wa jillahu wa awwalahu wa aakhirahu wa ‘alaaniyatahu wa sirrahu (O Allah, forgive me my sins, the minor and the major, the first and the last, the open and the hidden).” (Reported by Muslim, Kitaab al-Salah, Baab ma yuqaalu fi’l-rukoo’ wa’l-sujood, no. 216). He also used to say, “Allahumma’ghfir li maa asrartu wa maa a’lantu (O Allah, forgive me what I have done in secret and done openly).” (Reported by al-Nisaa’i, al-Mujtabaa, 2/569; Sahih al-Jaami’, 1067).

One of the things that he (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) used to recite after the Tashahhud is what we learn from the hadeeth: “When any one of you finishes the Tashahhud, let him seek refuge with Allah from four things, from the punishment of Hell, from the punishment of the grave, from the trials (fitnah) of life and death, and from the evil of the Dajjal (‘Antichrist’).” He used to say,

“Allahumma innee a’oodhu bika min sharri maa ‘amiltu wa min sharri maa lam a’mal (O Allah, I seek refuge with You from the evil of what I have done and the evil of what I have not done).”

“Allahumma haasibni hisaaban yaseeran (O Allah, make my accounting easy).”

He taught Abu Bakr al-Siddeeq (may Allah be pleased with him) to say, “Allahumma innee zalamtu nafsi zulman katheeran, wa la yaghfir al-dhunooba illa anta, faghfir li maghfiratan min ‘indaka warhamni innaka anta al-Ghafoor al-Raheem (O Allah, I have wronged myself very much, and no one can forgive sin but You. Grant me forgiveness from You and have mercy on me, for You are the All-Forgiving, Most Merciful).”

He heard a man saying in his Tashahhud: “Allahumma inne as’aluka yaa Allah al-Ahad al-Samad alladhi lam yalid wa lam yoolad wa lam yakum lahu kufuwan ahad an taghfir li dhunoobi innaka anta’l-Ghafoor al-Raheem (O Allah, I ask You O Allah, the One, the Self-Sufficient Master, Who begets not neither is begotten, and there is none like unto Him, to forgive me my sins, for You are the All-Forgiving, Most Merciful).” He (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said to his companions: “He has been forgiven, he has been forgiven.”

He heard another man saying, “Allahumma innee as’aluka bi-anna laka’l-hamd, laa ilaaha ill anta wahdaka laa shareeka lak al-Mannaan yaa badee’ al-samawaati wa’l-ard, yaa dhaa’l-jalaali wa’l-ikraam, ya hayyu yaa qayyoom, innee as’aluka al-jannah wa a’oodhu bika min al-naar (O Allah, I ask You as all praise is due to You, there is no god but You Alone, with no partner or associate, the Bestower, O Originator of the heavens and earth, O Possessor of Glory and Honour, O Ever-Living, O Self-Sustaining, I ask You for Paradise and I seek refuge with You from Hell).” The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said to his companions: “Do you know by what did he ask Allah?” They said, “Allah and His Messenger know best.” He said, “By the One in Whose hand is my soul, he asked Allah by His greatest Name (ismuhu’l-a’zam) which, when He is called by it, He responds, and if He is asked by it, He gives.”

The last thing he would say between the Tashahhud and the Tasleem was:

“Allahumma’aghfir li maa qaddamtu wa ma akhkhartu wa maa asrartu wa maa a’lantu wa maa asraftu wa maa anta a’lam bihi minni anta’l-muqaddim wa anta’l-mu’akhkhir, laa ilaaha illa anta (O Allah, forgive me what I have done in the past, and what I will do in the future, and what I have concealed, and what I have done openly, and what I have exceeded in, whatever You know about more than I. You are the Bringer-Forward, and You are the Delayer, there is no god except You).” (These du’a’s and others, along with their isnaads, are to be found in Sifat al-Salah by al-‘Allaamah al-Albaani, p.163, 11th edn.)

Memorizing du’a’s like these will solve the problem that some people have of remaining silent behind the Imam when they have finished the Tashahhud because they do not know what they should say.

Adhkaar to be recited after prayer

These also help to strengthen khushoo’ in the heart and reinforce the blessings and benefits of the prayer.

Without a doubt, one of the best ways of preserving and protecting a good action is to follow it up with another. So the one who thinks about the adhkaar that come after the prayer will find that they begin with seeking forgiveness three times, as if the worshipper is seeking forgiveness from his Lord for any shortcomings that may have occurred in his prayer or his khushoo’. It is also important to pay attention to naafil (supererogatory) prayers, because they make up for anything lacking in the fard (obligatory) prayers, including any failure with regard to khushoo’.

Having discussed things that help us to have khushoo’, we now move on to a discussion of meetings at home.

Meetings at Home

Removing anything that may distract the worshipper

Anas (may Allah be pleased with him) said: ” ‘Aa’ishah had a decorated, colourful curtain which she used to cover the side of her house. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said to her, ‘Take it away from me, because its decorations keep distracting me when I pray.’” (Reported by al-Bukhari, Fath al-Baari, 10/391).

Al-Qaasim reported that ‘Aa’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) had a cloth with decorations on it, which she used to cover a small sunken alcove (used for sleeping or storage).

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) used to pray facing it, and he said, ‘Take it away from me, because its decorations keep distracting me when I pray.’ So she took it away and made pillows out of it.” (Reported by Muslim in his Sahih, 3/1668).

Another indication of this is the fact that when the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) entered the Ka’bah to pray in it, he saw two ram’s horns. When he had prayed, he told ‘Uthmaan al-Hajabi, “I forgot to tell you to cover the horns, because there should not be anything in the House to distract the worshipper.” (Reported by Abu Dawood, 2030; Sahih al-Jaami’, 2504).

This also includes avoiding praying in places where people pass through, or where there is a lot of noise and voices of people talking, or where they are engaging in conversations, arguments etc., or where there are visual distractions.

One should also avoid praying in places that are very hot or very cold, if possible. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) told us to delay praying Zuhr in summer until the hottest part of the day was over. Ibn al-Qayyim (may Allah have mercy on him) said: “Praying when it is intensely hot prevents a person from having the proper khushoo’ and presence of mind, and he does his worship reluctantly, so the Prophet wisely told them to delay praying until the heat had lessened somewhat, so that they could pray with presence of mind and thus achieve the purpose of prayer, i.e., having khushoo’ and turning to Allah.” (Al-Waabil al-Sayib, Daar al-Bayaan edn., p.22)

Not praying in a garment that has decorations, writing, bright colours or pictures that will distract the worshipper

‘Aa’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) said: “The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) stood up to pray wearing a checkered shirt, and he looked at the patterns in it. When he had finished his prayer, he said, “Take this shirt to Abu Jaham ibn Hudhayfah and bring me an anbajaani (a garment with no decorations or checks), because it distracted me when I was praying.” According to another report: “These checks distracted me.” According to another report: “He had a checkered shirt, which used to distract him whilst he was praying.” (Reports in Sahih Muslim, no. 556, part 3/391).

It is better not to pray in a garment that has pictures on it, and we should be especially careful to avoid garments with pictures of animate beings, like many garments that are widely available nowadays.

Not praying when there is food prepared that one wants to eat

The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “Do not pray when there is food prepared.” (Reported by Muslim, no. 560).

If food has been prepared and served, or if it is offered, a person should eat first, because he will not be able to concentrate properly and have khushoo’ if he leaves it and gets up to pray when he is wanting to eat. He should not even hasten to finish eating, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “If the dinner is served and the time for prayer comes, eat dinner before praying Salaat al-Maghrib, and do not rush to finish your meal.” According to another report: “If dinner has been put out and the iqaamah has been given for prayer, eat dinner first and do not rush to finish it.” (Agreed upon. Al-Bukhari, Kitaab al-Aadhan, Baab idhaa hadara al-ta’aamu wa uqeemat al-Salah; Muslim, no. 557-559).

Not praying when one needs to answer the call of nature

No doubt one of the things that can prevent proper khushoo’ is praying when one needs to go to the washroom. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) forbade praying when one is suppressing the urge to urinate or defecate. (Reported by Ibn Maajah in his Sunan, no. 617; Sahih al-Jaami’, no. 6832).

If anyone is in this position, he should first go to the bathroom and answer the call of nature, even if he misses whatever he misses of the congregational prayer, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “If any one of you needs to go to the toilet, and the prayer has begun, he should go to the toilet first.” (Reported by Abu Dawood, no. 88; Sahih al-Jaami’, no. 299)

If this happens to a person whilst he is praying, he should stop praying, go and answer the call of nature, purify himself then pray, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said, “There is no prayer when there is food prepared or if one is suppressing the urge to expel waste matter.” (Sahih Muslim, no. 560). Without a doubt, this trying to suppress the urge takes away khushoo’. This ruling also applies to suppressing the urge to pass wind.

Not praying when one feels sleepy

Anas ibn Maalik said, “The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “If any one of you feels sleepy when he is praying, he should sleep until he [is rested enough to] know what he is saying,” i.e., he should take a nap until he no longer feels drowsy. (Reported by al-Bukhari, no. 210).

This may happen when one is praying qiyaam al-layl, at the time when prayers are answered, and a person may pray against himself without realizing it. This hadeeth also includes fard prayers, when a person is confident that he will still have enough time to pray after taking a nap. (Fath al-Baari, Sharh Kitaab al-Wudoo’, Baab al-wudoo’ min al-nawm).

Not praying behind someone who is talking (or sleeping)

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) forbade this; he said: “Do not pray behind one who is sleeping or one who is talking.” (Reported by Abu Dawood, no. 694; Sahih al-Jaami’, no. 375. He said, a hasan hadeeth).- because one who is talking will distract the worshipper with his talk, and one who is sleeping may expose something that will distract the worshipper.

Al-Khattaabi (may Allah have mercy on him) said: “As for praying behind people who are talking, al-Shaafa’i and Ahmad ibn Hanbal considered this to be makrooh, because their talk distracts the worshipper from his prayer.” (‘Awn al-Ma’bood, 2/388).

As regards not praying behind someone who is sleeping, a number of scholars thought that the evidence for this was weak (including Abu Dawood in his Sunan, Kitaab al-Salah, Tafree’ Abwaab al-Witr, Baab al-Du’a’, and Ibn Hajar in Fath al-Baari, Sharh Baab al-Salah khalf al-Naa’im, Kitaab al-Salah).

Al-Bukhari, may Allah have mercy on him, quoted the hadeeth of ‘Aa’ishah in his Sahih, Baab al-Salah khalf al-Naa’im: “The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) used to pray whilst I was lying across from him on his bed…” (Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitaab al-Salah).

Mujaahid, Taawoos and Maalik thought it makrooh to pray facing someone who was sleeping, lest he expose something that would distract the worshipper from his prayer. (Fath al-Baari, ibid.)

If there is no risk of that happening, then it is not makrooh to pray behind someone who is sleeping. And Allah knows best.

Not occupying oneself with smoothing the ground in front of one

Al-Bukhari (may Allah have mercy on him) reported from Mu’ayqeeb (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said concerning a man’s smoothing the ground when he prostrates, “If you have to do that, then do it only once.” (Fath al-Baari, 3/79).

The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “Do not wipe (the ground) when you are praying, but if you have to, then do it only once.” (Reported by Abu Dawood, no. 946; Sahih al-Jaami’, no. 7452).

The reason for this prohibition is so as to maintain khushoo’, and so that a person will not make too many extra movements in prayer. If the place where one is going to prostrate needs to be smoothed, it is better to do this before starting to pray.

This also applies to wiping the forehead or nose when praying. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) used to prostrate in water and mud, which would leave traces on his forehead, but he did not bother to wipe it off every time he raised his head from sujood. It remained there because he was so deeply absorbed in his prayer and his khushoo’ was so strong that he took not notice of it. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “Prayer is an occupation in itself.” (Reported by al-Bukhari, Fath al-Baari, 3/72). Ibn Abi Shaybah reported that Abu’l-Darda’ said: “Even if I were to get red camels, I would not like to wipe the gravel from my forehead.” ‘Ayaad said: “The salaf did not like to wipe their foreheads before they finished praying.” (al-Fath, 3/79).

Just as a worshipper should avoid anything that will distract him from his prayer, by the same token he should avoid disturbing others. This includes:

Not disturbing others with one’s recitation

The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “All of you are speaking to your Lord, so do not disturb one another, and do not raise your voices above one another when reciting” or he said, “in prayer.” (Reported by Abu Dawood, 2/83; Sahih al-Jaami’, no. 752). According to another report, he said, “Do not compete with one another in raising your voices when reciting Qur’an.” (Reported by Imam Ahmad, 2/36; Sahih al-Jaami’, 1951).

Not turning around during prayer

Abu Dharr (may Allah be pleased with him) said: “The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: ‘Allah continues to turn towards His slave whilst he is praying, so long as he does not turn away, but if he turns away, [Allah] turns away from him.” (Reported by Abu Dawood, no. 909; Sahih Abi Dawood).

Turning away during prayer is of two types:

The turning away of the heart to something other than Allah.

The turning away of the eyes.

Both of them are not allowed, and are detrimental to the reward for the prayer. The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was asked about turning away during prayer, and he said: “It is something that Shaytan steals from a person’s prayer.” (Reported by al-Bukhari, Kitaab al-Adhaan, Baab al-Iltifaat fi’l-Salah).

The one who turns away with his heart or his eyes during prayer is like a man who is called by the ruler and made to stand before him, and when the ruler starts to address him, he turns away, looking to the right and the left, not listening to what the ruler is saying and not understanding a word of it, because his heart and mind are elsewhere. What does this man think the ruler will do to him?

The least that he deserves is that when he leaves the ruler, he is hated and no longer valued. One who prays like this is not equal to one who prays with the proper presence of mind, turning to Allah in his prayer in such a way that he feels the greatness of the One before Whom he is standing, and he is filled with fear and submission; he feels too shy before his Lord to turn to anyone else or to turn away. The difference between their prayers is as Hassaan ibn ‘Atiyah said: “The two men may be in one congregation, but the difference in virtue between them is as great as the distance between heaven and earth. One of them is turning with all his heart towards Allah, whilst the other is negligent and forgetful.” (Al-Waabil al-Sayib by Ibn al-Qayyim, Daar al-Bayaan, p. 36).

As for turning away for a genuine reason, this is OK. Abu Dawood reported that Sahl ibn al-Hanzaliyyah said: “We started praying – Salaat al-Subh (Fajr) – and the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was looking at the ravine.” Abu Dawood said: “He had sent a horseman at night to guard the ravine.” This is like when he carried Umaamah bint Abi’l-‘Aas, and when he opened the door for ‘Aa’ishah, and when he came down from the minbar whilst praying in order to teach them, and when he stepped back during Salaat al-Kusoof (prayer at the time of an eclipse), and when he grabbed and strangled the Shaytan when he wanted to interrupt his prayer. He also ordered that snakes and scorpions should be killed even during prayer, and a person who is praying should stop and even fight one who wants to pass in front of him whilst he is praying. He told women to clap during prayer [if they spot a mistake on the part of the imam], and he used to wave or gesture to people who greeted him whilst he was praying. These and other actions may be done in cases of necessity, but if there is no necessity, then they are just idle gestures that cancel out Khushoo’ and are therefore not allowed during prayer. (Majmoo’ al-Fataawa, 22/559).

Not raising one’s gaze to the heavens

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) forbade us to do this and issued a warning against it. He said: “When any one of you is praying, he should not lift his gaze to the heavens, lest he lose his sight.” (Reported by Ahmad, 5/294; Sahih al-Jaami’, no. 762). According to another report, he said: “What is wrong with people who lift their gaze to the heavens whilst they are praying?” According to another report, he said: “that they raise their gaze when they make du’a’ during Salah?” (Reported by Muslim, no. 429). He spoke out strongly against it, to the extent that he said, “Let them stop it, or their eyesight will be taken away.” (Reported by Imam Ahmad, 5/258; Sahih al-Jaami’, 5574).

Not spitting in front of one when praying

This is incompatible with khushoo’ and good manners before Allah. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “When any one of you is praying, let him not spit in front of himself, for Allah is before him when he prays.” (Reported by al-Bukhari in his Sahih, no. 397).

He also said: “When any one of you stands up to pray, he should not spit in front of himself, because he is talking to Allah – may He be blessed and exalted – as long as he is in his prayer place; and he should not [spit] to his right, because there is an angel on his right. He should spit to his left, or beneath his feet, and bury it.” (Reported by al-Bukhari, al-Fath, no. 416, 1/512).

He said: “When one of you stands to pray, he is talking to his Lord, and his Lord is between him and the qiblah, so none of you should spit in the direction of his qiblah, but to his left or under his feet.” (Reported by al-Bukhari, al-Fath al-Baari, no. 417, 1/513).

If the mosque is furnished with carpets and so on, as is the norm nowadays, if a person needs to spit, he can take out a handkerchief or whatever, spit into it, and put it away again.

Trying not to yawn when praying

The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “If any one of you feels the urge to yawn during prayer, let him suppress it as much as he can, lest the Shaytan enter…” (Reported by Muslim, 4/2293). If the Shaytan enters, he will be more able to disturb the worshipper’s khushoo’, in addition to laughing at him when he yawns.

Not putting one’s hands on one’s hips when praying

Abu Hurayrah said: “The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) forbade putting the hands on the hips during prayer.” (Reported by Abu Dawood, no. 947; Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitaab al-‘Aml fi’l-Salah, Baab al-Hadhr fi’l-Salah).

Ziyaad ibn Subayh al-Hanafi said: “I prayed beside Ibn ‘Umar and I put my hand on my hip, but he struck my hand. When he had finished praying, he said, “This is crossing in prayer. The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) used to forbid this.” (Reported by Imam Ahmad, 2/106 and others. Classed as Sahih by al-Haafiz al-‘Iraaqi in Takhreej al-Ihyaa’. See al-Irwaa’, 2/94).

It was reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said that this posture is how the people of Hell rest; we seek refuge with Allah from that. (Reported by al-Bayhaqi from Abu Hurayrah. Al-‘Iraaqi said, its isnaad appears to be Sahih).

Not letting one’s clothes hang down (sadl) during prayer

It was reported that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) forbade letting one’s clothes hang down during prayer or for a man to cover his mouth. (Reported by Abu Dawood, no. 643; Sahih al-Jaami’, no. 6883. He said, this is a hasan hadeeth). In ‘Awn al-Ma’bood (2/347) al-Khattaabi said: “Al-sadl: letting one’s clothes hang down all the way to the ground.” It was reported in Marqaat al-Mafaateeh (2/236): “Al-sadl is completely forbidden because it has to do with showing off, and in prayer it is even worse.” The author of al-Nihaayah said: “It means wrapping oneself up in one’s garment, leaving one’s hands inside and bowing and prostrating in it.” It was said that the Jews used to do this. It was also said that al-sadl meant putting the garment over one’s head or shoulders, and letting its edges come down in front and over one’s upper arms, so that a person will be preoccupied in taking care of it, which reduces khushoo’, unlike garments that are tied up properly or buttoned, which do not distract the worshipper or affect his khushoo’. These kinds of clothes are still to be found nowadays in some parts of Africa and elsewhere, and in the way some Arabian cloaks are worn, which distract the worshipper and keep him busy adjusting them, retying them if they become loose and so on. This should be avoided.

The reason why it is forbidden to cover one’s mouth was explained by the scholars as being because that prevents a person from reciting Qur’an and doing sujood properly. (Marqaat al-Mafaateeh, 2/236).

Not resembling animals

Allah has honoured the son of Adam and created him in the best way, so it is shameful for the son of Adam to resemble or imitate animals. We have been forbidden to resemble or imitate a number of postures or movements of animals when we pray, because that is contrary to khushoo’ or because it is ugly and does not befit the worshipper who is praying. For example, it was reported that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) forbade three things in prayer: pecking like a crow, spreading one’s forearms like a carnivore, or always praying in the same place like a camel keeping to its own territory. (Reported by Ahmad, 3/428). It was said that when a man always prays in the same place in the mosque, making it his own, it is like a camel keeping to its own territory. (Al-Fath al-Rabaani, 4/91). According to another report: “He forbade me to peck like a cockerel, to sit like a dog or to turn like a fox.” (Reported by Imam Ahmad, 2/311; Sahih al-Targheeb, no. 556).

This is what we were able to mention about the means of attaining Khushoo’, so that we may strive for them, and about the things that detract from Khushoo’, so that we can avoid them.

There is another issue that has to do with Khushoo’, to which the scholars attached so much importance that it is worthy of mention here:

Good Manners at Home

Spreading kindness in the home.

‘Aa’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) said: “The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: ‘When Allah – may He be glorified – wills some good towards the people of a household, He introduces kindness among them.’” (Reported by Imam Ahmad in al-Musnad, 6/71; Sahih al-Jaami’, 303).

According to another report: “When Allah loves the people of a household, He introduces kindness among them.” (Reported by Ibn Abi al-Dunya and others; Sahih al-Jaami’, no. 1704). In other words, they start to be kind to one another. This is one of the means of attaining happiness in the home, for kindness is very beneficial between the spouses, and with the children, and brings results that cannot be achieved through harshness, as the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “Allah loves kindness and rewards it in such a way that He does not reward for harshness or for anything else.” (Reported by Muslim, Kitaab al-Birr wa’l-Sillah wa’l-Aadaab, no. 2592).

(22) Helping one’s wife with the housework.

Many men think that housework is beneath them, and some of them think that it will undermine their status and position if they help their wives with this work.

The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), however, used to “sew his own clothes, mend his own shoes and do whatever other work men do in their homes.” (Reported by Imam Ahmad in al-Musnad, 6/121; Sahih al-Jaami’, 4927).

This was said by his wife ‘Aa’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her), when she was asked about what the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) used to do in his house; her response described what she herself had seen. According to another report, she said: “He was like any other human being: he would clean his clothes, milk his ewe and serve himself.” (Reported by Imam Ahmad in al-Musnad, 6/256; al-Silsilat al-Sahihah, 671). She (may Allah be pleased with her) was also asked about what the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) used to do in his house, and she said, “He used to serve his family, then when the time for prayer came, he would go out to pray.” (Reported by al-Bukhari, al-Fath, 2/162).

If we were to do likewise nowadays, we would achieve three things:

We would be following the example of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him)

We would be helping our wives

We would feel more humble, not arrogant.

Some men demand food instantly from their wives, when the pot is on the stove and the baby is screaming to be fed; they do not pick up the child or wait a little while for the food. Let these Ahaadeeth be a reminder and a lesson.

Being affectionate towards and joking with the members of the family

Showing affection towards one’s wife and children is one of the things that lead to creating an atmosphere of happiness and friendliness in the home. Thus the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) advised Jaabir to marry a virgin, saying, “Why did you not marry a virgin, so you could play with her and she could play with you, and you could make her laugh and she could make you laugh?” (The hadeeth is reported in a number of places in the Sahihayn, such as al-Bukhari, al-Fath, 9/121). The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) also said: “Everything in which Allah’s name is not mentioned is idleness and play, except for four things: a man playing with his wife…” (Reported by al-Nisaa’i in ‘Ushrat al-Nisa’, p. 87; also in Sahih al-Jaami’). The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) used to treat his wife ‘Aa’ishah affectionately when doing ghusl with her, as she (may Allah be pleased with her) said: “The Messenger of Allah and I used to do ghusl together from one vessel, and he would pretend to take all the water so that I would say, ‘Leave some for me, leave some for me,’” – and both of them were in a state of janaabah (impurity). (Muslim bi Sharh al-Nawawi, 4/6).

The ways in which the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) showed affection towards young children are too famous to need mentioning. He often used to show his affection towards Hasan and Husayn, as mentioned above. This is probably one of the reason why the children used to rejoice when he came back from travelling; they would rush to welcome him, as reported in the Sahih hadeeth: “Whenever he came back from a journey, the children of his household would be taken out to meet him.” He (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) used to hug them close to him, as ‘Abd-Allah ibn Ja;far said: “Whenever the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) came back from a journey, we would be taken out to meet him. One day we met him, Hasan, Husayn and I. He carried one of us in front of him, and another on his back, until we entered Madeenah.” (Sahih Muslim, 4/1885-2772; see the commentary in Tuhfat al-Ahwadhi, 8/56).

Compare this with the situation in some miserable homes where there are no truthful jokes [i.e., jokes that do not involve lying], no affection and no mercy.

Whoever thinks that kissing his children goes against the dignity of fatherhood should read the following hadeeth: from Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) who said: “The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) kissed al-Hasan ibn ‘Ali, and al-Aqra’ ibn Haabis al-Tameemi was sitting with him. Al-Aqra’ said: ‘I have ten children and I have never kissed any one of them.’ The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) looked at him and said: ‘The one who does not show mercy will not be shown mercy.’”

Resisting bad manners in the home.

Every member of the household is bound to have some bad characteristics, such as lying, backbiting, gossiping and so on. These bad characteristics have to be resisted and opposed.

Some people think that corporal punishment is the only way to deal with such things. The following hadeeth is very educational on this topic: from ‘Aa’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) who said: “If the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) came to know that one of his household had told a lie, he would try to ignore him until he repented.” (See al-Musnad by Imam Ahmad, 6/152. The text of the hadeeth is also in Sahih al-Jaami’, no. 4675).

It is clear from the hadeeth that turning away and forsaking a person by not speaking to them, rather than resorting to punishment, is effective in such circumstances, and may be more effective than physical punishment, so let parents and caregivers think about this.

“Hang up the whip where the members of the household can see it.”

(Reported by Abu Na’eem in al-Hilyah, 7/332; al-Silsilat al-Sahihah, no. 1446).

Hinting at punishment is an effective means of discipline, so the reason for hanging up a whip or stick in the house was explained in another report, where the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “Hang up the whip where the members of the household can see it, for this is more effective in disciplining them.” (Reported by al-Tabarani, 10/344-345; al-Silsilat al-Sahihah, no. 1447)

Seeing the means of punishment hanging up will make those who have bad intentions refrain from indulging in bad behaviour, lest they get a taste of the punishment. It will motivate them to behave themselves and be well mannered. Ibn al-Anbaari said: “There is nothing to suggest that it should be used for hitting, because [the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him)] did not command anyone to do that. What he meant was: keep on disciplining them.” (See Fayd al-Qadeer by al-Mannaawi, 4/325).

Hitting is not the way to discipline; it is not to be resorted to, except when all other means are exhausted, or when it is needed to force someone to do obligatory acts of obedience, as Allah says (interpretation of the meaning): “… As to those women on whose part you fear ill-conduct, admonish them (first), (next), refuse to share their beds, (and last) beat them (lightly, if it is useful)…” [al-Nisa’ 4:34] – in that order. There is also the hadeeth: “Order your children to pray when they are seven years old, and hit them if they do not do so when they are ten.” (Sunan Abi Dawood, 1/334; see also Irwa’ al-Ghaleel, 1/266).

As for hitting unnecessarily, this is aggression. The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) advised a woman not to marry a man because he always had his stick on his shoulder, i.e., he used to beat his wives. On the other hand, there are those who think that they should never use this method of discipline at all, following some kafir educational theories; this is also a mistaken opinion that goes against the sharee’ah.

Evils in the Home

Beware of non-mahrem relatives entering upon women when their husbands are absent.

Men and women should sit separately during family visits.

Be aware of the dangers of having male drivers and female servants in the house.

Kick immoral people out of your houses.

Beware of the dangers of TV and its effects and ability to influence family members.

Beware of the evils of the telephone.

You have to remove everything that contains symbols of the false religions of the kuffar or their gods and objects of worship.

Removing pictures of animate beings.

Do not allow smoking in your homes.

Do not keep dogs in your homes.

Avoid too much decoration in your homes (keep it simple).

The Home inside and out

Choosing a good location and design of home.

No doubt the true Muslim pays attention to the choice and design of a home in ways that others do not.

With regard to location, for example:

The home should be close to a mosque. This has obvious advantages: the call to prayer will remind people of prayer and wake them up for it; living close to the mosque will enable men to join the congregational prayers, women to listen to the Qur’an recitation and dhikr over the mosque’s loudspeakers, and children to join study-circles for memorization of Qur’an, and so on.

The home should not be in a building where there are immoral people or in a compound where kuffaar live and where there is a mixed swimming pool and so on.

The house should not overlook others or be overlooked; if it is, he should put up curtains and make walls and fences higher.

With regard to design and lay out, for example:

He should pay attention to the matter of segregating men and women when non-mahrams come to visit, e.g. separate entrances and sitting areas. If that cannot be done, then use should be made of curtains, screens and so on.

Covering windows, so that neighbors or people in the street will not be able to see who is in the house, especially at night when the lights are on.

The toilets should not be sited in such a way that one faces the qiblah when using them.

Choosing a spacious house with plenty of amenities.

This is for a number of reasons:

“Allah loves to see the signs of His blessings on His slave.” (Hadeeth narrated by al-Tirmidhi, no. 2819. He said: This is a hasan hadeeth).

“There are three elements of happiness and three elements of misery. The elements of happiness are: a righteous wife, who when you see her she pleases you, and when you are absent from her you feel that you can trust her with regard to herself and your wealth; a compliant riding-beast that helps you to keep up with your companions; and a house that is spacious and has plenty of amenities. The elements of misery are: a wife who when you see her you feel upset, she keeps attacking you verbally, and when you are absent from her you do not feel that you can trust her with regard to herself and your wealth; a stubborn riding-beast that if whip it, you get tired, and if you do not whip it, it does not help you to keep up with your companions; and a house with few amenities.” (Hadeeth narrated by al-Haakim, 3/262; Sahih al-Jaami’, no. 3056).

Paying attention to health-related matters such as ventilation, natural light and so on. These matters depend on financial ability and feasibility.

Choosing the neighbor before the house.

This is a matter, which has to be singled out for discussion because of its importance.

Nowadays neighbors have more impact on one another, because houses are closer together and people live together in buildings, apartments and compounds.

The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) told us of four causes of happiness, one of which is a righteous neighbor, and four causes of misery, one of which is a bad neighbor. (Reported by Abu Na’eem in al-Hilyah, 8/388; Sahih al-Jaami’, 887). Because of the seriousness of the latter, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) used to seek refuge with Allah from bad neighbours in his du’a’: “Allahumma innee a’oodhu bika min jaar al-soo’ fi daar il-muqaamah fa inna jaar al-baadiyah yatahawwil (O Allah, I seek refuge with You from a bad neighbour in my permanent home, for the neighbour in the desert [i.e. on a journey] moves on).” He commanded the Muslims to seek refuge with Allah from a bad neighbour in a permanent home because the neighbour in the desert will eventually move on. (Reported by al-Bukhari in al-Adab al-Mufrad, no. 117; Sahih al-Jaami’, 2967).

There is no room here to talk about the influence a bad neighbor may have on a couple and their children, or the kinds of nuisance he can cause, or the misery of living next to him. But applying these Ahaadeeth quoted above to one’s own life should be sufficient for the one who is possessed of understanding. Another practical solution is that implemented by some good people who rent neighboring homes for their families, so as to solve the neighbor problem. This may be an expensive solution, but a good neighbor is priceless.

Paying attention to necessary repairs in the home, and making sure that the amenities are in good working order.

Among the blessings of Allah in this modern age are the “mod cons” that He has bestowed upon us, which make many things easier and save time, such as air-conditioners, fridge’s, washing-machines and so on. It is wise to have the best quality of appliances that one can afford, without being extravagant or putting oneself under financial strain. We should also be careful to distinguish between useful extras and extravagant additions that have no real value.

Part of caring for the home includes fixing appliances and amenities that break down. Some people neglect these things, and their wives complain about homes crawling with vermin, with overflowing drains and piles of stinking garbage, filled with broken and worn out furniture.

No doubt this is one of the obstacles to happiness in the home, and causes problems in the marriage and health problems. The smart person is the one who hastens to fix these things.

Paying attention to the family’s health and safety procedures.

When any member of his family got sick, the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) would blow on them and recite al-Mi’wadhatayn (last two soorahs of the Qur’an). (Reported by Muslim, no. 2192).

When one of his family members got sick, he would call for soup, and it would be made for him, then he would tell them to drink it, and he would say, “It will strengthen the heart of the one who is grieving and cleanse (heal) the heart of the one who is sick just as any one of you wipes the dirt from her face.” (Reported by al-Tirmidhi, no. 2039; Sahih al-Jaami’, no. 4646).

One of the ways of taking safety precautions is:

The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “When evening comes, keep your children inside, for the shayaateen (devils) spread out at that time. Then when an hour of the night has passed, let your children go, lock the doors and mention the name of Allah, cover your pots and mention the name of Allah, even if you only place a stick across the top of your vessel, and extinguish your lamps.” (Reported by al-Bukhari, al-Fath, 10/88-89).

According to a report narrated by Muslim, he (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “Lock your doors, cover your vessels, extinguish your lamps and tie your knots properly [i.e., cover your jugs properly – in those days they would cover them with a piece of cloth and tie it], for the Shaytan does not open a door that is closed, or uncover something that is covered, or untie a knot that you tie. And the mouse could set the house on fire (i.e. it could pull out the wick of the lamp and set the house on fire).” (Reported by Imam Ahmad in al-Musnad, 3/103); Sahih al-Jaami’, 1080).

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “Do not leave fires lit in your houses when you go to sleep.” (Reported by al-Bukhari, al-Fath, 11/85).

And Allah knows best. 

May Allah bless our Prophet Muhammad (saws)

What Type of Muslim Sister are You?


What type of sister-in-Islam you are. To find out, do the quiz and learn how to improve yourself.

Imagine yourself in each of the following situations and answer truthfully what you would do, choosing the answers a, b, c, or d. Then score yourself to find out what type of sister you are.

Remember, no one will judge you, but yourself! So, be truthfull in answering which most suitable with you. You choose the answer not to reach the best mark, but to find out what type of sister you are.

1. While walking down the street, you see a sister-in-Islam, who is unknown to you, coming your way.

Do you:

a) not give salaam (greeting of peace), instead you go about your business.

b) smile at her then if she says salaam to you first then you will say salaam to her.

c) agonise over whether you should say salaam then wish you had given her salaam because it is too late – she is already gone.

d) say salaam to her.

 

2. You are sitting in your car and are about to drive off, when a sister-in-Islam whom you don’t know, knocks on your window. You wind your window down and she desperately asks if she can get a lift to the next suburb.

Do you:

a) ascertain how desperately she needs to go and only then if it was on your way that you give her a lift.

b) give her a lift but you notice how far it is and you keep checking the time.

c) without hesitation you give her a lift.

d) not give her a lift, afterall, she could be some mad woman – you can never be too sure these days!

 

3. Your sister-in-Islam, who is in some sort of financial difficulty, says to you, “I need fifty dollars”, and you have in your possession $50.

Do you:

a) asks her what she needs it for.

b) give her the $50.

c) pretend you didn’t hear because she didn’t actually asks you for it.

d) tell her, “here, take $25.”

 

4. You have bought a favourite food which you have been craving for. Just as you are about to eat it your favourite sister-in-Islam knocks at your door. You open it to find that she has brought another sister-in-Islam that she wants to introduce you to.

Do you:

a) invite them all to share your food.

b) put your food away but when they are leaving you call your favourite sister-in-Islam aside to give her some of your food for her to take home.

c) excuse yourself for a moment, then eat as much as you can of the food to satisfy your craving, then invite them in to share the remaining food.

d) wait until they all leave so that you can sit down to enjoy your food.

 

5. Your sister-in-Islam has been admiring your new dress.

Do you:

a) give her one of your old dresses that is similar to this one but not as nice.

b) wait until you have worn it a few more times then give it to her.

c) wait until she asks, yet hoping that she doesn’t.

d) give it to her as soon as you can.

 

6. Your sister-in-Islam wants to ask you for a favour.

Do you say to her:

a) “What can I do to help you?”

b) “It depends on what you asks me for.”

c) “I don’t know if I can do it.”

d) “If I can then I’ll do it.”

 

7. You have just done your sister-in-Islam a favour.

Do you:

a) feel good that you were able to do it for her.

b) thank Allah for your good deed.

c) feel proud that you have done a good deed.

d) feel that now she owes you one.

 

8. Someone has just praised your sister-in-Islam.

Do you:

a) rush over to tell her immediately.

b) tell her when you next see her.

c) forget about it.

d) tell her when you remember about it.

 

9. Your best sister-in-Islam is unmarried but she really wants to marry. However, she cannot find anyone.

Do you:

a) tell her when you know of someone available.

b) offer your husband to her (for her to be a second wife).

c) console and commiserate with her.

d) go out of your way to find her a husband.

 

10. There is one fault that you notice in your sister-in-Islam.

Do you:

a) tell other people about it.

b) confront her with it.

c) make excuses and allowances for her, as we are all human and very few of us are without faults. d) become suspicious of her character.

 

11. You have been entrusted with a secret from your sister-in-Islam. Another sister-in-Islam asks you about it.

Do you:

a) admit knowledge of it but refuse to divulge it.

b) hint at it without giving it all away.

c) tell her, but also tell her not to tell anyone else.

d) deny any knowledge of it.

 

12. Your sister-in-Islam has angered you.

Do you:

a) tell everyone about her faults and secrets and never forgive her.

b) refuse to talk to her at all because you will never forgive her.

c) seek refuge with Allah and refuse to talk to her for 3 days.

d) seek refuge with Allah and forgive her immediately.

 

13. While discussing the correct way to raise children, you disagree with your sister-in-Islam’s view.

Do you:

a) insist that you are right and she is wrong.

b) tell her your viewpoint then keep silent on this topic.

c) tell her that you are right then change the subject.

d) have a heated debate about who is right.

 

14. You have been told, “So and so said that you are not a good Muslim! She said…….”

Do you:

a) find out who said it then say some things about that person.

b) ignore it and immediately change the subject.

c) listen to all of what is being said then ignore it.

d) listen to all of what is being said and find out who said it then ignore it.

 

15. Someone is saying nasty things about your sister-in-Islam.

Do you:

a) stop them from saying anymore.

b) listen to it but you hate what is being said.

c) go somewhere where you can’t hear it.

d) join in the discussion.

 

16. Your sister-in-Islam insists that you tell her her faults because she sincerely wishes to improve herself.

Do you:

a) recount all of her faults including the ones she already knows of then and there, regardless of whether you are in private or not.

b) advise her then and there, regardless of whether you are both in private or not.

c) recount her main faults then and there.

d) advise her gently when you are both in private.

 

17. Your sister-in-Islam comes to you and advises you in private.

Do you:

a) get annoyed because she noticed your fault.

b) thank her and accept her advise and try to improve yourself.

c) become offended and angry at her and tell her her faults.

d) listen to her advise, accept it then ignore it.

 

18. Your sister-in-Islam needs to use your telephone but is too shy to ask.

Do you:

a) insist that she uses your telephone after you have found out who she wants to call.

b) insist that she uses your telephone.

c) pretend you don’t know about it.

d) insist that she uses your telephone to make a local call but if it’s a long-distance call you ask her to pay for it.

 

19. While walking down the street, you see a sister-in-Islam fall down.

Do you:

a) rush over to offer help.

b) wait to see if she can get up by herself, if she can’t then you offer her your help.

c) wait to see if anyone will help her, if no-one helps then you offer her your help.

d) go on your way because you don’t know her.

 

20. When you agree to meet your sister-in-Islam at a certain place and at a certain time, do you usually:

a) arrive an hour late.

b) arrive 1/2 an hour late.

c) meet her at the appointed time.

d) arrive 5 to 10 minutes late.

 

Scores:

For each answer that you have chosen, write the corresponding score for that question, then tally the total to find out which category you have scored.

1. a=1, b=3, c=2, d=4.

2. a=2, b=3, c=4, d=1.

3. a=2, b=4, c=1, d=3.

4. a=4, b=3, c=2, d=1.

5. a=2, b=3, c=1, d=4.

6. a=4, b=2, c=1, d=3.

7. a=3, b=4, c=2, d=1.

8. a=4, b=3, c=1, d=2.

9. a=2, b=4, c=1, d=3.

10.a=1, b=3, c=4, d=2.

11. a=3, b=2, c=1, d=4.

12. a=1, b=2, c=3, d=4.

13. a=2, b=4, c=3, d=1.

14. a=1, b=4, c=3, d=2.

15. a=4, b=2, c=3, d=1.

16. a=1, b=3, c=2, d=4.

17. a=2, b=4, c=1, d=3.

18. a=3, b=4, c=1, d=2.

19. a=4, b=2, c=3, d=1.

20. a=1, b=2, c=4, d=3.

 

71-80 = Excellent Sister

Praise be to Allah that we have a sister-in-Islam like you among us. You know the true meaning of sisterhood.

You are an excellent sister to everyone. To you, a sister is any woman who is Muslim, regardless of race, nationality or whether you know her or not.

If a sister needs your help, you will tirelessly help, even if it means you will have to forgo something just so your sister can have it. You prefer your sister to yourself because you put her needs before your own.

Once you have helped your sister, you thank and praise Allah for giving you the opportunity to do a good deed.

You are humble and are patient towards your sisters. You do not pick faults with them nor do you gossip about them. Everyone wants a sister like you!

Al-Ghazali calls this the ‘third degree’ of brother/sisterhood, which is the highest level.

There is limited counselling at this level since you are content with Allah and whatever He has given you, and you are at peace with people and yourself. The main recommendation is to continue to make duas (supplications) to Allah to keep you on this true path, and to continue to praise and thank Allah.

51-70 = Good Sister

Praise be to Allah that you are a good sister. You treat your sister as you would yourself. Whatever you have you share it with your sister. You feel upset because she has not got something and so you share it with her equally.

Al-Ghazali calls this the ‘second degree’ of brother/sisterhood, which is the middle level.

What stops you from attaining the highest level of sisterhood is your inability to place yourself second to your sister. Something else which stops you from being an excellent sister is that although you treat your sister as you would yourself, you limit this treatment to the sisters whom you know closely. Those sisters whom you do not know, you treat as mere acquaintances.

How, then, to overcome these two obstacles?

As to the first, use the affirmation, “My sister’s needs come first”. Also, always ask yourself, “What does she need that I may give it to her?” If you constantly have these thoughts foremost on your mind then you will remember your sister and her needs and will try to fulfil them as if they were your own. That is, you will fulfil them 100% and not merely 50%.

Similarly, as to the second obstacle, say to yourself whenever you see a sister that you do not know, “She is my sister-in-Islam. I must say salaam to her”. After you have said this to yourself then immediately say “salaam” to her. The reason for this is clear in the following hadeeth: Abu Huraira (r) reported in Sahih Muslim that the Messenger of Allah (s) said, “By Him in Whose Hand is my soul, you will not enter Paradise until you have iman (faith), and you will not have iman until you love one another! Shall I not guide you to something which if you do it then you will love one another? Spread the greeting of salaam amongst yourselves.”

Once you say salaam you will begin to love each other, and once you love one another, you will begin to treat her as if you have known her all your life.

Finally, like with all other things in your life that you want, you must supplicate to Allah to strengthen your sisterly love to others. Ask Allah to make you selfless so that you can put your sisters’ needs first.

Now go on to read what it says under ‘Excellent Sister’ so that you may learn from it.

21-50 = A Sister

Praise be to Allah that you are a sister. You treat your sister to whatever you have in excess. That is, if she needed something and you have more than you need to satisfy your own needs, then you will give it to her.

Sometimes you are a good sister and at others you are not so good – it depends on your moods and needs.

Al-Ghazali calls this the ‘lowest degree’ of brother/sisterhood.

Obviously the one thing that stands in your way of becoming a full-time good sister is the satisfaction of your needs.

To overcome this shortcoming, you need to learn to give your sister what she needs spontaneously without consulting your needs first. Ibn Umar (r) said that a sahaba (r) was given a sheep’s head to which the sahaba (r) said, “My brother so and so needs it more than I do”. And so he sent it to that brother. That brother then sent it on to another. Thus it was passed from one to another till it came back to the first sahaba (r), after it had gone through seven hands. Although the sahabas (r) were all hungry, each one had thought of the others first. This is how it should be.

To get into the habit of thinking like this, whenever you have something, say to yourself, “My sister so and so may need it more than I do,” then pass it along to her.

Now read under ‘Good Sister’ and learn from that, then make supplications to Allah to help you to reach that level of sisterhood.

1-20 = Not A Sister

You should learn to praise Allah so that He will purify you.

The minimum requirements of a Muslim female is to be a sister to other Muslim females. If you come under this category then you are not a sister. You do not understand what it means to be Muslim. Being a Muslim means to be concerned and caring for others’ needs, especially your sisters-in-Islams’.

Prophet Muhammad (s) said, “When a companion accompanies a companion, if only for one hour of the day, he will be asked to account for his companionship, whether he fulfilled his duty to Allah therein or whether he neglected it.”

To overcome this deficiency in your character, you must convince yourself firmly that, “I am a Muslim. And as a Muslim I must give my sisters-in-Islam their rights because I will be accountable for it.”

Next, start reading books on ‘Brother/Sisterhood in Islam’ and ‘Muslim Character and Personality’. Then make supplications to Allah to help you to become a better Muslim, and therefore, a sister.

Lastly, read what it says on being ‘A Sister’ from above. This will guide you to the next step of being a sister.

“”A kind word opens the doors to people’s hearts and removes enmity from them, and tolerance, forgiveness and sincerity restore love between people. When a person speaks a kind word and turns a blind eye to bad treatment, he earns people’s respect and makes the one who has done something bad apologize for his bad behaviour or stop persisting in it. Undoubtedly some people may choose a way of dealing with people that they themselves would not like to be dealt with, and they think that being tough and confrontational is what will make people respect them.”

A Muslim Woman and Free Time


Free Time

Everyone seems to wish they had more of it. Being a wife and the mother of seven children I have often thought to myself that if only I had some free time I would… What would I do? Here we come to a universal truth about free time. It is used in one of two ways. Either it is put to good use or it is wasted, sometimes in sinful use.

Of course, we will all agree that performing some sort of Ibadah would be the ideal use of free time. However, we often forget that the performance of Ibadah is the very reason for our life on earth. Allah (swt) says: “I have not created jinn and humans except so that they may worship Me.” [51:56]

Allah did not create humans without reason. Nor did He create them for the sake of spending their time in pointless activity. He created them for Ibadah in the complete meaning of Ibadah – worship of Him as the one Almighty Lord of the Worlds.

Ibadah refers not just to ritual, physical, and mental acts of Ibadah such as Salah, Saum, Zakah, and Hajj. These are the Arkan of Ibadah. The true and complete meaning of the word Ibadah includes much more. As Ibn Taymiyyah puts it, Ibadah is “a comprehensive word that refers to all that Allah (swt) loves and all that pleases Him.”

So how does all this tie in with a woman and free time? If we examine the question and take a deeper look at exactly how Ibadah is performed in a woman’s life, the desire for “free time” takes on a new meaning.

Adh-Dhahabee related in Sayr A’laam An-Nubalaa from Asma bint Yazeed Ibn As-Sakan that she went to the Prophet (saw) and said, “O Messenger of Allah, may my father and mother be sacrificed for you. I have come to you on behalf of the women. Verily Allah has sent you to men and women. We have believed in you. We do not go out and we remain in your homes. We are your source of physical pleasure. We carry your children. A man goes out to pray Jum’ah and Jamah, and follows the Janazah. And if you go out for Hajj, or Umrah, or Jihad, we look after your wealth. We wash your clothing. We raise your children. Shall we not share in the reward?”

The Prophet (saw) turned to his Companions and said, “Have you ever heard anything a woman has said better than what she has said?” Then he said to her, “Understand O woman, and inform the other women. Indeed a woman’s perfection of her relationship with her husband, her seeking his pleasure, and doing that which he approves of is equivalent to all of that.” Asma left exclaiming “Laa ilaaha illallaah.”

Here, the Prophet (saw) explains an important aspect of Ibadah which applies uniquely to women. He informs us of the way to her success and how she has been granted this distinguished form of worship, one that many of us complain about. It is equivalent to Jihad, praying Jum’ah and Jamah. It is commensurate to participating in the Janazah, performance of Hajj and Umrah.

This Ibadah is the perfection of her relationship with her husband, her seeking his pleasure, obeying him, and doing that which he approves of. It is the caring for her children and her home and remaining within her home. Allah (swt) in His incomparable mercy has provided her with other deeds which replace those deeds that men usually perform, so that she may achieve equal reward.

One might argue that most of the women participate in these actions on a daily basis, even the disbelieving women. However, the concerns of a Muslim woman are nobler. She sets her sights high in her actions. She is aware that her every act, when performed islamically, is an expression of her worship of Allah (swt).

What is it that makes a woman wish for free time? Usually it is a need for a more personal time period wherein she may direct her energies into something that she would individually benefit from and enjoy. There is nothing wrong with this and indeed, when done with the correct intention, this too falls into Ibadah.

However, the waste of free time is an evil that many of us succumb to. The world is filled with opportunities for us to waste our time. Shaytan whispers here and there and before you know it we’ve intended well but failed to follow through. All of us are prone to wasting our time or failing to take opportunities to use our time well.

This is how it happens:

Tasweef

Putting things off until “later”. It is very easy to fall into a rut of aspiring to do good while not putting forth a sincere effort. Success in doing good things with our time is much like repentance. Is repentance sincere if you just think about it, express your desire to repent, and then say, “Oh, maybe I’ll repent next month?”

Similarly, if you wish to memorise Qur’an, or further your knowledge, but continually put your efforts on a back burner, you’ve fallen into Tasweef. In order to succeed at something we must first rectify our intention, then make sure that the thing we are aspiring to is in accordance with the Qur’an and Sunnah, and finally we must step forward with a firm foot. We must be serious in our commitment.

Going Out

Affairs outside our home can be harmful as well as Haram. Would you even think that going shopping could fall into this? Don’t be surprised. Islam directs that a woman is primarily meant to remain in her home. She may come out for her needs. If she goes out, according to the conditions of the Shariah, for a need which her husband cannot fulfil for her, then there is nothing against that. But, sometimes we fall into a western mentality of role sharing. Now there is nothing wrong with a husband helping his wife out and vice-versa.

However, a woman taking over responsibilities of the husband with the intention of “making things easier on him” is skirting on the questionable. This is particularly so when we talk of shopping and other such needed but not always necessary tasks. A better way would be to organise herself and her household affairs and that of her children by simplifying her lifestyle and cutting back on the unnecessary.

A Muslim woman’s constant going to the markets to make the household purchases and her desire to do so is wrong. Some women have no intention to purchase anything. They just want to walk around the market and see what’s new. Maybe there’s a new style, new material, something nice. So she has no true need to go out. And we know the Hadith of the Prophet (saw) who said, “If a woman goes out of her home Shaytan will attract attention to her presence.” [At-Tirmidhi]

Meaning he will draw attention to her presence and make use of the opportunity either in tempting her or tempting others through her. If a woman remains in her home then Shaytan cannot do this. The Prophet (saw) also said that if a woman goes out of her home she “appears in the form of a Shaytan and she leaves in the form of Shaytan.” [Muslim]

How? The scholars have said that Shaytan comes to those who are before her and make her coming out appear attractive to those who are looking. And when she leaves he makes her appear attractive to those who are present and see her leaving.

So she causes people to look at her and she causes their temptation. Allah (swt) and His Messenger (saw) have ordered us to remain in our homes and to come out only for true need to do so.

“And remain in your homes” are the words of Allah (swt) addressed to the believing women and the wives of the Prophet (saw). The word in the Ayah, “qarna” means to remain and adhere. Allah has ordered the woman to adhere, to stay, and not merely to it, in her home. She should accustom herself to staying home and not going out. And if she does go out she should feel uncomfortable in doing so.

A sign of Iman of a true believing woman is her feeling that her home is where she belongs. And a sign of a diseased heart is that of a woman who feels uncomfortable staying at home. Examine your heart for the stirrings of disease. Treat yourself by applying Allah’s command. By rectifying our hearts contentment can be bred and truly appreciated.

The Telephone

Ah, the telephone. A wonderful invention it was, without doubt. It did away with a lot of travel, sending messages by hand, and unexpected visitors. But it also brought us the opportunity for wasting large blocks of our time and, sometimes, committing serious sin such as talking about things that are none of our business. A telephone does indeed fulfil a need for us as women.

It provides us with an opportunity to “visit” with our friends and family without leaving our homes. We can share a cup of tea with a friend as a relaxation from the occupation of daily chores. But, it can also steal valuable time that can be put to more beneficial use. Use it with attention and care or you will find that it will use you.

Music and Singing

Allah (swt) says: “And befool them gradually those whom you can among them with your voice, (i.e. songs, music, and any other call for Allah’s disobedience) make assaults on them with your cavalry and your infantry.” [17:64]

“And of mankind is he who purchases idle talk (music, singing, etc.)” [31:6]

In explaining this Ayah Ibn Masood said: “Wallaahi Laa ilaaha illaa huwa this refers to music and singing.” The Prophet (saw) said, “There will come among my nation a group of people making permissible the wearing of silk (for men) the drinking of wine, and the usage of musical instruments.” [Al-Bukhari]

This was pointing to the fact that such deeds were originally forbidden but would be made permissible in later times by those who stray from the correct path. I’m sure we can all agree that Allah (swt) has not forbidden a thing except for the corruption or harm that it contains.

Now, there may be Muslims that listen to music for pleasure. If you are one of them, I advise you to research the subject to learn of its impermissibility and work on your Iman. A Mumin would turn to Qur’an for such pleasure.

I like to believe that most Muslims do not listen to music but rather find it an unintentional part of their lives – on the radio, while listening to the news, computer software, and the like.

If you are truly benefiting from such things, don’t fall into the neglectful habit of not turning the sound down whenever music comes on. It’s so easy to do – to just sit there and think that it will stop in a minute. This occurs a lot with children, especially with computer software and video games.

If they can’t use them without the sound and the sound is full of music then maybe the actual benefit should be reconsidered. Sooner or later we will tire of turning it down or having to constantly say, “Turn down the music!” And, sooner or later, we will find music a constant element of our lives. Sooner or later.

Gossip and Backbiting

Most of us have, at one time or another chewed the flesh of someone. It may have been an enemy or a friend, an acquaintance, a supervisor, or an employee, or even our own spouse or child. Gossip and backbiting are nasty deeds and they can become habitual. Though not restricted to females, it is notoriously recurrent in us. We have a reputation for it. We fall into it easily. And again, it is usually idle time, time not well spent, that is the trap laid into which we place our wagging tongues.

When we call a sister just to talk, how many times do our conversations turn to the affairs of others? When this happens do we forbid what is wrong and command what is right? Do we discuss shared secrets under the pretence of seeking advice. When we call or go to visit, do we start with good intent but fall into talk that rings with “Did you hear?” “Can you believe that she?” and “So-and-so said this and that.”

Often talk enters into the perimeters of the Haram, causing us to use our free time in an extremely detrimental way. Even our silence to its occurrence is an abuse of time for which we are accountable.

Films and Television

This is a particularly dangerous tool of learning and change. Audio/video anything has the incredible ability of making lasting impressions in the mind and upon the soul. Mannerisms, morals, and beliefs can be culled from them. If exposure is continuous the influence can begin to be seen within a very short period of time, in changes of belief as well as in the amount of time spent viewing.

Don’t fool yourself into thinking that children are the only ones who are impressionable and susceptible. Adults can be just as easily influenced and addicted. Now, consider this view of films and television shows, given by the lecturer Saeed bin Misfir Al-Qahtaanee.

“A film or a show is basically a story. A liar called a writer or producer writes it. After he writes it he approaches a group of other liars and actors with the intent to perform and bring the story to life. You play this role and you perform this part. You’re the mother, you play the father, you the son, and so on, and they sit together for two, three, or four months to produce the story and present it to the people. And then people spend long stretches of time sitting together following the story as if it were true while in reality it is a lie. Actually a person shouldn’t even be looking at it. . . They even have a way of capturing the viewer’s attention by leaving them in suspense at the end of the show so that they will make it a point to watch the next show.”

Granted, there are possibilities for useful and permissible use of television and video. But the concern is in that which is, without question, forbidden. Ask yourself, “Am I watching or listening to things that I really, islamically, should not?” Am I using my time well in doing so?

We are left with the subject of how to use our free time beneficially. The world is filled with activities. How do we choose who, what, when, and where and at the same time reassure ourselves of why? Here are a few principles that can put some perspective and equilibrium into our lives.

Fear Allah

Place this feeling into everything that you approach in your life. Keep in mind the pillars of our Deen – not just that of Iman and Islam but particularly of Ihsan – “to worship Allah as if you see Him and, though you cannot see Him, know that He sees you.” [Mutafaqun ‘alaih]

What a powerful statement! Make it words to live by. Also remember that our entire lives and the world around us is a test. Know that you will be asked how you spent your time, your money, your health, and your wealth. Allah (swt) tells us in Surah Al-Kahf: “Indeed We have made that which is on earth as an adornment for it, in order that We may test them (mankind) as to which of them are best in deeds.” [18:7]

Pay attention to your life and the outlook you put into your day-to-day activities. Allah (swt) observes us. He knows our every movement. We should consider this observance and emphasise our awareness of Allah (swt). If we fear Allah (swt) and maintain our consciousness of Him (swt) we will be more responsible with our time and our use of it.

Be Responsible and Responsive

As women we have varying circumstances and situations within the folds of our lives and our responsibilities vary accordingly. First and foremost we are responsible to Allah (swt). All of our obligations in life are subjective to this. If we could only keep this is mind most things would fall into place and much wrong avoided.

But sometimes we overindulge ourselves in personal desires causing us to neglect areas of responsibility to the point that we step over the bounds of right into wrong. The fabric of our lives is as different and varying as fingerprints. Some of us are married though others are not. We may live all alone or within an extended family home. You may have a child or two, others have a houseful, while even others have none.

Therein each of us will find a different balance of responsibilities and a varying amount of free time. If you were to list all of the responsibilities that you have as a woman you might feel a bit exasperated. However, the key is not in making a “To Do” list but more a reminder to be responsive to those things around you that need you.

For example, a baby has a right to the breast milk that Allah (swt) has created for its nourishment. A mother has an obligation to offer it. But the responsive part of this relationship is recognising that the child needs not just the milk but the loving, caring warmth, the emotional cradling, the comforting nipple of his mother’s breast. A relationship of physical contact and emotion is created and needed, one for which a bottle is a poor replacement. A baby is not aware of the nutritional difference that mother’s milk provides over other milks. But she is aware of the difference in comfort, closeness, and affinity that she feels when she nurses from her mother’s own milk.

By looking beyond the “right” and “obligation” aspects of our lives and turning our minds to the benefit, reward, and fulfilment that can be gained by living out our responsibilities we can find pleasure and satisfaction in things that are otherwise done without attention or enjoyment.

In the patchwork of our lives we will find that there is blessing in whatever Allah (swt) has given us if we only look for it, nurture it, and give it its due. The more responsive we are to our individual blessings, the more benefit we will gain.

Be responsive to the daily situations that Allah (swt) places you in. Act and react with full awareness of your duties to all aspects of your life and the people and things within it. Stop and ask yourself if you are truly fulfilling the rights of Allah (swt), the rights of others, and the rights of yourself.

Keep Good Company

Most of us have a “best friend”. She (or even he) is the one whom we call and discuss our innermost feelings and concerns with, the one with whom we share our day-to-day happenings and thoughts, the one whom we turn to for advice. No wonder the Prophet (saw) said, “A person follows the faith of his friend. Therefore, consider with whom you make friends.” [Abu Dawoud & Tirmidhi]

A good companion is one who will listen, yet stop you if you gossip. She will encourage you toward good when you incline toward evil. She will tell you that you are wrong when you need to hear it. She will remind you of Allah (swt) and remind you to remember Him.

She will prohibit you from disobedience to Him. And perhaps most importantly, she will do this without fear of losing you as a friend just as you, if you are worthy of such a companion, will accept it with a good heart and thank Allah (swt) for the blessing of such a good friend.

Identify Your Weaknesses and Desires

All of us have them. Some of us control them. Many of us indulge in them. It could be talking on the phone, e-mailing friends, going shopping, social engagements, an outside job, even going out for Dawah or education. Any one of these activities has the potential to turn into a platform for misuse of time and neglect of responsibility.

As part of a balanced life there is no harm in participating in any or all of these things as long as they involve nothing forbidden. But if they overshadow or negatively affect the other areas of your life, particularly those things that are obligations, you could be setting yourself up for some major questioning on the Day of Judgment.

Sit with yourself and examine where and how you spend your time. Often we may find that we give an abundance of our time to things that are beneficial but not really necessary while other areas of our lives are not being cared for properly. Single out those things that seem to dominate your life.

Examine them for their value. Are you sacrificing time from other obligations in your life to make room for them? Does it affect your relationships with the people in your life? We don’t have to give up the things we enjoy. We just need to maintain the equilibrium that is necessary to balance the many balls that we choose to juggle.

Free time is a luxury that most of us enjoy and would appreciate more of. But in doing so we must keep in mind that every second that ticks by comes to an end and does not return until we are called to account for it. Spend your time well as it is stated so superbly by the Lord of the Worlds:

By al-‘Asr (Time), Verily mankind is in loss, except those who believe, and do good righteous deeds, and those who enjoin one another to truth.

Finding a Spouse – In Light of the Qur’an and Sunnah


In Islam it is clear that marriage is the optimum lifestyle.

“And among His signs is this, that He created for you wives from among yourselves, that you may find repose in them, and He has put between you affection and mercy. Verily, in that are indeed Signs for people who reflect.” [30:21].

Yet, as more and more Muslims become a part of the ‘West’, the ‘West’ becomes part of the Ummah and leads us away from the strict interpretation of Islamic guidelines in regard to marriage.

Making sure that Muslims are well-matched to their spouses is one of the most important and potentially difficult functions in Muslim society. The individual seeking marriage must have his/her priorities straight and be clear on what characteristics are most important to be sought in a spouse in order to have a successful marriage.

There are many characteristics that are important in a husband or a wife but some are much more important than others. Overemphasizing the wrong qualities can lead to disaster down the road just as being neglectful of certain considerations can do likewise. When we come to understand the goals and priorities of marriage in Islam, we may be guided to the Islamic methodology of seeking marriage in Islam and stop blindly following the disbelievers in their ignorant notions of the importance of “getting to know each other” and other such concepts which in reality contribute nothing to and more often sabotage a successful marriage.

The Prophet (saw) taught us in many hadith about the various characteristics which one looks for in a spouse and their relative importance and which ones determine success insha Allah and Allah’s blessing on a marriage. Among those hadith:

“A woman is married for her deen(Religion), her wealth or her beauty. You must go for the one with deen(Religion), may your hands be in the dust! (if you fail to heed)” [Muslim]

“Choose carefully for your seed. Marry those who are equivalent (or “qualified”) and give to them in marriage.” [Ibn Majah and others and it is sahih].

There are some of the most important characteristics that can be found in the Qur’an and the sunnah when it come to choosing a good spouse.

Religion:

We must be careful not to be superficial in this issue. The mere wearing of hijab or keeping a beard and praying in the masjid, while obvious requirements of piety, do not by themselves guarantee it. There are many people who at first glance appear to be abiding by Islam, but upon closer inspection have a twisted understanding of Islam and their practice in reality may leave much to be desired. The characteristic of piety applies to the groom just as much as to the bride. The guardian of the woman should make this his first and top priority just as the man looking for a wife should make it his. The Prophet (saww) said:

“If someone with whose piety and character you are satisfied with comes to you, marry to him. If you do not do so, there will be trials in the earth and a great deal of evil.” [At-Tirmidhi and others and it is hassan].

Character and Behavior:

Character is of extreme importance in Islam and goes hand in hand with faith and piety. The Prophet (saww) has even described it as the purpose of his mission to mankind as we can see from the following Quran verse & hadith:

“Bad women are for bad men and bad men are for bad women. And good women are for good men and good men are for good women.”[ An-Noor:26]

Prophet(saww) said:

“Righteousness is good character.” [Muslim]

“I have only been sent to complete good character.” [Al-Hakim and others sahih]

“The believers with the most complete iman are those with the best character.” [Abu Daud and it is sahih].

“I am a guarantor of a house in the highest part of Paradise for one who makes his character good.” [Abu Daud and it is hassan].

Child-Bearing:

“Marry the loving/friendly, the child-bearing for I shall outstrip the other nations with your numbers on Qiyama.” [Ahmad, Abu Daud and others and it is sahih].

Prophet (saww) recommended men to marry those women who are child-bearing. This characteristic is related to some of the goals and purposes of marriage that were mentioned earlier such as procreating the Muslim Ummah, raising a pious family as a cornerstone of society and so forth.

The scholars mention that a man can look at a woman’s female relatives to get an idea whether she is apt to get pregnant easily and often or not. This attribute should also apply to the man. For example a man who say before Islam had a vasectomy would not be an appropriate husband for a Muslim girl getting married for the first time.

Virginity:

There are many hadith which recommend a man marry a virgin woman such as the following:

“Marry virgins for they have sweeter mouths, more productive wombs and are more pleased with less.”[ At-Tabaraani and it is hassan]

Other narrations indicate that she is more likely to be pleased by a man and less likely to be devious and deceiving.

Once, when Jaabir married an older and previously married woman, the Prophet (saww) said to him:

“Why not a virgin? You could have played with her and she with you.” [al-Bukhaari, 1991; Muslim, 715]

The scholars have stressed that this good attribute applies to the husband just as it applies to the wife. One of them wrote: “Similarly, it is preferred for a person not to marry his daughter except to a virgin man if she has never been married before.”

Beauty:

This characteristic has a certain role to play since one of the purposes of marriage is to keep both spouses from sins. The best way to do this is to have a strong attraction between the spouses. Although this is something which surely grows over time, initial impressions can in come cases become an obstacle to a successful marriage.

The Prophet (saww) separated Qais ibn Shamaas from his wife in the famous case of Khul’a and her stated reason was that he was exceedingly displeasing to her.[al-Bukhaari, 5273]

Once a companion told him (saww) that he was going to get married. The Prophet (saww) asked if he had seen her. When the man said no, he (saww)) said:

“Go and look at her for it is more likely to engender love between the two of you.” [Ahmad and others and it is sahih].

Beauty has its role, but remember that it is way down on the priority list under piety, character and deen. When a person puts beauty above all else, the results can be disastrous. This is one of the big reasons that young people seeking to get married must be helped by more mature family members in making their choice.

Moreover, shar’i matters are usually addressed to men, and the scholars of usool have stated that whatever is addressed to men is also addressed to women, unless there is evidence to the contrary, but it is not essential for there to be one text for men and another for women with regard to every shar’i ruling.

The Prophet Muhammad(saww) said:

“Women are the twin halves of men.” [Narrated by al-Tirmidhi (113) and others, classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Jaami’].

And Allaah knows best.

TRUE LOVE OF THE PROPHET MUHAMMAD (SAW) According to the Book and the Sunnah


In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful Indeed, all praises are due to Allah. We praise Him, seek His Aid, and beg for His Forgiveness. We seek refuge in Allah from the evil in ourselves and from the evil outcomes of our deeds. Whomsoever, Allah, Ta ‘Ala, guides, no one and nothing can take that person astray. Whomsoever, Allah, Ta ‘Ala, takes astray, no one or nothing can guide that person. I bear witness that there is nothing worthy of worship except Allah who is alone without any associates. I bear witness that Muhammad ibnu ‘Abd Allah (SAW) is Allah’s ‘Abd (slave) and Messenger.

To proceed: Allah has commanded in the Qur’an (what means):

“O you who believe! Have Taqwah (true fear of Allah) according to His right and die not except that you are a Muslim. O Mankind! Have Taqwah of your Lord. The One Who created you from a single soul and from him He created his mate and from them both He created many men and women and fear Allah through Whom you demand your mutual rights and do not cut off the ties of kinship; surely Allah is ever a Raqeeb (All-Watcher) over you. O you who believe! Have Taqwah of Allah and always speak the truth. He will direct you to do righteous good deeds and will forgive you your sins. And whosoever obeys Allah and His Messenger (SAAW) he has indeed achieved a great achievement.”

Verily, the best speech is the Book of Allah and the best guidance is the guidance of Muhammad ibnu ‘Abd Allah (SAW). The worst of all affairs in this Diyn are innovations. Every innovation is a Bid’ah and every Bid’ah is a going astray and every going astray is in the Hell Fire.

 

DEVELOPING TRUE LOVE FOR ALLAH’S MESSENGER (SAW):

Having the proper love for Allah’s Messenger (SAW) is a must for any Muslim who is striving to please his/her Lord and who seeks his/her Lord’s Forgiveness. Learning how to properly apply this love for the last Nabee (SAW) is to properly implement the testimony: wa ash hadu ana Muhammadan rusulu Allah (SAW).

Indeed, one cannot just say he/she loves the Prophet (SAW) while his/her actions and ‘Aqeedah are fundamentaly against what the Prophet (SAW) brought (i.e. the Qur’an and the authentic Sunnah). Hence, the first step in the process of developing this love is to acknowledge that the Prophet (SAW) has a claim over the believers.

Allah has said in the Qur’an (what means): “The Prophet (SAW) is closer to the believers than their ownselves…” [Al-Ahzab: 6].

Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyyah (Rahimullah), one of the great scholars of this Ummah, relates that this Ayah means the Prophet (SAW) has a “higher claim” on the believers than they have on themselves.

This claim involves two important matters:

1. WE CONSIDER ALLAH’S MESSENGER (SAW) TO BE DEARER THAN ONE’S OWN SELF.

This is so because this claim is based on love. One has the most claim to oneself for one loves oneself more than anything. Thus, a person knows what types of foods, clothing, etc. he/she likes to eat, drink, etc. more than all others. However, when it comes to Islam, we know that Allah knows us better than we know ourselves; thus, we submit to Him and His Orders.

We it comes to the Prophet (SAW), we are to love him more than our own selves; thus, we too put his commandments above our own opinions, logic, etc. Once this true love is established, compliance, obedience, satisfication with his (SAW) jugdements, and other matters related to true love will follow.

This is confirmed in the following authentic Haadith found in Sahih Al-Bukhari:

Narrated ‘Abd Allah bin Hisham: ‘We were with the Prophet (SAW) and he was holding the hand of ‘Umar ibnu Al-Khattab (RA). ‘Umar said to him, “O Allah’s Messenger (SAW)! You are dearer to me than everything except my ownself.” Allah’s Messenger (SAW) said: “No, by Him in Whose Hand my soul is, (you will not have complete Faith) untill I am dearer to you than your ownself.” Then ‘Umar (RA) said: “However, now, by Allah, you are dearer to me than my ownself.” He (SAW) then said: “Now, O ‘Umar, (now you are a believer).”

LESSONS FROM THIS HAADITH:

A. The Negation and Affirmation:

The Prophet (SAW) negates (i.e. rejects, denies) that a person can have complete Imaan with his statement, “No, by Him in Whose Hand my soul is…”.

Thus, the affirmation, or condition of having complete Imaan, follows: “…until I am dearer to you than your ownself…”.

Therefore, the Muslim will never attain true Imaan unless he/she considers the Prophet (SAW) to be dearer to him/her than everything including one’s ownself.

B. Character of the Sahabah:

Upon hearing that true Imaan can only be achieved through loving the Messenger (SAW) more than everything, including one’s self, ‘Umar (RA) quickly complied with the commandment of the Prophet (SAW). The Sahabah wasted no time in doing those acts which were pleasing to Allah and His Messeger (SAAW).

 

 

2. SECOND IMPORTANT MATTER:

The Messenger (SAW) has more rule over an individual than that individual has over his/herself. This means that a person only does those actions which are in accordance with the Book of Allah and the authentic Sunnah of His Messenger (SAW).

Therefore, three critical conditions must be fulfilled in order for a deed to be accepted: a. One must confess his/her belief in Islam (i.e. one must be a Muslim).

b. One must have Ikhlaas of the Niyah (i.e. purity of the intention).

c. One must do that deed in accordance with the Book of Allah and the authentic Sunnah of His Messenger (SAW).

If one of these conditions are not meet, that person’s deed will not benefit him/her in the least. Of course, absence of knowledge is always an exception (eg. a person may make Wudhu but does not know the specific parts of the body that are to be washed; thus, he/she washes those parts which he/she thinks to be significant. His/her Wudhu was not done in accordance with the Book and the Sunnah; however, he/she did not know the way to make Wudhu according to the Book and the Sunnah; hence, their Wudhu would be accepted for a and b were fulfilled, wa Allahu ‘alam).

These are the conditions which the Salaaf As-Salih (Pious Predecessors) understood with regards to the acceptance and rejection of a deed. Another implications of the testimony: Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah (SAW).

 

BELIEF THAT HE (SAW) WAS SENT TO ALL OF MANKIND AND THE JINN

Verily, Allah, azza wa jall, has said in the Qur’an (what means): “Say (O Muhammad SAW): O mankind! Verily, I am sent to you all as the Messenger of Allah – to Whom belongs the dominion of the Heavens and the Earth. La illaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He). It is He Who gives life and causes death. So believe in Allah and His Messenger (SAAW), the Prophet who can neither read nor write, who believes in Allah and His Words, and follow him so that you may be guided.” [Al-A’raf: 158].

The Prophet (SAW) said (what means): “And the Prophets were formerly sent to their people only, whereas I have been sent to all mankind.” [Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

Therefore, recognizing that he (SAW) was sent as a mercy to all of mankind will, Inshallah, help kindle the proper love for him which will be manifested through obedience to his rulings.

FINALITY OF HIS PROPHETHOOD

Indeed, there is no Messenger/Prophet after Muhammd ibnu ‘Abd Allah (SAW) as Allah, Ta ‘Ala, says in His Book (what means): “Muhammad (SAW) is not the father of any man among you, but he is the Messenger of Allah, and the last (end) of the Prophets. Allah is Ever All-Aware of everything.” [Al-Ahzab: 40].

The Prophet (SAW) has said (what means): “And the line of the Prophets is closed with me.” [Muslim].

Believing that Muhammad (SAW) is the final Messenger of Allah confirms Allah’s statement (what means): “…This day, I have perfected your religion for you, completed my Favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion…” [Al-Ma’idah:3 (in part)].

Thus, if Islam were not a complete way of life, then this religion would need to be constantly updated. In order to update this religion, there would have to be another Prophet after Muhammad (SAW). However, this is not so as Allah completed this Diyn and it can never be changed from its true form.

BELIEVING THAT HE (SAW) HAS BEEN GIVEN TWO (2) REVELATIONS

Al-Hamdulilah, Allah, azza wa jall, has give the Prophet (SAW) two revelations as understood by the Minhaj of the Ahlus Sunnah Wal Juma’ah. These are, of course, the Qur’an and the authentic Sunnah.

Allah confirms this with His saying (what means): “Nor does he (Muhammad SAW) speak of his own desire. It is only an Inspiration that is inspired.” [An-Najm: 3-4]

Indeed, Allah conferred a great favour on the believers when He sent among them a Messenger (Muhammad SAW) from among themselves, reciting unto them His Verses (the Qur’an), and purifying them (from sins by their following him), and instructing them (in) the Book (the Qur’an) and Al-Hikmah (the wisdom and the Sunnah of the Prophet SAW – i.e. his legal ways, statements, actions, etc.), while before that they had been in manifest error.” [Al-‘Imran: 164].

The Prophet (SAW) has also said (what means): “I have, indeed, been given the Qur’an and something like it along with it (i.e. his Sunnah).” [Abu Dawud].

Thus, there is no mere choice between following the Sunnah and not following it. It has been sent down as part of revelation; thus, it must be adhered to in full. It is adhered to the way the Prophet (SAW) explained it and the way the Sahabah understood it.

Allah confirms this with His saying (what means): “We sent no Messenger, but to be obeyed by the permission of Allah.” “Obey Allah, and the Messenger (SAW). But if they turn away (then know), that Allah loves not the infidels.” [Al-‘Imran: 31-32].

THE PROPHET (SAW) HAS RIGHTS UPON HIS FOLLOWERS

These rights are:

1. We believe in what the Prophet Muhammad (SAW) has said.

2. We obey him in what has been commanded and forsake what he has forbidden or discouraged.

3. We worship Allah according to the Shar’iah of His Messenger (SAW), not by whims and Bid’ah (innovations).

4. We judge ourselves by the Shar’iah of Prophet Muhammad (SAW), and not by any other law.

5. We love Allah’s Messenger (SAW) more than our parents, children, all of mankind, indeed our very selves. Allah has confirmed the above with His statement (what means):

“Say (to them O Muhammad SAW): If you love Allah, follow me, and Allah will love you, and forgive you your sins; Allah is All-Forgiving, All-Merciful. Say: Obey Allah, and the Messenger (SAW), but if they turn away (then know), that Allah loves not the infidels.” [Al-‘Imran: 31-32]. “

And let those who oppose his (Muhammad’s SAW) command beware, lest a trail befall them (that will lead them to Kuffur) or a painful punishment be inflicted on them.” [An-Nur: 63].

“You have indeed a good example in the Messenger of Allah (SAW) for whosoever hopes for Allah and the Last Day, and remembers Allah much.” [Al-Ahzab: 21].

“It is not for any believer, man or woman, when Allah and His Messenger (SAW) have decreed a matter, to have the choice in their affair. And whosoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger (SAW) he has gone astray into manifest error.” [Al-Ahzab: 36].

“But no, by your Lord, they can have no Faith, until they make you (O Muhammad SAW) judge in all disputes between them, and find in their souls no resistance against your decisions, but accept (them) fully with submission.” [An-Nisa: 65].

Thus, we see in this last Ayah that Allah negates that a person can have Imaan unless that person makes the Prophet (SAW) judge in *all* affairs and that we accept his (SAW) decisions with submission.

This Ayah is indeed serious as Allah swears to this negation with His saying (what means), “But no, by your Lord…”. The Prophet (SAW) stressed the importance of obeying and following his Sunnah with his saying (what means): “All of my people will enter Jennah except those who refuse.” When asked about those who refuse, he said: “He who obeys me will enter Jennah, while he who disobeys me has refused.” [Al-Bukhari].

He (SAW) also said (what means): “If anyone introduces into this affair of ours anything which does not belong to it, it is rejected.” [Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

And: “None of you believes untill I am dearer to him than his father, his child, and all of mankind.” [Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

And: “There are qualities for which anyone who is characterized by them will experiece the sweetness of Imaan: he to whom Allah and His Messenger (SAW) are dearer than all else; he who loves a human being for Allah’s Sake alone; and who has as great an abhorrence of returning to Kuffur (disbelief) after Allah has rescued him from it as he has being cast into the Hell Fire.” [Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

Although the Prophet (SAW) is the best of examples and following his Sunnah is obligatory, we must remember that it is not right to overpraise him (SAW) as he was not divine, but a man. Some deviant sects of Islam direct their ‘Ibaadah to the Prophet (SAAW); however, this is Shirk Al-Akbar (association in the highest degree) which will not be forgiven unless that person makes sincere Tawbah before his/her death.

A MAN AND NOT DIVINE

Allah says (what means): “Say (O Muhammad SAW): I am only a man like you: it is revealed to me that your God is One God: So, let him who hopes for the meeting with his Lord, do righteousness, and not associate anything in the worship of hsi Lord.” [Al-Kahf: 111].

The Prophet (SAW) said (what means): “Do not overpraise me as the Christians overpraised the son of Mary (i.e. ‘Isa AS). I am His slave, so say: Allah’s slave and Messenger.” [Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

SENDING SALAT AND SALAM UPON THE NABEE (SAW)

This is an action which the believer are commanded to do as Allah says in the Qur’an (what means): “Indeed, Allah and His angels send Salat (i.e. Allah mentions the Prophet’s SAW name in the presence of the angels) upon the Prophet (SAW). O you who believe! Send your Salat and your Salam upon him (ie. by saying Salla Allahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, etc.).” [Al-Ahzab: 56].

COMMIT SIN AS MUCH AS YOU LIKE !!!!


A man came to Imam Husain (grandson of Prophet Mohammad SAW) and said:
I am a sinful man and can’t avoid doing sin, please advise me.

Imam Husain (AS) said:
If you can do these FIVE things, then commit sin as much you like.

First: Don’t eat the sustenance of God and commit sin as much you like.
Second: Go beyond the domain of God and commit sin as much you like.
Third: Seek a site where God cannot observe you and commit sin as much you like.
Fourth: If the Angel of death comes to you to take away your soul, expel him away from yourself and commit sin as much you like.
Fifth: If the Angel of Hell was about to throw you into the hell-fire, stop him and commit sin as much you like.

(Bihar al- Anwar, Vol. 78, P. 126)

The Power of Shadaqa & Nazr (Vow) [Guiding Light from Prophet SAW & the Family]


Once the Imam Hasan and Imam Husayn, who were at that time 5 and 4 years old, fell ill. When the Prophet of Islam, missed them in the masjid, he came to Fatima Zahra’s house to inquire about them.

When he was told that they were sick, he suggested that both parents should take a spiritual vow (Nazr) for the children’s recovery. So both Imam Ali and Fatima Zahra prayed to Allah for the recovery of Hasan and Husayn (peace be unto them all) and took a vow to fast for three consecutive days when the children became well again.

The children did recover from the illness soon after. Both parents set about fulfilling their spiritual vow and fasted. When the children saw that, they also decided to fast with their parents and so did the house-maid, Fiddha. But that day there was no food in Fatima’s house even for breaking the fast.
So Imam Ali went out looking for work. He could not find any. But he was able to get three kg’s of wool to be spun in exchange of three kg’s of barley. Fatima Zahra spun the wool all day. She was only able to dispense with one kilo of it. So she took only one kilo of barley ground it into flour and prepared five loaves of bread.

While they were all ready to break their fast, someone knocked at the door saying: “O people of the house of the Prophet, I am a poor man and I have nothing to eat, is there anything you could do to feed me.” At this Imam Ali stood up, went to the door and gave his loaf to the man. Fatima Zahra did the same. Watching this, both children also gave their loaves and so did the maid. They broke their fast by water and retired.
The next day Fatima Zahra spun another kilo of wool. So she separated one kilo of barley, ground it into flour and prepared five loaves once again. As they were ready to break their fast, once again, a voice called out from the door: “O people of the house of The Prophet, I am an orphan, I am hungry, could you feed me?” Hearing this, Imam Ali stood up and gave his loaf to the man, so did Fatima Zahra, the children and the maid. They all, once again, broke their fast by water and retired.

Came the third day, Fatima Zahra spun the rest of the wool, took the remaining barley, ground it into flour and prepared five loaves. As they were ready to break the fast, a voice called from the door saying: “O people of the house of the Prophet, I am a prisoner, I am hungry, could you feed me?” Hearing this, once again, Imam Ali stood up and went to the door and gave his loaf away to the prisoner. Fatima Zahra, the children and the maid did likewise.
Every time the person at the door would want to express his gratitude for the kindness, Imam Ali would say: “No, no, we are not looking for any reward from you for this act, we are doing it out of Allah’s love.”
Now the children had just been quite ill. And they had not eaten anything in three days. The Prophet of Islam, once again entered the house asking about the children. When he looked at them they were shaking like autumn leaves (those are the exact words in the report). Fatima Zahra told him what had been going on in the family.

At that time the archangel Gabriel came down with a gift of Allah to the Prophet. That gift was the verses of Sura Insan or Dahr (chapter 76), which we quote below.
They fulfill vows and fear a day the evil of which shall be spreading far and wide. And they give food out of love for Him to the poor and the orphan and the captive. We only feed you for Allah’s sake; we desire from you neither reward nor thanks: Surely we fear from our Lord a stern, distressful day. Therefore Allah will guard them from the evil of that day and cause them to meet with ease and happiness. And reward them, because they were patient, with garden and silk. (Qur’an, 76:7-12)


This story tells us that the Prophet of Islam, recommended to any family that if and when you are facing a difficult situation or you are distressed, you should do Nazr. In other words, take a spiritual vow that when the problem is over you would offer special prayers or invite friends and relatives for food that has been dedicated to the Ahlul Bayt in Allah’s name.
The story is the guiding light for us in our lives. The family of Fatima Zahra (peace be unto her) fulfilled their Nazr, but when a more needy person came they gave away their food to him without any regard to their own needs. Glorious Qur’an has made it incumbent upon us to love the Prophet of Islam and his holy family and fashion our lives according to how they lived.

Anger Series : Anger Management In Islam (AMI) (Episode 1)


 by Omar K Neusser

1.) Definition of anger or temper:

Lexical[1] meaning:

The feeling one has toward something or someone that hurts, opposes, offends, or annoys, strong displeasure.
(Example: In a moment of anger I hit my brother.)

Islamic definition: It is a destructive fire!
Prophetic hadith: “Anger is a burning coal …” [3]

– Anger is a secret weapon of man towards of evils, but sometimes
it results in the destruction of many noble qualities.
– It snatches away the wisdom of man and thus
he becomes a brute beast devoid of  any sense.
– Anger is a temptation and deception of Shaitân.[2]
– Anger is the root of all evils.
– Anger is a very bad condition that weakens the person’s Imân (faith). [2]

Imam Mawlûd calls it a “swelling ocean,” that is he compares it to “a swelling mass of emotion that is difficult to hold back once it is unleashed.”[4]

2.) Introduction
The Messenger of Allah, Prophet Muhammad MHMD said:
Whoever curbs his anger
“Whoever curbs his anger, while being able to act, Allah will fill his heart with certainty of faith.”

Therefore the consequence for whoever does not curb his anger is that he or she will sooner or later feel its evil consequences.

Anger is a destructive emotion, as a fire which destroys our well-being, consumes our good actions, repels our friends and dear ones, frightens our children and forces the angels to report bad actions for the Heavenly Records. This is a dangerous rough road and no-one is devoid of it and it brings one close to the wrath of Allah; story:

Prophet `Isa (Jesus Christ) -peace be upon him- was once asked:
“What thing is difficult?” He said: “God’s wrath.” Prophet Yahya (John the Baptist) -peace be upon him- then asked:
“What brings near the wrath of God?” He said: “Anger”.
Yahya – peace be upon him- asked him:
“What thing grows and increases anger?” Isa -peace be upon him- said:
“Pride, prestige, hope for honour and haughtiness.” [5]

The good news is that when you are ready to confront the evil kind of anger within your soul, then you have already taken the first decisive step in fighting it. The evil kind of anger can be overcome by understanding and following the respective teachings of Islam. If you are not ready, ask yourself the test questions below.[ch.4]

3.) Clarification
Are all kinds of anger meant here always, or are there instances when anger could still be justified?
Someone could say: “How do I know that my anger is not justified, when I feel strongly about it, that in certain situations I do have the right to become angry?” (As an exception there are a few instances when it is good and allowed, such as in war when fighting the enemy, but not excessive anger.)
Answer: Yes, there are situations where anger is justified and lawful, as “in cases of religious affairs when one’s honour is at stake. It is an effective preventive measure to safeguard the dignity of man.  A person who has no anger is called a coward because he has got no true faith in Allah.  The person fears creation and not the Creator.” [2]
But certainly those instances are rare, and what is worse, for a beginner in anger management (AMI) it is difficult to distinguish between those situations from the outset. Later with some success in AMI, that will be easy.
We do not suggest that AMI means you never may get angry, for anger is not to abolished but channelled, and the aim is always to reach your goal with other, reliable and sane methods, in shâh Allah. But to begin with, it is vital to bring it down to lower levels, to temper it, in order to take control over it.For the time being you should be extremely suspicious about anger in which form or situation what-so-ever. Be warned against it!

Remember that the real strength of a man lies in controlling his wrath or anger. In this respect the Islamic tradition is very clear:

It is reported in a hadith on the authority of Abu Huraira  raDiy-Allahu-anhu.gif  Allah be pleased with him, that Mohammad, the emissary of Allah MHMD peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said :
“The man is not a good wrestler; the strong man is in fact the person who controls himself at the time of anger.” (Bukhari)

In another hadith Abu Hurairah  raDiy-Allahu-anhu.gif  (radiyallahu `anhu), reported that a man said to the Prophet MHMD (sallallahu `alayhi wasallam): “Advise me!”
The Prophet said, “Do not become angry and furious.”
The man asked (the same) again and again, and the Prophet said in each case, “Do not become angry and furious.”
[Al-Bukhari; Vol. 8 No. 137] (see hadith in Arabic at top of page.)
Commenting on this hadith Al-Nawawî says that “he meant to not allow anger to lord over oneself and cause the loss of one’s comportment.” Instead to control your anger and never lose control. [11]

4.) Try To Get The Whole Picture – The Causes Of Anger
We are convinced that the Islamic guidance is the best guidance, also in respect of AMI, because it relates to all levels of human beings, where it operates its barakah (Divine blessings): the body (jism), the soul (nafs) and the spirit (rûh), the last being the highest element which governs the rest. Anger is one of several coarse qualities of the soul or heart, which have to be treated by Islam’s spiritual methods.
To treat the (spiritual) desease you have to know its causes. Imam al Ghazali explains them as follows:
The causes which cause anger to grow are self-conceit, self-praise, jests and ridicule, argument, treachery, too much greed for too much wealth and name and fame. If these evils are united in a person, his conduct becomes bad and he cannot escape anger. So these things should be removed by their opposites. Self-praise is to be removed by modesty. Pride is to be removed by one’s own origin and birth, greed is to be removed by remaining satisfied with necessary things, and miserliness by charity.[5]

Or summarized in four words:

“Pride, prestige, hope for honour and haughtiness.”[5]
The goal is to purify the heart, free it from oblivion of the rang of human beings, neglect of Allahs commands, and … so as to reach the Divine Presence.
In this context there is the Gabriel-hadith on excellence (ihsân) in Islam (as part of a longer hadith[13]): A man asked the Emissary of Allah MHMD : “Then tell me about Ihsan.” He said:
“It is to worship Allah as though you are seeing Him,
and while you see Him not yet — truly He sees you.”
Also in the Quran we are constantly reminded that Allah sees and hears us, thus watching over us all the time. Knowing this how can anyone be so carried away by his (her) passions – and devoid of godfearingness (taqwâ) to behave like an ugly, crazy person, chasing around and abusing people?It becomes clear then that in reality anger is a secret disease, like for example alcoholism, which has to be treated just like any other desease, and it is you yourself who has to take the decisive step to curb it, with Allah’s help.
In this context it is important to remember that AMI is part of a comprehensive treatment of the heart, not isolated methods.
Therefore come to terms with yourself (nafs) and see your propensity toward the anger-syndrome!

To start with ask yourself the following questions:

a. Do you become angry when things are not going your way?
b. Does it make you angry when something happens contrary to what you expected or what you wished for?
c. When starting to get angry, did you ever become aware of how your emotions are kindled or heating up?
c. When you are angry, do you say or do things which normally you would not?
d. When you are angry, do you feel you have to act in a certain manner, without any control?
e. Do you – after your anger has subsided – regret what you said or did, or how you appeared in front of people?

If you answered most or all of the above questions with ‘yes’, then you are on your way and you will easily understand the following diagrams which show the anger levels and how to curb it over time (ch.5) :

You may ask if there is anything which can be done about this problem of losing one’s temper, and you may think that this is the way you are, this is your character and that a change would be impossible. But you can change and
AMI was conceived to show how to succeed in dealing with this desease, once its evil roots have been understood. Then, soon, you will enjoy the sweet fruit of having overcome it. Someone[18] said in this respect, that winning over his anger is a sweet thing indeed.

5.) The Islamic Model Of Anger Management (AMI)

A visual model is employed for the description of anger over time:
Here we can see a line graph (red) for the fairly common development of temper or anger, where the left, vertical axis with variable h, measures the degree of temper [ º ] and the horizontal axis measuring time in minutes [min].

graph – d1:

t1: Around t1 the level of emotion is quite normal, it is close to
the “normality-level” n1, but something happened at “t2”
t2: from here there is a steep increase in anger-level. Not long
after temper reaches its peak at “t3”
t3: anger-level stays at that extreme level for a moment or
some minute or so, then after this
t4: anger level is reduced, either more rapidly as in
L1 or more slowly with others individuals as shown in L2.

The critical timespan to employ AMI is at the outset of anger at t2, and as soon as possible, this is shown in graph d2 below[graph d2]. But anytime is better than no time!

a) There are two cures, the first is the cure at the beginning of tension build-up, see graph d2:
The critical area to address AMI is at the outset of anger at t2 when angel level has risen somewhat to n2 (blue line), ie. one has become angry and irritated, but still not “lost one’s temper” completely.
AMI has to intervene here as soon as possible, as shown in line graph d2 below.

graph – d2:

This diagram reflects a very positiv situation, in which anger level has not been allowed to rise beyond a modest “start” at t2, instead it has been stopped completely at n2 (blue line). This is the case of a person who is able to remind him-/herself at this critical moment (t2) of his standing in front of Allah (swt), and that he will have to answer Him at That Day Of Balance for everything he has done and neglected to do, or what he said.
If this method (AMI) can be employed, it will be of great help for the time being and it will save him (or her) from the evil consequences of his temper. If he still needs more assistance – and most of us do need it dearly – check for m1 – m3 below. [ in chapter b) ].
The person with such a positive reponse to anger, which we know is but the incitement of Shaitan (rajîm), can only succeed enforcing this strong kind of control if he earlier has disciplined his nafs by those many spiritual methods which are prescribed by the Islamic tradition, the obligatory, (wâjib) and the strongly recommend (the Sunnah).b) The second cure curbing the tension of temper-build-up altogether is described in graph d3:

With given, innate levels of passion and emotion the response to anger will vary from person to person, and also from young age to mature age. Other factors also determine levels of tension generally, such as the person’s living and working conditions, etc.

For some persons it may not be possible to prevent a strong, swelling attack of anger at the outset (as described in d2) because of the above reasons, and it is very difficult especially when he /she has not internalized the islamic viewpoint [see ch. 8] that whatever happens it is because Allah (swt) has allowed it to happen. Therefore they are in dire need of implementing the three most important islamic methods of anger management:

graph – d3:

Diagram d3 reflects a person’s anger level as it rises beyond t2 to t2b (the first blue line to the left) expecting to rise to a very high level (as described above in graph – d1). Here there is very little time to stop the process, the longer one is inactive not calling upon Allah (swt) the harder it will be to stop it. When the person realizes that he is without power to counter this satanic attack, he should seek refuge with Allah Almighty and utter the words of protection. (see chapters 6 & 7b). This is the first method of AMI (m1). If he needs more input and he probably will, he should use method2 (m2) and method3 (m3). There is no way he cannot to succeed in this if he is sincere.

6.) Three Instant Methods of Anger Management
These methods go hand in hand with recognizing one’s position in the sight of Allah (swt), as summarized in chapter 8.Here we’ll encourage the reader to enact the prophetic advice of anger management in his own life, and to the benefit of himself and his spiritual capability, and for the peace of his familiy and everyone else:

(m1) saying the word of protection:
a`ûdhû billâhi min ash-shaytân ir rajîm

(m2) changing bodily posture:
when angry, sit down if standing — and lie down if sitting.
(m3) washing the face etc, arms, hands:
make ablution with water. (see ch. 7b)

7. Medicines recommended by Imam Al-Ghazalî  raDiy-Allahu-anhu.gif
We are describing below the medicines of anger after one gets angry. This medicine is a mixture of knowledge and action.7a. The medicine based on knowledge is of six kinds: 


(1) The first medicine of knowledge is to think over the rewards of appeasing anger, that have come from the verses of the Quran and the sayings of the Prophet MHMD. Your hope for getting rewards of appeasing anger will restrain you from taking revenge.
(2) The second kind of medicine based on knowledge is to fear the punishment of God and to think that the punishment of God upon me is greater than my punishment upon him. If I take revenge upon this man for anger, God will take revenge upon me on the Judgement Day.
(3) The third kind of medicine of anger based on knowledge is to take precaution about punishment of enemity and revenge on himself. You feel joy in having your enemy in your presence in his sorrows, You yourself are not free from that danger. You will fear that your enemy might take revenge against you in this world and in the next.
(4) Another kind of medicine based on knowledge is to think about the ugly face of the angry man, which is just like that of the ferocious beast. He who appeases anger looks like a sober and learned man.
(5) The fifth kind of medicine based on knowledge is to think that the devil will advise by saying: ” You will be weak if you do not get angry!” Do not listen to him!
(6) The sixth reason is to think: ” What reason have I got to get angry? What Allah wishes has occured!”7b. The medicine based on action is of three kinds:


(m1) When you get angry, say: I seek refuge in God from the accursed evil (a`ûdhû billâhi min ash-shaytân ir rajîm). The Prophet MHMD ordered us to say thus.
When Ayesha (ra) got angry, he dragged her by the nose and said:
“O dear Ayesha, say: O God, you are the Lord of my prophet Muhammad, forgive my sins and remove the anger from my heart and save me from misguidance.”
(m2) If anger does not go away by this means, you will sit down if you are standing, lie down if you are sitting, and come near to earth, as you have been created of earth. Thus make yourself calm like the earth. The cause of wrath is heat and its opposite is to lie down on the ground and to make the body calm and cool.
The Prophet MHMD said: Anger is a burning coal. Don’t you see your eyebrows wide and eyes reddish? So when one of you feels angry, let him sit down if standing, and lie down if sitting.
(m3) If still anger does not stop, make ablution with cold water or take a bath, as fire cannot be extinguished without water.
The Prophet MHMD said : “When one of you gets angry, let him make ablution with water as anger arises out of fire.”
In another narration, he said: “Anger comes from the devil and the devil is made of fire.” [5]

8.) Summary
AMI has to do with keeping the right balance in one’s life, regarding various aspects of it, such as foodintake, sexuality, desire for position and power, and so on. Prophet Muhammad MHMD was the best human being to keep to this balance and to be a guide of the middle way sirât-al mustaqîm, the way of moderation. Man has to balance between wrathghadab and mercy rahma, never losing sight of the religious priority of mercy over wrath or anger. [22]For these methods or ways to become reality one has to come to forbearance and humility in all cases. This is especially clear when the issue is not to uphold the dîn (religion) of Islam, but the problem is from our expectations of the dunya or of other people. And if the defense of Islam is at stake, one must still not rush towards action under the pressure of anger, but one has to excuse oneself, first calm down and stick to what Imam Al-Ghazalî’s advised the Muslims [12], who stated that anger “is acceptable only a the right time, in the right place, for the right reasons, and with the right intensity.” [23]

When one has internalized the islamic viewpoint that whatever happens is because Allah (swt) has allowed it to happen and then also by knowing oneself, one can strive to rid oneself from selfcenteredness and egotism, for in the words of S. Ahmad Zarrûq, “people are filled with themselves”. With the help of Allah, one will be able to let go of what ultimately is beyond our restriced, illusory domain of power, and arrive step-by-step at a control of one’s anger by understanding the rule of “the right time, in the right place, for the right reasons, and with the right intensity.” With the whole effectiveness and barakah (heavenly powers) of the Islamic way – living Islam -, one will by Allah’s leave (bi-idhni-LLah) win over this nafs ( an-nafs al-ammara bi-ssu’ ) [26] – this soul commanding us to do evil – and taste the sweet taste of victory over one’s worst enemy.To become aware of oneself is a step towards knowing oneself, and according to a famous saying in Islam, whoever knows himself he knows his Lord. [27]

9.) Story Of `Ali (kAw)* Not Acting On Anger
There is a famous story about `Ali (karrama-llâhu wajhahu) according to which he was fighting against a disbeliever and had the intention of killing him due to al bughd fi Allah (hatred for the sake of Allah). After `Ali (karrama-llâhu wajhahu) subdued him and sat on his chest with the intention of killing him, the man spat on his face. `Ali (karrama-llâhu wajhahu) at once let him go.
The man was amazed and said, “You should have become even more angry due to my spitting at you and should have hastened in killing me. Why did you spare me?”
`Ali (karrama-llâhu wajhahu) replied, “Due to this action of yours mynafs became involved and my intention did not remain purely for the sake of Allah.”

The light of sincerity had such a cleansing effect that it purged the impurities and kufr of the disbeliever’s heart, and he recited the kalima(profession of faith) at once, and became Muslim. [28]
10.) Speech on Anger And Hatred, by Shaykh J. Brown

Notes:* (kAw): karram-Allahu wajhahu: May Allah ennoble his face!1 from: MacKiev’s World Book

2 Anger and Islam

3 hadith in chapter 7

4 a swelling mass of emotion: PHM**

5 The Causes of Anger and It’s Medicine,
by  Imam al Ghazali

11 Instead to control your anger and never lose control. [fn 103] PHM103

13 Gabriel-hadith

18 There is a saying of Imam `Ali (kAw) in this respect, which we were
unable to trace.

22 PHM107

23 PHM105

26 see: The Meaning of Nafs by Muhammad ‘Afifi al-‘Akiti

27 a famous saying

28 chapter 9 is from:
** PHM: Purification of the Heart; Signs, Symptoms and Cures of the Spiritual Diseases of The Heart, Transl. and Comm. of Imam al-Mawlud’s Matharat al-Qulub

The Causes of Anger and It’s Medicine (by Imam al Ghazali)


From Imam Ghazali’s book “Ihyaa Uloom ad Deen”
(The revival of religious teachings)

Know, O dear readers, that the medecine of a disease is to remove the
root cause of that disease. Isa (Jesus Christ) -peace be upon him-
was once asked: “What thing is difficult?” He said: “God’s wrath.”
Prophet Yahya (John the Baptist) -peace be upon him- then asked:
“What thing takes near the wrath of God?” He said:”Anger”. Yahya –
peace be upon him- asked him:”What thing grows and increases anger?”
Isa -peace be upon him- said:”Pride, prestige, hope for honour and
haughtiness”

The causes which cause anger to grow are self-conceit, self-praise,
jests and ridicule, argument, treachery, too much greed for too much
wealth and name and fame. If these evils are united in a person, his
conduct becomes bad and he cannot escape anger.

So these things should be removed by their opposites. Self-praise is
to be removed by modesty. Pride is to be removed by one’s own origin
and birth, greed is to be removed by remaining satisfied with
necessary things, and miserliness by charity.

The prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said: “A strong man is not
he who defeats his adversary by wrestling, but a strong man is he who
controls himself at the time of anger.”

We are describing below the medecines of anger after one gets angry.
The medecine is a mixture of knowledge and action. The medecine based
on knowledge is of six kinds:

(1) The first medecine of knowledge is to think over the rewards of
appeasing anger, that have come from the verses of the Quran and the
sayings of the Prophet (pbuh). Your hope for getting rewards of
appeasing anger will restrain you from taking revenge.

(2) The second kind of medecine based on knowledge is to fear the
punishment of God and to think that the punishment of God upon me is
greater than my punishment upon him. If I take revenge upon this man
for anger, God will take revenge upon me on the Judgement Day.

(3) The third kind of medecine of anger based on knowledge is to take
precaution about punishment of enemity and revenge on himself. You
feel joy in having your enemy in your presence in his sorrows, You
yourself are not free from that danger. You will fear that your enemy
might take revenge against you in this world and in the next.

(4) Another kind of medecine based on knowledge is to think about the
ugly face of the angry man, which is just like that of the ferocious
beast. He who appeases anger looks like a sober and learned man.

(5) The fifth kind of medecine based on knowledgeis to think that the
devil will advise by saying: ” You will be weak if you do not get
angry!” Do not listen to him!

(6) The sixth reason is to think: ” What reason have I got to get
angry? What Allah wishes has occured!”

Medecine based on action

When you get angry, say: I seek refuge in God from the accursed evil
(A’oudhou billaahi min as shaytaan ir rajeem). The prophet (pbuh)
ordered us to say thus.

When Ayesha (RA) got angry, he dragged her by the nose and said: ” O
dear Ayesha, say: O God, you are the Lord of my prophet Muhammad,
forgive my sins and remove the anger from my heart and save me from
misguidance.”

If anger does not go by this means, you will sit down if you are
standing, lie down if you are sitting, and come near to earth, as you
have been created of earth. Thus make yourself calm like the earth.
The cause of wrath is heat and its opposite is to lie down on the
ground and to make the body calm and cool.

The prophet (pbuh) said: Anger is a burning coal. Don’t you see your
eyebrows wide and eyes reddish? So when one of you feels angry, let
him sit down if standing, and lie down if sitting.

If still anger does not stop, make ablution with cold water or take a
bath, as fire cannot be extinguished without water.

The prophet (pbuh) said : ” When one of you gets angry, let him make
ablution with water as anger arises out of fire.” In another
narration, he said:” Anger comes from the devil and the devil is made
of fire.”

Hazrat Ali (RA) said:
The prophet did not get angry for any action of the world. When any
true matter charmed him, nobody knew it and nobody got up to take
revenge for his anger. HE GOT ANGRY ONLY FOR TRUTH.

The Hand of the Prophet SAW


by Dr. Mostafa al-Badawi

The impulse for writing this article came from a conversation with a colleague who told me that while sitting with other colleagues, he had heard one of them repeat the statement that the Prophet, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him, was an ordinary human being like the rest of us, except that Allah had given him the Qur’ān. My friend knew very well that this kind of statement had been deliberately circulated among Muslims to detach them from their Prophet, thus cutting them off from the mercy of Allah that descends upon them through their love for him and close adherence to his teachings.

This is part of an overall plan to destroy Islam from within, a plan that, we regret to say, is carried out by ignorant Muslims, misled by crude suggestions of the Devil that to love the Prophet and revere him is to worship him beside Allah. My friend told me he became quite angry and challenged our colleagues to take anything of the Prophet at random and compare it with themselves. He found himself saying, “Take his hand for instance!” Then he started discoursing about the special distinctions of the Prophet’s hand, talking for about twenty minutes, all the time aware that he had never spoken like that before. His colleagues listened silently, then when he was finished, begged him to carry on. These were educated people who already had much of this knowledge in their minds, but who had been too busy with worldly things to assemble and envisage their knowledge from that angle before, or to make the necessary effort in understanding how and why they had previously been misinformed.

It is for people like these, people whose hearts contain much love for Allah and His Prophet and who are honest enough to recognize the truth when they see it, that this article is written. My hope is that it will encourage them to find out more about their leader, teacher, good example, and intercessor. It is certainly not written for the narrow minded followers of the believers in a limited God, a God which they situate in space, located exclusively above the Throne. For such people, the absolute difference between Creator and created is blurred, for they mentally impose limits upon that which is beyond limits. This puts them in the false position of having to belittle the Best of Creation in order to keep Allah in His place as God.

We, the vast majority of Muslims, the Ahl al-Sunna wal-Jamā’a, know that it is impossible for a Muslim to confuse the Creator with the created, however great the latter may be. We are therefore quite comfortable in our love for the Prophet and our extreme respect and veneration for him.

The Prophet himself has repeatedly said that those who do not love him more than their fathers, mothers, children, wealth, and their own selves, their faith is defective and their works in danger of being rejected by Allah.[1]

It is deceitful to claim to love the Prophet but seek to deprive him of the sublime attributes that Allah bestowed upon him, prior to making him the Master of all Creation.

It is to be hoped that those who read this article will be spurred on to increase and complete their knowledge of our beloved Prophet from the sources, for such knowledge is an obligation upon each Muslim capable of acquiring it.

To begin, Allah, Exalted is He, says: “Those who swear allegiance to you are but swearing allegiance to Allah. The hand of Allah is over their hands.” [48:10]

Were those who insist on accepting nothing but the literal meaning of the Qur’ān and refuse all figurative interpretation to take this verse at face value, it would have to mean that the hand that gave allegiance to the Companions was that of Allah not that of the Prophet, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him. Those endowed with reason, however, will readily understand that because the Prophet is Allah’s representative on earth, swearing allegiance to him is in reality swearing allegiance to Allah, and the Prophet’s hand represents Allah’s Hand, just as the Black Stone represents it, but, in the Prophet’s case, eminently more deservedly.

The result of taking the Prophet’s hand and swearing allegiance to him – for they swore it to him – was that Allah was satisfied with them: “Allah was satisfied with the believers when they swore allegiance to you under the tree.” [48:18]

Allah’s satisfaction is in seeing that His slaves are obeying His injunctions, avoiding what He has forbidden them, and being satisfied with His decrees. This was the state of the Companions surrounding the Prophet under the tree in Hudaybiya. Their satisfaction with Allah’s decisions, their extinction of their individual wills in the Divine will made them as Allah says: “Allah was satisfied with them and they were satisfied with Him.” [58:22] It was to the Prophet’s everlasting honour and glory that his hand represented Allah’s on this and all other such occasions.

Another such occasion was recounted by Abdal-Rahmān ibn ‘Awf, “We were at the Messenger of Allah’s; nine, eight, or seven of us. He said, ‘Will you not swear allegiance?’ We had sworn allegiance only recently, so we said, ‘We have sworn allegiance to you, O Messenger of Allah!’ He said, ‘Will you not swear allegiance to the Messenger of Allah?’ So we extended our hands saying, ‘To what shall we swear allegiance to you?’ He said, ‘To worship Allah and associate nothing with Him, perform the five prayers, obey,’ then he said something we did not hear, then continued, ‘and ask nothing of others!’ [2]

Physically, the hands of the Prophet, may Allah’s blessing and peace be upon him, were as beautiful and pleasing to gaze upon as everything else about him. They were white and fleshy, with slightly tapering fingers. His boy-servant, Anas ibn Mālik, said on more than one occasion, “I have never touched any silk or brocade that is softer than the palm of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him, nor have I ever smelled musk or scent more fragrant than the fragrance of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him.”[3]

Wā’il ibn Hajar said, “Whenever I shook hands with the Prophet, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him, or my skin touched his skin, I smelled the scent of musk on my hand for three days.” [4]

Another Companion, ‘Umayra daughter of Sahl, also a child at the time, recounted how her father once took her to the Prophet, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him, asking him to touch her head and pray for both of them for baraka, since she was his only child. “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him, placed his hands on my head. I swear by Allah that I could feel the coolness of the hand of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him, in my liver!” [5]

Jābir ibn Samura said, “I prayed with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him, the first prayer, then he went out and I went out with him. He was met by some children and rubbed their cheeks one by one. As for myself, he rubbed my cheek and I found that his hand was cool and fragrant, as if he had just taken it out of a perfume vendor’s bag.”[6]

The Prophet, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him, used his right hand for his ritual purification, food, and beverage, and his left hand for less clean things.[7] “He never touched the hand of a woman,” said the lady ‘Ā’isha, “when he accepted their allegiance, he accepted it verbally.”[8]

In these hands of the Prophet, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him, were placed the keys of the treasuries of the earth. Abū Hurayra said that he had heard the Messenger of Allah say, “I was sent with comprehensive speech,[9] I was supported with terror,[10] and, while I was asleep, I was brought the keys to the treasuries of the earth and they were placed in my hand.”[11]

Having given him the keys, Allah left it to him to divide things among the people as he pleased. This is why he said, “Allah gives and I am the Divider!”[12]

Allah had said to Sulaymān, may peace be upon him: “This is Our gift, so bestow or withhold without reckoning!” [38:39] And if Sulaymān had freedom to give or withhold at will, then how much more freedom did the Master of all Prophets have?

The baraka of the Prophet, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him, radiated powerfully from his hand, so that when he placed it on the sick and the injured they were cured, when he touched food it increased manifold, when he placed it on someone’s chest he removed doubts and disbelief, when he gave his Companions dry, wooden sticks they turned into swords, when he threw gravel or dust at the face of the enemy, it separated into guided missiles striking their targets in the eyes.

When Qatāda ibn al-Nu’mān was wounded in the eye by an arrow on the day of Uhud, his eyeball was dislodged and hung on his cheek. His companions wanted to cut it off, but decided to consult the Prophet first. He said, “No!” then ordered Qatāda brought to him, pushed his eyeball back into place with his hand, blowing some of his spittle on it then said, “O Allah, give him beauty!” It became Qatāda’s best eye and when the other eye suffered from infection, that one never did.[13]

Abayd ibn Hammāl suffered from an illness that ate at his face. The Prophet passed his hand over his face and it disappeared without leaving a trace.[14]

Shurahbīl al-Ju’fī said, “I came to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him, with a swelling on my palm and said, ‘O Messenger of Allah! This swelling has tormented me and it prevents me form holding my sword or the reins of my mount!’ He blew on my palm, then put his palm on the swelling and went on grinding it until it disappeared.”[15]

‘Abdallah ibn ‘Atīk went to Khaybar to kill the infamous Jew, Abū Rāfi’, in the latter’s house. As he was leaving the house he fell and broke his ankle. He bandaged it and hobbled to his companions, then they rode back together to Madina. The Prophet said, “Stretch your leg!” He passed his hand over the broken bones and they mended there and then. [16]

‘Alī ibn al-Hakam jumped his horse over a ditch during an expedition with the Prophet. The horse failed to cross the trench and ‘Alī’s leg was crushed between the horse and the side of the trench. He went to the Prophet who said, “In the Name of Allah!” and passed his hand over it, curing it.[17]

‘Abdallah ibn Rawāha went to the Prophet saying, “O Messenger of Allah, I suffer from a molar tooth that pains me greatly!” The Prophet put his hand on his cheek saying, “O Allah, remove from him the pain he suffers and the distress, by the prayer of Your Blessed Prophet, whose rank is high with You!” He repeated this prayer seven times. Ibn Rawāha left the Prophet’s presence completely cured.[18]

Asmā’, daughter of Abū Bakr, complained one day that her head and face were swollen. The Prophet put his hand on her head then her face, above her veil, repeating three times, “In the Name of Allah! Remove from her the pain she suffers and the distress, by the prayer of Your Blessed Prophet,[19] whose rank is high with You!” The swelling subsided.[20]

‘Amr ibn Hurayth said, “My mother took me to the Messenger of Allah, he passed his hand over my head and prayed for me to remain [well] provisioned.”[21]

‘Amr ibn Tha’laba said, “I met the Messenger of Allah at Sāla and became a Muslim. He passed his hand over my head.” Ibn Tha’laba lived to be a hundred years old but the place that the Prophet had touched never turned grey.[22]

Al-Sā’ib ibn Yazīd was asked by his servant, ‘Atā, why his beard and part of his head were white. The latter replied, “Shall I tell you my son?” “Indeed!” he replied. “I was playing with other boys,” he said, “When the Messenger of Allah passed by. I walked up to him and greeted him, he returned my salām then said, ‘Who are you?’ I said, ‘I am al-Sā’ib ibn Yazīd, son of al-Nimr ibn Qāsit’s sister.’ The Messenger of Allah passed his hand over my head saying, ‘May Allah bless you!’ By Allah! It will never go white and will remain like this perpetually!” [23]

Muhammad ibn Fudāla al-Zafarī said, “The Messenger of Allah came when I was two weeks old. I was brought to him, he passed his hand over my head saying, ‘Call him by my name, but do not call him by my kunya!'[24] I was taken along to perform the Farewell Pilgrimage with him when I was ten years old.” Muhammad ibn Fudāla’s life was long, his hair turned white, but not where the hand of the Prophet had touched it.[25]

Mālik ibn ‘Umayr was present at the conquest of Macca, then at the campaigns of Hunayn and Tā’if. He was a poet. He asked the Messenger of Allah about poetry and was told, “For you to be filled with pus from your throat to your pubis is better than to be filled by poetry!” He said, “O Messenger of Allah, pass your hand over my head!” He did and Mālik never said a verse after this. He lived long, his head and beard turned white, except the place touched by the Prophet. [26]

Bashīr ibn ‘Aqraba al-Juhanī said, “‘Aqraba went to the Messenger of Allah, may God’s blessings and peace be upon him, who said, ‘Who is this with you O ‘Aqraba?’ ‘My son Bahīr,’ he replied. He said, ‘Come nearer!’ I did and sat on his right. He passed his hand over my head. ‘What is your name?’ he asked. ‘Bahīr O Messenger of Allah,’ I replied. He said, ‘No, but your name is Bashīr!’ My tongue was tied, the Prophet blew into my mouth and it was undone. All my hair turned white except where he had put his hand, this part remained black.”[27]

The Prophet also passed his hand over ‘Ubada ibn Sa’d al-Zurqī’s head and prayed for him. He lived to be eighty, but his hair remained black.[28]

Abū Zayd al-Ansārī said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him, passed his hand over my head, saying, ‘O Allah, make him fair looking and preserve the fairness!'” He lived until he was well over a hundred years old without any grey hairs appearing in his beard. His face remained smooth until he died.[29]

Al-Wāzi’ took a son of his who had become mad to the Prophet who passed his hand over his face and prayed for him. Thereafter none was more rational than he.[30]

Jābir ibn ‘Abdallāh said, “The Messenger of Allah, may blessings and peace be upon him, visited me in Banī Salima and found me semi conscious. He asked for water, made his wudū’ then sprinkled some of the water over me and I came to.”[31]

The Prophet used to pat children on the head, pray for them, joke with them, and sometimes wind a turban round their heads.

‘Abdallāh ibn Bisr said, “My mother sent me to the Prophet with a bunch of grapes. I ate some of them before reaching him. He passed his hand over my head saying, ‘Traitor!'”[32] Later on Ibn Bisr used to show them a mark on his forelocks, saying, “This is where the Messenger of Allah put his hand when he said, ‘He will reach the century!”[33]

Hanzala ibn Juzaym al-Tamīmī was brought to the Prophet by his father. The latter said, “O Messenger of Allah, I have sons with beards, this is the youngest, pray Allah for him!” The Prophet passed his hand over his head, then said, “May Allah bless you!” Thereafter whenever a sick man with a swollen face or an animal with a swollen udder were brought to Hanzala, he blew in his hands, saying, “In the Name of Allah!” then placed his hand on his own head where the Prophet’s palm had touched it,saying, ” Where the hand of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him, was placed,” then rubbed the swelling and cured it.[34]

As for Abū Mahdhūra, he had allowed his forelock to grow so long that when he sat down it reached the ground. When they asked him, “Will you not cut it?” He replied, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him, passed his hand over it, I am not one to cut it till I die!”[35]

‘Abdallāh ibn Hilāl al-Ansārī said, “My father took me to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him, saying, ‘O Messenger of Allah, pray Allah for him!’ I have not forgotten, the Messenger of Allah placed his hand over my head until I felt its coolness, then he prayed for me and blessed me!” ‘Abdallāh lived long, both his head and his beard turned white, he could hardly comb them because of his age, yet he still fasted by day and prayed all night. [36]

Abū Attiya al-Bakrī was taken by his parents to the Prophet. He was a young man at the time. The Prophet passed his hand over his head. When he was a hundred years old his head and beard were still black.[37]

Al-‘Ā’idh ibn ‘Amr al-Muznī said, “An arrow struck my face as I was fighting before the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him, on the day of Hunayn. Blood flowed over my face, beard, and chest. The Prophet wiped off the blood from my face and chest down to my breast with his hand and prayed for me.” When ‘Ā’idh died, those who had heard this from him looked at his chest and found the trace of the Prophet’s hand on it. They likened it to the white blaze on a horse’s forehead.[38]

‘Ā’idh’s wife also said that he had once gone to the Prophet to ask him to pass his hand over his face and pray for him for baraka. She added that the Prophet did and since then she saw her husband wake up from sleep [fresh] as if he had rubbed his face with oil. She also remarked that he needed no more than a few dates to sustain him.[39]

Abul ‘Alā’ ibn ‘Umayr said, “I was visiting Qatāda ibn Milhān when he was ill. A man passed by the far end of the house and I saw him reflected in Qatāda’s face [so shiny it was], for the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him, had passed his hand over his face. Whenever I saw him it was as if he had rubbed his face with oil.”[40]

Usayd ibn Abī Unās was one of those whose life the Prophet had declared could be taken with impunity, after the conquest of Macca, when he had accorded immunity to all the Maccans. Usayd came to the Prophet, asking whether he would accept Usayd should he come to him as a Muslim? The Prophet having answered affirmatively, Usayd took his hand saying, “This is my hand in yours, I testify that you are the Messenger of Allah, and I testify that there is no God other than Allah!” The Prophet immediately ordered a crier to announce that Usayd had accepted Islam and was henceforth immune. Then he passed his hand over his face, then placed it on his chest. From then on, whenever Usayd entered a dark house the light radiating from him illuminated it.[41]

‘Utba ibn Farqad had four wives who competed with each other, each seeking to smell better than her companions. One of them said that ‘Utba always smelled better than they, even though he never used perfume. Furthermore, people always remarked on his fragrance, so much so that his wives asked him how this had come to be. He replied, “I suffered from an ailment in the days of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him. I complained to him about it. He told me to remove my clothes, which I did, sitting before him with my clothes covering my private parts. He blew into his hand then placed it on my back and belly. This fragrance has been there since.”[42]

Two tribesmen brought their sons to the Prophet, asking him to bless them by passing his hand over their faces, which he did. The white mark where he had touched them remained on their faces till the end of their lives.[43]

The mosque of the Prophet in Madina had been built with palm trunks. The Prophet used to stand before or lean on one particular trunk when delivering the Friday sermon. When they made the pulpit for him and he climbed on it, the palm trunk whimpered like a pregnant she-camel. All the Companions in the mosque heard it. The Prophet came down from the pulpit and placed his hand on it, or as related in another version, put his arms around it and it calmed down and stopped crying.[44]

Many years earlier, when the elders of Quraysh realized that they were reaching the limits of what was possible to prevent the Prophet from conveying his Lord’s message, they sat in council and Satan himself joined them in the form of an old Najdi man. Each suggestion they put forward he rejected, until Abū Jahl suggested that if they wanted to murder Muhammad, but were worried about the revenge sure to be exacted by his clan and their allies, then they should choose forty men, one from each clan, to attack him as one man, so that his clan and their allies would find it impossible to exact revenge from all of them and their allies banded together. This proposition was strongly supported by Satan and adopted unanimously by the elders.

Gabriel came to the Prophet, saying, “Sleep not tonight in the bed in which you usually sleep!”

When the night grew dark the assassins gathered before his house, waiting for the Prophet to sleep so that they could rush him. The Prophet saw them and said to ‘Alī, “Sleep on my bed and cover yourself with this, my green Hadrami cloak. Sleep in it, nothing unpleasant will reach you from them!” The Prophet gave ‘Alī the cloak he usually wrapped himself in when he slept.

At the door Abū Jahl was saying, “Muhammad claims that if you follow him you will become the kings of both Arabs and non-Arabs, then you will be resurrected after you die, and gardens will be yours like the gardens of Jordan. But if you do not, he will [one day] cut your throats, then you will be resurrected after your death, then yours will be a fire in which you will burn!” The Prophet came out, took a handful of dust in his blessed hand and said, “Yes I say this! You are one of them!” Allah took away their eyesight so they did not see him. He sprinkled dust over their heads reciting these verses from sūra Yā-Sīn: “Yā-Sīn, and the Wise Qur’ān, you are truly one of the Messengers, on a straight path, a sending down from the August, the WiseŠ” till “Šand We have covered them so that they do not see.” [36:9] By the time the Prophet had recited these verses, every one of them had dust upon his head, then he departed. A man arrived and seeing them standing there asked, “What are you waiting here for?” “Muhammad!” they replied. “May Allah make you fail! By Allah, Muhammad has gone out and he left no man among you but he put dust on his head, then he walked away to his purpose, can you not see what has happened to you?” Each of them put his hand on his head only to find it covered with dust.[45]

As for the effects of the Prophet placing his noble hand on someone’s chest, many traditions describe them.

‘Alī, may Allah ennoble his countenance, said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him, sent me to Yemen. I said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, you send me, while I am still young, to judge amongst them, and I know not how to judge!’ He struck my chest with his hand saying, ‘O Allah! Guide his heart and strengthen his tongue!’ By He Who split the grain! Thereafter I never doubted how to judge between two people!”[46]

Abū Hurayra said, “I said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, I often hear you speak but I forget!’ He said, ‘Spread out your garment!’ I spread it out, he [made as if he] scooped [something] with his hand and poured it in it, then he said, ‘fold it up!’ I did and thereafter forgot nothing he ever said.”[47]

‘Uthmān ibn Abul-‘Ās said, “I used to forget the Qur’ān, so I said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, I forget the Qur’ān!’ He struck my chest [with his hand] then said, ‘Come out O Shaytān from the chest of ‘Uthmān!’ Following that I never forgot anything I wished to remember!”

‘Uthmān son of Abul-‘Ās also said, “The Prophet, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him, told me to lead my people in prayer. I said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, I find in myself something!’ [meaning there were things in his heart which prevented him from doing so] He said, ‘Come near!’ He made me sit before him, placed his hand on my chest, then said, ‘Turn around!’ then he placed it on my back between my two shoulders, then he said, ‘Lead your people in prayer! He who leads people in prayer should lighten [the prayer] for among them will be the elderly, the sick, the weak, and he who has something to attend to. But it one of you is praying alone, let him pray as he wishes.'”[48]

After the conquest of Macca, the Prophet was circumambulating the house when Fudāla ibn ‘Umayr decided to kill him. He drew near to him. The Prophet said, “Fudāla?” He replied, “Yes! Fudāla, O Messenger of Allah!” He said, “What were you saying to yourself?” “Nothing!” He said, “I was invoking Allah!” The Prophet laughed then said, “Ask Allah for forgiveness!” Then he placed his hand on his chest and there was peace in his heart. Fudāla used to say later on, “By Allah! By the time he took his hand off my chest, none of Allah’s creation was dearer to me than him! As I was returning to my family I passed by a woman I used to converse[49] with, she said, “Come over!” I said, “No, Allah will not allow it, nor Islam!”[50]

During the battle of Hunayn two further incidents happened. ‘Uthmān ibn Shayba, whose father, uncle, and cousin had been killed in Badr, recounted the first of these thus: “When the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him, was in Hunayn, I remembered my father and my uncle, and how ‘Alī and Hamza had killed them, and I thought, ‘Today I will avenge myself from Muhammad!’ I approached him from behind till all that remained for me to do was to strike him with the sword, when a flash of fire shot like lighting between me and him, I stepped back, he turned around saying, ‘O ‘Uthmān, come nearer!’ Then he placed his hand on my chest, Allah removed the devil from my heart, I looked up at him and he was dearer to me than my hearing and eyesight!”[51]

Shayba ibn ‘Uthmān al-Hajbī recounted the second incident thus: “I went out with the Prophet, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him, on the day of Hunayn. By Allah! I had not gone out for Islam, but to prevent Hawāzin from gaining the upper hand on Quraysh! By Allah! As I was standing with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him, I said, ‘O Prophet of Allah, I see piebald horses!’ He said, ‘O Shayba, only a disbeliever can see them!’ Then he struck my chest with his hand saying, ‘O Allah, guide Shayba!’ This he repeated twice more. No sooner had he taken his hand off my chest the third time that none in Allah’s creation was dearer to me than him!”[52]

Jābir ibn ‘Abdallāh said, “As the trench was being dug I noticed that the Prophet, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him, suffered from severe hunger. I returned to my wife saying, ‘Do you have anything, for I have noticed that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him, suffers severe hunger.’ She brought out a bag with some barley in it and we had a small sheep in the house. We slaughtered the animal and ground the barley, then I returned to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him, and spoke to him secretly, ‘O Messenger of Allah, we have slaughtered an animal we had and have ground a measure of barley. Please come with a few people!’ The Prophet, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him, raised his voice saying, ‘O People of the Trench! Jābir has prepared some food, you are all welcome!’ Then he said, ‘Do not take the pot off the fire and do not bake your dough until I come!’ When he arrived he proceeded to break the bread, and put the meat on it. He took some food out of the pot and served his Companions, keeping both the pot and the oven covered. He went on breaking the bread, putting the meat on top of it and serving his Companions until they were all satiated, then he said, ‘Eat and give to other people for they have suffered hunger!'”[53]

Wāthila ibn al-Asqa’ said that he had been one of Ahl al-Suffa. They were hungry and delegated him to go to the Prophet and inform him about it. This he did and the Prophet turned to ‘Ā’isha, “Do you have anything?” he asked. She replied, “O Messenger of Allah, I have nothing but a few crumbs of bread.” “Bring them!” he said. He emptied the crumbs into a plate and went on arranging them with his hand while they increased until the plate was full. “O Wāthila!” he said, “Go and fetch ten of my Companions, you being the tenth!” Wāthila called his companions. The Prophet said, “Sit and eat in the Name of Allah. Take from the edges and do not take from the top, for baraka descends on the top!” They ate to satiety, then rose leaving the plate as full as when they sat down. The Prophet kept on handling the food then said, “O Wāthila, go and fetch another ten of your companions!” After these ten ate to satiety the whole sequence was repeated once more, after which the Prophet asked, “Anyone left?” “Yes, ten more,” replied Wāthila. “Go fetch them!” he said. When these were finished, the plate was still as full as at the beginning, and the Prophet said, “O Wāthila, take this to ‘Ā’isha!”[54]

Abū Talha said, “I once entered the mosque and recognized hunger in the face of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him. I left and went to Umm Salīm, Anas ibn Mālik’s mother, and said, ‘O Umm Salīm, I have recognized hunger in the face of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him. Do you have anything?’ ‘I have something,’ she said, showing her palm [meaning that it was only a little]. ‘Prepare it and do it well!’ I said. Then I sent Anas to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him, saying, ‘Speak secretly into his ear and invite him!’ As soon as Anas arrived the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him, said, ‘My son, your father has sent you to invite us!’ Then he said to his Companions, ‘Come in the Name of Allah!’ Anas hastened back to Abū Talha saying, ‘Here comes the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him, with the people!’ I came out and met the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him, at the door, on the landing, and said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, what have you done to us? It is but that I recognized hunger in your face so we prepared something for you to eat!’ He said, ‘Go in and be of good cheer!’ The Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him, took whatever was there, he gathered it in the plate with his hand, arranged it, then asked, ‘Is there any?’ meaning fat. We brought him our container, where there may or may not have been something, [meaning that even if there had been something in it, it was insignificant] the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him, squeezed it with his hand then poured fat from it saying, ‘Send in ten after ten!’ They all ate to satiety, then the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him, said about what remained, ‘Eat together with your children!’ So we ate and were satiated.'”[55]

Safiyya, the Prophet’s wife, said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him, came one day and asked, ‘O Daughter of Huyay, do you have anything, for I am hungry.’ I said, ‘No by Allah, O Messenger of Allah, save two measures of flour.’ ‘Cook it!’ he said. I put it in the pot, cooked it, then said, ‘It is cooked O Messenger of Allah!’ He said, ‘Do you know if there is anything in the fat container of the daughter of Abū bakr?’ I said, ‘I know not O Messenger of Allah!’ He went himself to her house and said, ‘Anything in your fat container O daughter of Abū Bakr?’ ‘Nothing but a little,’ she said. He brought it back, squeezed it into the pot until I saw something coming out. He put his hand [on it] saying, ‘In the Name of Allah, invite your sisters for I know they feel as I do!’ I invited them and we ate until satiated. Then Abū Bakr came and entered, then ‘Umar came and entered, then a man came. They all ate to satiety and some still remained.”[56]

Abū Hurayra said, “One night I missed supper with the Prophet, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him, and also missed being invited by one of our companions. I prayed ‘Ishā’ then tried to sleep but could not. Then I tried to pray, but could not. There was a man standing near the apartment of the Prophet, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him. I walked up to him and it was the Prophet, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him, praying. He prayed, then, leaning against the palm trunk he had been praying toward, said, ‘Who is this? Abū Hurayra?’ I said, ‘Yes!’ He said, ‘You missed supper with us tonight?’ I said, ‘Yes!’ He said, ‘Go to the house and say: Bring the food you have!’ [I did and] they gave me a plate in which was a paste made with dates. I took it to the Prophet, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him, and placed it before him. He said, ‘Call those in the mosque!’ I said to myself, ‘Woe to me, for I can see the food is so little, and woe to me from disobedience!’ I came to men asleep and awakened them saying, ‘Respond!’ and I came to men praying and said, ‘Respond!’ until they all gathered near the Prophet, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him. He thrust his fingers into it and pressed around the edge, then said, ‘Eat in the Name of Allah!’ They ate to satiety and I ate to satiety. Then he said, ‘Take it Abū Hurayra and return it to the family of Muhammad, for there is no food with the family of Muhammad that one possessed of a liver [meaning a living being] can eat but this. It was offered to us by one of the Helpers.’ I took the plate and lifted it up, and it was as it had been when I had placed it there, except for the marks of the fingers of the Prophet, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him.”[57]

Ziyād ibn al-Hārith recounted how, as they were travelling with the Prophet, morning found them without water. “Any water?” the Prophet asked him. “Only a little that will not suffice you, O Messenger of Allah!” he replied. “Put it in a vessel and bring it!” he said. He put his hand in the water and they saw water gushing from between two of his fingers. He said, “Call my Companions, whoever needs water!” He called them and they came and each took what he needed. [Seeing this] they said, “O Messenger of Allah, we have a well that suffices us with water during the winter, and we gather around it. But in the summer the water becomes scarce and we have to scatter to the surroundings wells. However. Now that we are Muslims, everyone around us is an enemy. So pray Allah for our well so that its water may suffice us, so that we remain gathered around it.” The Prophet asked for seven pebbles, rubbed them between his fingers, prayed to Allah, then said, “Go with these pebbles, when you reach the well throw them in one by one, invoking the Name of Allah!” They did and the well remained so full of water that they never saw its bottom again.[58]

Anas ibn Mālik said, “I once saw the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him, when it was time for ‘Asr prayer and people looked for water for their ablutions and found none. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him, was brought some water, he put his hand in the vessel and told the people to make their ablutions from it. I watched the water gushing from under his fingers while people made their ablutions, till the last one of them had done!”

And in another version of the same incident he said, “I reckoned between sixty and eighty [men], I watched water gushing from between his fingers.”[59]

Anas recounted another similar incident thus, “Once when the Prophet of Allah, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him, and his Companions were at al-Zawrā’, and al-Zawrā’ is in Madina near the market and the mosque, he called for a cup partly filled with water, put his hand in it and water started gushing from between his fingers so that all his Companions made their ablutions.” “How many were they, O Abū Hamza?” he was asked. “They were about three hundred,” he replied.[60]

Mu’ādh ibn Jabal said, “We went out with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him, the year of the Tabūk expedition. He joined his prayers so that he prayed Zuhr and ‘Asr together and Maghrib and ‘Ishā’together. One day when he had thus delayed the prayer he came out, prayedZuhr and ‘Asr together, then went in, then came out again, prayed Maghrib and‘Ishā together, then said, ‘Tomorrow, Allah willing, you will come upon the spring of Tabūk. You will reach it only by mid-morning. He who reaches it let him not touch any of its water until I arrive.’ When we reached it two men were already there and in the spring there was little water. The Messenger of Allah asked them, ‘Have you touched any of its water?’ ‘Yes!’ they said. He rebuked them and spoke to them as Allah willed him to speak, then we scooped out little water by little in our palms until some was collected in something [a vessel or a cup] then the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him, washed his hands and face in it, then returned it into the spring, at which it gushed forth with profuse water, so that the people all took their fill. ‘O Mu’ādh,’ he said, ‘if your life be prolonged, you will see this place full of gardens!'[61]

Ibn ‘Abbās said, “Morning came upon the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him, and there was no water. ‘Is there any water?’ he asked. They said, ‘No!’ ‘Is there a waterskin?’ he asked, so they brought one and placed if before the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him. He placed both hands on it, then spread his fingers and water gushed, as with Moses’ staff, from the fingers of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him. He said, ‘O Bilāl! Call the people to their ablutions!’ They came and did their ablutions from between the fingers of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him, except ibn Mas’ūd who was more intent on drinking.[62] Having made their ablutions, they prayed Subh, then he sat for the people and said, ‘O people, whose faith is the most wondrous?’ ‘The angels,’ they replied. ‘How can the angels not believe, when they can witness the matter?’ he said. ‘The Prophets, O Messenger of Allah!’ they said. ‘How can the Prophets not believe,’ he said, ‘when revelation alights upon them from heaven?’ ‘Your Companions then, O Messenger of Allah!’ ‘How can my Companions not believe,’ he said, ‘when they are witnessing what they are witnessing? But the most wondrous in faith are people who will come after me, who have faith in me even though they have not seen me, who believe me even though they have not seen me. They are my brothers!'”[63]

Al-Barā’ ibn ‘Āzib said, “We were on an expedition with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him. We came upon a well where the water was scarce. Six of us descended into it. A bucket was sent down to us, while the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him, stood at the rim of the well. We filled half or two thirds of it, then it was pulled up to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him. He put his hand into it saying whatever Allah willed him to say, then the bucket was sent back to us with the water in it. [They poured the water in the well and the water began rising.] I saw the last one of us being dragged out in a hurry for fear of him drowning. Then it flowed [over the ground like] a river.”[64]

Anas ibn Mālik said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him, sent a force against the pagans which included Abū Bakr, ‘Umar and many other people. He said to them, “March diligently, for between you and the pagans is water, if they outstrip you to this water people will suffer hardship, you will be severely thirsty and so will your animals.” The Messenger of Allah, together with eight men, remained behind. He said to his Companions, “Shall we sleep part of the night then rejoin the people?” “Yes, O Messenger of Allah!” they replied. They laid down and were awakened only by the heat of the Sun. He said to them, “Rise and attend to your needs!” When they returned he said, “Does any of you have water?” One of them said, “A small skin with a little water O Messenger of Allah.” “Bring it!” He said. He brought it and the Prophet passed both his palms over it, prayed for baraka, then said to his Companions, “Come here and make your ablutions!” He poured water for them until they had done, then one of them gave the Ādhān, then the Iqāma, and the Prophet led them in prayer. Then he said to the owner of the skin, “Look after your skin, it will be of consequence!” He climbed on his mount then said, “How do you think they have fared?” “Allah and His Messenger know best,” they replied, “but they have Abū Bakr and ‘Umar with them and they will counsel them.” The pagans, however, reached the water before the Muslims and the latter became extremely thirsty, so did their animals. When the Prophet arrived he said, “Where is the owner of the skin?” “Here he is O Messenger of Allah!” they replied. He took the skin in which a little water had remained and said, “Come here and drink!” He went on pouring water for them until they all drank, gave their animals, and filled every skin and cup they had.[65]

The baraka of the Prophet’s hand also showed in the animals and plants he touched.

After the Prophet left Macca for Madina in the company of Abū Bakr, the latter’s servant, ‘Āmir ibn Fuhayr, and their guide, ‘Abdallah ibn Urayqit, they passed by the two tents of Umm Ma’bad of Khuzā’a. She was a tough, elderly woman who sat before her tent giving people food and drink. They asked her to sell them meat and dates but she had none. The Prophet noticed an ewe near the corner of the tent, “What is this ewe, O Umm Ma’bad?” he asked.” An ewe that is so weak it was left behind by the sheep,” she replied. “Does she have any milk?” he asked. “She is too weak for that!” she replied. “Will you allow me to milk her?” he asked. “If you see that she can be milked then milk her!” she said. The Prophet passed his hand over the ewe’s udder, uttered the Name of Allah, prayed for her, then asked for a large vessel. He milked her and milk came out in profusion. He gave Umm Ma’bad to drink first, until she was full, then his companions, leaving himself for last. Then he milked the ewe again until the vessel was full and left it with her.[66]

Umm Ma’bad later said that the ewe the Prophet had touched with his hand remained with them till the “year of the famine” in the days of ‘Umar ibn al-Khattāb. They milked her mornings and evenings even though nothing at all grew from the earth. Meaning that she produced milk although there was nothing for her to eat.[67]

Abū Qursāfa recounted that as an orphan he was raised by his mother and her sister and was more attached to his aunt. She had a few sheep which he looked after for her and she often told him about the Prophet, “My son, do not pass by this man, for he will deceive you and lead you astray!” But Abū Qursāfa, leaving his sheep to graze, spent his time listening to the Prophet, then took his sheep home lean, with dry udders. “Why does your herd have dry udders?” his aunt asked. “I do not know!” he replied. He went on listening to the Prophet until he accepted Islam, took his hand, and gave him allegiance. Then he told the Prophet about the state of his sheep. “Bring the ewes here!” the Prophet said, then passed his hand over their backs and udders, and prayed for them to havebaraka. The animals swelled with meat and milk. When Abū Qursāfa took them back to his aunt she said, “My son, this is how to graze your animals!” “Aunt, I grazed them at the same place as previously,” he replied, “but I will tell you the story.” His mother and aunt listened to him then asked to be taken to the Prophet. They accepted Islam, gave him allegiance and took his hand.[68]

Salmān the Persian was a slave owned by the Jews. He made an agreement with them for his freedom to plant three hundred palm trees and give them a certain amount of gold. As soon as the palms produced their first dates, he was to be free. He went to the Prophet, asking for his help. The Prophet planted the three hundred trees with his blessed hands. All three hundred grew and produced dates by the end of the year.[69]

The baraka of the Prophet’s hand also showed its effect in many of the inanimate objects that he touched.

Suwayd ibn Zayd recounted how he once saw Abū Dharr sitting on his own in the mosque and thought it a good opportunity to ask him about ‘Uthmān. Abū Dharr said, “I shall never say anything about ‘Uthmān but good, because of something I saw with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him. I used to watch for the time when the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him, was all alone so that I could learn from him. One day I went and found that he had gone out. I followed him. He sat somewhere and I sat with him. ‘What has brought you, O Abū Dharr?’ he said, ‘Allah and His Messenger!’ I replied. Then Abū Bakr came, gave salām and sat to the right of the Prophet, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him. He said, ‘What has brought you Abū Bakr?’ ‘Allah and His Messenger!’ he replied. Then ‘Umar came and sat to Abū Bakr’s right. ‘O ‘Umar,’ he said, ‘What has brought you?’ ‘Allah and His Messenger!’ he replied. Then ‘Uthmān came and sat to ‘Umar’s right. He said ‘O ‘Uthmān, what has brought you?’ ‘Allah and His Messenger!’ he replied. The Prophet, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him, picked up seven or nine pebbles. They glorified [Allah] in his hand, till I heard them buzz like bees buzz. He put them down and they became silent. He put them in Abū Bakr’s hand and they glorified till I heard them buzz like the bees buzz, then he put them down and they were silent. He picked them up and put them in ‘Uthman’s hand and they glorified till I heard them buzz as bees buzz. Then he put them down and they were silent.”[70]

The baraka of the hand of the Prophet was also seen clearly in many battles and during the conquest of Macca, again with inanimate objects.

During the battle of Badr three of the Companions broke their swords. ‘Ukāsha ibn Mihsan was given a palm branch by the Prophet. As soon as he brandished it it turned into a fine sword which he made good use of till the end of the battle, and then carried on using, calling it “Al-Qawiy” (the Strong) until he was martyred in Najd during the wars against the apostates.[71]

Salama ibn al-Harish also broke his sword and was given a palm branch by the Prophet who said, “Fight with it!” It turned into a sword which he used until many years later he was martyred on the bridge of Abū ‘Ubayd during the conquest of Iraq.[72]

‘Abdallah ibn Jahsh was the third to be given a palm branch to fight with. It became a sword which they named “Al-‘Urjūn” (the Palm Branch). He died a martyr on the day of Uhud, but the sword remained with his heirs until they sold it.[73]

During the Battle of Badr, but also before that in Macca and after that at Hunayn, the Prophet threw gravel or pebbles at the pagans, hitting them individually in eyes. Allah addresses him thus in the Qur’ān: “You threw not when you threw, but Allah threw,” [8:17] for it is humanly impossible to achieve such a feat.

On the first occasion, in Macca, the elders of Quraysh met in the Hijr and swore to each other by Lāt, ‘Uzzā, Manāt, Nā’ila, and Isāf that as soon as they saw Muhamamd they would rise to him as one man and part not from him until they had killed him. Fātima overheard this, she hastened home weeping, and entered upon the Prophet saying, “There were the elders of your people promising each other that as soon as they saw you they would rise as one man to your blood!” “My child,” he said, “bring me some water for my ablutions!” He performed his ablutions then headed towards the mosque. When they saw him they said, “Here he is! Here he is!” but they lowered their gazes, hung their chins on their chests, did not look at him, nor did any of them rise toward him. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him, approached till he stood over them. He took a handful of dust and saying, “Befouled be the faces!” threw it at them. Not one of those who were hit by it on that day escaped being killed at Badr.[74]

On the day of Badr he took a handful of pebbles and threw it at the pagans saying, “Befouled be the faces!” Allah caused these to hit most of the pagans in the eyes, with a sound as if pebbles were falling into a pan. This is when their defeat began.[75]

As for the day of Hunayn, when the Mulims were taken by surprise by the enemy and some chaos ensued, the Prophet found himself on his own on his mule. Salama ibn al-Akwa’ recounted how he saw the Prophet climb down from his mule, pick up a handful of dust, then throw it in the pagan’s faces saying, “Befouled be the faces!” Their eyes were filled with dust and they retreated in disarray.[76]

Before the siege of Madina, the Battle of the Trench, as the Muslims were digging the trench, they met a rock they could not break. They tried hard but it only broke their picks. They reported this to the Prophet who took the pick from Salman and struck the rock. A light flashed, illuminating Madina from one lava tract to the other, as if it was a lamp lit in a dark night. The Prophet said,“Allahu Akbar!” He struck it again, another flash shot forth, he said, “Allāhu Akbar!” Then he struck it a third time. Again a flash of light shot forth, and again he said, “Allāhu Akbar!” The rock was shattered by the third blow. They asked him about the three flashes of light, and he said, “The first one lit up for me the palaces of Hīra and the cities of Khosroes, as if they were dogs’ teeth, and Gabriel informed me that my nation is to overcome them. The second one lit up for me the red palaces of the land of the Byzantines, as if they were dogs’ teeth, and Gabriel informed me that my nation is to overcome them. The third lit up for me the palaces of Sana’ā, as if they were dogs’ teeth, and Gabriel told me that my nation is to overcome them!”[77]

When he entered the Sacred Mosque after the conquest of Macca, the Prophet went round the Ka’ba pointing at the idols with his stick or his bow. There were three hundred and sixty idols on and around the Ka’ba, their feet fixed with lead, in addition to Isāf and Nā’ila where the pagans slaughtered their offerings. As the Prophet passed by each of the idols, he pointed at it, reciting: “Say: The truth has come and falsehood has vanished; falsehood is ever vanishing.”[17:81] When he pointed at them the idols fell on their faces one by one.[78]

The Companions knew well the baraka in the hand of the Prophet; they also knew about its being the symbol of Divine generosity and power. They loved to touch and kiss it, they competed for the water he had dipped it in, and, after his death, those who never saw him were eager to touch and kiss those hands that had touched him.

Both the Jews and the Christians who recognized the Prophet as a Divine envoy also showed their love and respect for him by kissing both his hands and his feet.

Once, after the Prophet’s emigration to Madina, a Jew said to a friend of his, “Let us go to this Prophet!” his friend said, “Say not Prophet! Were he to hear you he would have four eyes!” They came to the Prophet and asked him about nine things which he answered. They kissed his hands and feet, saying, “We testify that you are a Prophet!” “What prevents you from following me?” he asked. “David prayed that there should always be a Prophet from his progeny. We fear, were we to follow you, that the Jews would kill us!”[79]

When the Prophet went to Tā’if to call its people to Islam they mistreated him and wounded both his feet by throwing stones at him. He repaired to a garden belonging to two Qurayshi noblemen, ‘Utba and Shayba, sons of Rabī’a. They happened to have come down from Macca and to have seen what had happened to him. As they were related to him sufficiently closely in tribal terms to allow themselves to feel some sympathy, they called a Christian slave of theirs named ‘Addās and told him, “Take some of these grapes, put them in this plate, then take them to this man and tell him to eat!” When ‘Addās placed the plate before him and said “Eat!” the Prophet, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him, extending his hand, said, “In the name of Allah!” then began to eat. ‘Addās looked at his face, then said, “By Allah! These words are not what the people of this land say!” “From which land do you hail ‘Addās?” he was asked, “and what is your religion?” He replied, “I am a Christian, a man from Nineveh.” “From the town of the virtuous man Jonah the son of Matthew?” asked the Prophet, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him. “How do you know who Jonah the son of Matthew is?” asked ‘Addās. “He is my brother,” he was told, “he was a Prophet and I am a Prophet!” At this ‘Addās rushed to him, kissing his head, hands and feet.

One of the sons of Rabī’a said to the other, “He has spoiled your slave for you!” Then, when ‘Addās returned to them, they said to him, “Woe to you, O ‘Addās! Why do you kiss this man’s head, hands, and feet?” He replied, “Master, there is no one on earth better than this man, he has just informed me of a thing that only a Prophet knows!” They said, “Woe to you, O ‘Addās! Let him not divert you from your religion, for your religion is better than his!”[80]

Those upon whose heads the hands of the Prophet wound a turban were thereby forever honoured.

Qurayt ibn Abī Ramtha al-Tamīmī, who, in the Caliphate of ‘Umar, conquered Aqaba, was taken along by his father when he emigrated to the Prophet, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him. The Prophet took him on his lap, prayed for him to have baraka, and wound a black turban around his head.[81]

The Prophet, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him, decided to send an expedition of seven hundred men to Dūmat al-Jandal, under the command of ‘Abal-Rahmān ibn ‘Awf. On the morning they were to set out, ‘Abal-Rahmān appeared wearing a turban dyed black. The Prophet took it off with his hand and wound it again, leaving four fingers’ length hanging from the back.[82] When the time came for ‘Abdal-Rahman ibn ‘Awf to decide who was to become caliph, ‘Uthmān or ‘Alī, he came out wearing the same turban the Prophet had wound on his head.[83]

Anas said, “Once the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him, prayed the morning prayer, the servants of the people of Madina brought him their vessels full of water, he dipped his hand in them, even on cold mornings.”[84]

Abū Juhayfa said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him, came out in mid-morning. Water for ablution was brought to him and he performed his ablution, then the people took what remained and rubbed it on themselves. Those who could not reach any took the water that dripped from their companions’ hands.”[85]

Abū Juhayfa also said that when the Prophet was in Macca and had finished his ablutions, the people crowded around him, taking his hands and rubbing them on their faces. “I took his hand,” he said, “and placed it on my face and it was cooler than snow and better smelling than musk!”[86]

Abū Ayyūb said, “We used to prepare supper and send it to him, when it was brought back to us, I and Umm Ayyūb used to look for the mark of his hand and eat from there, hoping for the baraka. One night we sent his supper to him, having put onions or garlic in it, but the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him, returned it untouched, I saw no trace of his hand in it. I rushed to him in distress, saying, ‘O Messenger of Allah, my father and mother be the ransom! You have returned your supper and I saw no trace of your hand, whereas before, whenever you returned it, I and Umm Ayyūb sought the trace of your hand, seeking the Baraka!’ He said, ‘I found the smell of that plant in it and I am a man who converses, [with Gabriel, as another version adds] as for you, you may eat it!’ So we ate it but never used that plant again!”[87]

When the Prophet fell ill, ‘Ā’isha, in the knowledge that he used to recite theMu’awwidhāt, blow in his hands, and rub his body, recited them herself, then took his hand and rubbed him with it, for no palm was as blessed as his.[88]

‘Ā’isha said that whenever the Prophet entered Fātima’s house she rose to meet him and kissed his hand.[89]

Once when Ibn ‘Umar was in a raiding party they retreated before the enemy. They said to each other, “What shall we do now that we have run away from the fight and come under [Allah’s] wrath?” “Let us go to Madina and spend the night,” they said, then, “Let us show ourselves to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him, it may be that our repentance will be accepted, or else we shall depart.” They came to him before the morning prayer. “Who are the people?” he asked, “We are the deserters!” they replied. “No!” he said, “But you are the fighters, and I am your host and every Muslim’s host.”[90] Then they approached him and kissed his hand. Then the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him, recited this verse: “or withdrawing to a host,” [8:16][91]

When the delegation of ‘Abdal Qays reached Madina, [they had such longing for the Prophet that] they jumped off their camels and rushed to him, kissing his hands and feet.[92]

Ibn ‘Umar used to kiss the Prophet’s hand.[93]

Ka’b ibn Mālik, one of the three Companions that failed to join the Tabuk expedition, kissed the Prophet’s hand when Allah relented towards the three.[94]

Once Salama ibn al-Akwa’ said to his companions, “I gave allegiance to the Prophet, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him, with this hand of mine!” They kissed it and he never objected to this.[95]

The famous Follower, Thābit al-Bunānī, Anas ibn Mālik’s student, said, “Whenever I visited Anas, they told him I was there, he came to me, and I took both his hands and kissed them saying, “My father be the ransom of these hands that have touched the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him!” and I kissed his eyes saying, “My father be the ransom of these eyes which have seen the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him!”[96]

And whenever Thābit came to visit him, Anas called his servant saying, “Bring me some perfume that I may perfume my hands, for Thābit will not rest content until he has kissed my hand!”[97]

Burayda said, “A Bedouin came to the Prophet, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him, saying, ‘O Messenger of Allah, I have accepted Islam, so show me something that will increase me in certitude!’ He asked him, ‘What do you want?’ He replied, ‘Call this tree, let it come to you!’ ‘Go to her and call her!’ He told him. The Bedouin went to the tree saying, ‘Answer the Messenger of Allah!’ The tree leaned to one side, pulling her roots out, then to the other, pulling her roots out then she went to the Prophet, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him, saying, ‘Peace be upon you O Messenger of Allah!’ The Bedouin exclaimed, ‘This is sufficient for me! This is sufficient for me!’ The Prophet, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him, said, ‘Go back!’ so it returned to its place and struck its roots again. The Bedouin said, ‘Permit me, O Messenger of Allah, to kiss your hands and feet!’ He did [kiss his hands and feet], then said, ‘Permit me to prostate myself before you!’ ‘No man should prostate himself before another man!’ he replied.”[98]

The wooden pulpit of the Prophet had a knob on which the Prophet rested his hand as he spoke. After the Prophet’s death Abū Hurayra used to stand beside the pulpit and place his hand on the pommel, before the caliph came out to deliver the Friday sermon. Thus standing he would recite a few of the hadiths he had learnt from the Prophet.[99]

As for the other Companions, they used to wait until those in the mosque became few, then rise to the pommel, rub it, and make du’ā’. So did the Followers and those who came after them.[100] Upon learning of this, ‘Abdallāh, son of Imām Ahmad ibn Hanbal, asked his father what he thought of this and of touching the Prophet’s chamber. The Imām answered that he saw nothing wrong there. And the famous compiler of hadith, Imām ibn ‘Asākir, who witnessed the fire that burned part of the Prophet’s mosque, said, “The remaining parts of the pulpit of the Prophet, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him, were burnt. Now visitors can no longer touch the pulpit’s pommel, on which the Prophet, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him, placed his noble hand, nor the place where he used to sit, nor the place of his noble feet, for their greatbaraka.”[101]

The Prophet informed us that Allah, Exalted and Majestic is He says, “He who shows hostility to a Walī of Mine, on him I declare war. My slave draws nearer to Me with nothing that I love more than what I have made obligatory on him. And My slave ceases not to draw nearer to Me with supererogatory devotions until I love him. When I love him I become his eye with which he sees, his ear with which he hears, his hand with which he strikes, and his foot on which he walks. When he asks of Me I give him and when he seeks My protection I protect him.”[102]

The Prophet, by virtue of being the most perfect of Allah’s slaves, is he in whom the gifts mentioned in this Hadīth Qudsī manifest in the most perfect from. Thus, because he saw and heard by Allah’s power and ability, he was able to see and hear through the earth, down to the seventh nether earth, and through the heavens up to and beyond the Throne. He saw through people’s intentions and heard the whisperings in their breasts. His hand manifested the powers we have spoken about and much more that is known only to Allah. His feet walked the seven heavens and the Throne, and took him into the Divine Presence.

The same attributes, according to this Hadith Qudsī, manifest in the more spiritually gifted among the Prophet’s community, for he must have heirs amongst the Muslims, in each of their generations till the end of time. Only he who knows the saints is able to catch a glimpse of the unassailable rank of Prophethood. Only he who accepts that Allah’s treasury of gifts is infinite and that He gives according to His generosity will begin to understand. Only he who overcomes his skepticism and thinks well of the virtuous servants of Allah will be allowed to witness some of these gifts.

_______________________________

NOTES

  1. Bukhari, Kitab’ al-Iman. 70. Muslim 1:49. 
  2. Muslim 2/721, Abu Dawud 2/121, Nisa’i 1/142. 
  3. Bukhari 2:969, Muslim 4:1815. 
  4. Majma’ al-Zawa’id 7:33. 
  5. Bayhaqi and ibn ‘Asakir. Majma’ al- Zawa’id 7:33. 
  6. Muslim 7:81. 
  7. Abu Dawud 1:103, Bayhaqi, Sunan, 1:113. 
  8. Bukhari 2:967, Muslim 3:1489. 
  9. Comprehensive speech is the ability to state the most profound truths very clearly in few words. Second to the Qur’an themost comprehensive expression undoubtedly belongs to the Prophet, may blessings and peace be upon him. 
  10. To be supported by terror is Allah’s striking terror into the hearts of his enemies so that they are at a disadvantage before the actual confrontation takes place. 
  11. Bukhari 3:1087. 
  12. Bukhari, Bab al- ‘Ilm ,13, Muslim, Zakat: 100. 
  13. Bayhaqi in Dala’il 3/252 , al-Hakim, Mustadrak, 3:334. 
  14. Abu Nu’aym, Dala’il 1:172, Bayhaqi, and ibn Sa’d. 
  15. Bukhari in Tarikh, Tabarani, and Bayhaqi. 
  16. Bukhari 4:1483 
  17. Ibn ‘Abdal-Barr, Al-Isti’ab fi Ma’rifat’ il Ashab, 3:1415. 
  18. Suyuti, al-Khasa’is al-Kubra, 2:291. 
  19. The Prophet is here doing tawassul with his own blessed self. 
  20. Suyuti, al-Khasa’is al-Kubra, 2:290. 
  21. Majma’ al- Zawa’id, 9:405. 
  22. Majma’ al- Zawa’id, 9:405. Baghawi, Bayhaqi. 
  23. Majma’ al- Zawa’id 9:409 ibn Sa’d, Bayhaqi. 
  24. The kunya is the respectful Arab way of calling their elders Abu Fulan, Father of so and so, in the Prophet’s case: Abu’l-Qasim. 
  25. Bukhari in Tarikh, Bayhaqi, and Majma’al-Zawa’id 8:48. 
  26. Majma’ al-Zawa’id 8:48. 
  27. Majma’al- Zawa’id 8:54, ibn ‘Asakir, and Abu Ya’la . 
  28. Al-Zubayr ibn Bakkar. 
  29. Ahmad 5:77, 5:340, Bayhaqi in Dala’il 6:210. 
  30. Abu Nu’aym, Bazzar. 
  31. Bukhari 1/87. 
  32. Majma’ al-Zawa’id 9:405. 
  33. Majma’ al-Zawa’id 9:405. 
  34. Ahmad 5/67, ibn Sa’d. 
  35. Al-Baghawi. 
  36. Majma’ al-Zawa’id 9:402. 
  37. Majma’ al-Zawa’id 9:401 
  38. Al-Hakim 3:677, Majma ‘al-Zawa’id 9:412. 
  39. Majma’ al-Zawa’id 9:41. 
  40. Ahmad 5:28 Bayhaqi. 
  41. Mada’ini. 
  42. Tabarani, al-mu’jam al-Saghir, 1/77. 
  43. Ibn Sa’d, Abu Nu’aym, Bukhari in Tarikh, Baghawi. 
  44. Tirmidhi 3627. 
  45. Ibn Hisham 1:482. 
  46. Ibn Maja 2/774 , Ibn Abi Shayba 6/13. 
  47. Bukhari, manaqib, 38, 1/56. 
  48. Muslim 1:341. 
  49. This is the Companion’s polite manner of saying he used to have relations with her. 
  50. Ibn Hisham 2/417. 
  51. Bayhaqi, Suyuti, al-Khasa’is al-Kubra, 2/95. 
  52. Suyuti, al-Khasa’is al-Kubra 2:93, Bayhaqi and ibn ‘Asakir. 
  53. Bukhari 3/1117 Muslim 3/1611 
  54. Majma’al-Zawa’id 8:305 
  55. Majma’ al-Zasa’id 8:306 
  56. Majma’ al-Zawa’id 8:308-309 
  57. Majma’ al-Zawa’id 8:307. 
  58. Bayhaqi, Abu Nu’aym, Suyuti 2:216. 
  59. Muslim 4: 1783. 
  60. Muslim 4: 1783. 
  61. Muslim 4: 1783. 
  62. Ibn Mas’ud, being one of the earliest Muslims and one of the most knowledgeable, realized what an opportunity it was to drink this most blessed water, to purify himself inwardly with it. 
  63. Majma’al-Zawa’id 8:300. 
  64. Majma’al-Zawa’id 8:300. 
  65. Majma’ al-Zawa’id 8:301. 
  66. Al-Hakim, Tabarani, Bayhaqi, Abu Nu’aym, Baghawi, ibn Shahin, Suyuti 1:466. 
  67. Ibn Sa’d , Abu Nu’aym, Suyuti 1:469 
  68. Tabarani in Kabir 3:1, Abu Nu’aym in Dala’il 1:152. 
  69. Ahmad 5:354. 
  70. Majma’ al-Zawa’id 8:298-299. 
  71. Ibn Sa’d, 1/188, Bayhaqi. 
  72. Bayhaqi, Dala’il, 2/370. 
  73. Abdal Razzaq, al-Zubayr ibn Bakkar, ibn Abdal Barr 3/879. 
  74. Ibn Hibban 14/430. 
  75. Tabarani in Kabir 3/203 Ibn Hisham . 
  76. Muslim 3/1402. 
  77. Ibn Sa’d, ibn Jarir, ibn Abi Hatim, Bayhaqi, Abu Nu’aym, ibn Ishaq. Suyuti 1:571. 
  78. Bayhaqi in Dala’il 4/71. Waqidi 2/832. 
  79. Tirmidhi 5/72 Nisa’i 7:111. 
  80. Ibn Hisham 1/421. 
  81. Al-Isaba 5/519. 
  82. Bayhaqi, Sunan 6/363. Ibn Sa’d, Tabaqat 3:124. 
  83. Tabari, Tarikh. 
  84. Muslim 4/1812, Ahmad 3/137. 
  85. Bukhari 376. 
  86. Bukhari 3553. 
  87. Ibn Hisham 1:499, Ibn Hibban 5:448. 
  88. Ahmad 6:104. 
  89. Al-Hakim, 3:160. 
  90. The host is the main body of the army towards which one can retreat to regroup and return to the fight. 
  91. Abu Dawud 3:107 Tirmidhi, ibn Maja, Ahmad. 
  92. Majma’al- Zawa’id 9:389 
  93. Abu Dawud 5:393 Majma’ al-Zawa’id 8:42 
  94. Ibn ‘Asakir , Tabarani, Majma’al-Zawa’id, 8/42. 
  95. Majma’al-Zawa’id 8:42 
  96. Majma’al-Zawa’id 9:325 
  97. Majma’al-Zawa’id 9:325 
  98. Suyuti, al-Khasa’is al-Kubra, 2:200, Bazzar, and Abu Nu’aym. 
  99. Al-Hakim, 1:190. 
  100. Ibn Abi Shayba 3:450. 
  101. Samhudi, Khulasat’al-Wafa 210-211. 
  102. Bukhari, Riqaq, 38.

Cintanya Rosul SAW kepada Aisyah RA (Seri 1)


Nabi Shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam menyamakan dirinya terhadap Aisyah sebagaimana Abu Zar’ agar Aisyah sebagaimana Abu Zar’ terhadap istrinya Ummu Zar’ agar Aisyah tahu sayangnya NabiShallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam kepada dirinya.

Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam pernah berkata kepada Aisyah, “Wahai Aisyah diriku bagimu sebagaimana Abu Zar’ bagi Ummu Zar’ “. Berkata Imam An-Nawawi, “Para ulama berkata bahwa Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam berkata demikian untuk menyenangkan hati Aisyah dan menjelaskan bahwa ia telah bersikap baik dalam kehidupan rumah tangga bersama Aisyah.”[1]

Bagaimanakah kisah Abu Zar’ dan Ummu Zar’?, marilah kita simak tuturan Ummul mukminin Aisyah[2]beserta penjelasan kisah mereka yang dirangkum dari kitab Fathul Bari[3], serta Faidah yang di ambil dari beberapa sumber[4].

((Sebelas orang wanita berkumpul lalu mereka berjanji dan bersepakat untuk tidak menyembunyikan sedikitpun kabar tentang suami mereka. Maka wanita pertama berkata, “ Sesungguhnya suamiku adalah daging unta yang kurus[5] yang berada di atas puncak gunung yang tanahnya berlumpur[6]yang tidak mudah untuk di daki dan dagingnya juga tidak gemuk untuk diambili.”))

Maksudnya adalah sang wanita memisalkan keburukan akhlak suaminya seperti gunung terjal, yang sulit untuk di daki, demikian juga sifat sombong suaminya yang merasa di atas. Dan menyamakan suaminya yang pelit dengan daging unta yang kurus. Daging unta tidak sama dengan daging kambing karena daging unta rasanya kurang enak, oleh karena itu banyak orang yang tidak begitu senang dengan daging unta. Orang-orang lebih mendahulukan daging kambing kemudian daging sapi baru kemudian daging unta. Ditambah lagi dagingnya dari unta yang kurus. Lebih parah lagi daging tersebut memiliki bau yang kurang enak. Yaitu meskipun sang istri butuh terhadap apa yang dimiliki suaminya namun ia tahu bahwa suaminya pelit, kalau ia meminta dari suaminya maka akan sangat sulit sekali untuk diberi, kalaupun diberi hanyalah sedikit karena pelitnya suaminya, ditambah lagi akhlak suaminya yang sombong lagi merasa tinggi.

Peringatan

Terkadang akhlak yang jelek yang timbul dari seorang istri adalah akibat jeleknya akhlak sang suami. Terkadang sang suamilah yang secara tidak langsung mengajar sang istri untuk pandai berbohong. Bagaimana bisa…??? Jika sang suami adalah suami yang pelit, tidak memberikan nafkah yang cukup kepada istrinya maka istrinya akan berusaha mencuri uang suaminya yang pelit tersebut, dan jika ditanya oleh suaminya maka ia akan berbohong. Lama kelamaan pun karena terbiasa akhirnya ia menjadi tukang bohong. Padahal jika seorang suami menampakkan pada istrinya bahwasanya ia tidak pelit, dan memberikan kepada istrinya suatu yang bernilai meskipun hanya sedikit, maka hal ini menjadikan sang istri percaya kepadanya dan mendukung sang istri untuk menjadi wanita yang shalihah.

Bukankah sekecil apapun harta yang ia keluarkan untuk memberi nafkah kepada istrinya maka ia akan mendapatkan pahala, bahkan sesuap nasi yang ia berikan kepada istrinya!!??

Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam bersabda,

Sesungguhnya bagaimanapun nafkah yang kau berikan kepada istrimu maka ia merupakan sedekah, bahkan sesuap makanan yang engkau suapkan ke mulut istrimu.[7]

Dalam riwayat Muslim[8],

“Dan tidaklah engkau memberi nafkah dengan mengharapkan wajah Allah kecuali engkau mendapatkan pahala, bahkan sampai sesuap makanan yang engkau letakkan di mulut istrimu.”

Berkata An-Nawawi, “ Seorang suami meletakkan sesuap makanan di mulut istrinya, biasanya hal ini terjadi tatkala sang suami sedang mencumbui, bercanda, dan berlezat-lezat dengan perkara yang diperbolehkan (dengan istrinya). Kondisi seperti ini sangat jauh dari bentuk ketaatan (bentuk ibadah) dan perkara-perkara akhirat. Meskipun demikian Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam mengabarkan jika sang suami menghendaki wajah Allah dengan suapan yang ia berikan kepada istrinya maka ia akan mendapatkan pahala.”[9]

Berkata Ibnu Hajar, “ Perkara yang mubah jika diniatkan karena Allah maka jadilah ia merupakan ketaatan. Nabi Shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam telah mengingatkan perkara dunia yang sangat ringan dan biasa yaitu menyuap istri dengan sesuap makanan, yang hal ini biasanya terjadi tatkala sang suami sedang mencumbu dan mencandai sang istri, namun meskipun demikian ia mendapatkan pahala jika berniat yang baik. Maka bagaimana lagi jika pada perkara-perkara yang lebih dari itu…!!!”[10]

Apalagi Nabi Shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam mengabarkan bahwa memberi nafkah kepada istri merupakan amalan yang sangat besar pahalanya di sisi Allah.

Sekeping dinar yang engkau infakkan pada jihad fi sabilillah, sekeping dinar yang engkau infakkan untuk membebaskan budak, sekeping dinar yang engkau sedekahkan kepada seorang miskin, dan sekeping dinar yang engkau infakkan kepada istrimu, maka yang paling besar pahalanya adalah sekeping dinar yang engkau infakkan kepada istrimu,[11]

((Wanita yang kedua berkata “ Suamiku…aku tidak akan menceritakan tentang kabarnya, karena jika aku kabarkan tentangnya aku khawatir aku (tidak mampu) meninggalkannya. Jika aku menyebutkan tentangnya maka aku akan menyebutkan urat-uratnya yang muncul di tubuhnya dan juga perutnya.”[12]))

Maksudnya yaitu jika ia menceritakan tentang kabar suaminya maka ia akan menyebutkan aibnya yang banyak sekali baik aib yang nampak maupun yang tersembunyi. Aib yang nampak ia ibaratkan dengan urat-uratnya yang muncul dan nampak di tubuhnya, adapun aib yang tersembunyi diibaratkan seperti urat yang timbul di perutnya yang tidak dilihat oleh orang karena tertutup pakaian. Dan jika suaminya tahu bahwa ia membeberkan aib-aib suaminya maka ia akan di cerai oleh suaminya padahal ia tidak siap untuk ditinggal suaminya. Intinya yaitu ia mengeluhkan suaminya yang banyak aibya dan kaku serta tidak murah hati.

Faidah :

Hendaknya istri semangat untuk tetap bisa bersama suami meskipun pada suami terdapat beberapa aib.

((Wanita  yang ketiga berkata, “ Suamiku tinggi, jika aku berucap maka aku akan dicerai, dan jika aku diam maka aku akan digantung.”))

Ada dua penafsiran dari perkataan wanita yang ketiga ini,

Pertama :

Maksud dari suaminya yang tinggi yaitu suaminya keras dan tegas, dialah yang mengatur dirinya dan tidak mau diatur orang lain, sehingga suaminyalah yang mengaturnya dan dia (sang istri) tidak bisa mengaturnya, oleh karena itu ia takut pada suaminya.

Jika ia menyebutkan aib-aib suaminya lalu hal ini sampai kepadanya maka ia akan dicerai. Namun jika ia berdiam diri maka ia tergantung terkatung-katung, seperti tidak punya suami dan sekaligus bukan wanita yang tidak bersuami. Seakan-akan ia berkata, “Aku disisi suamiku seperti tidak bersuami karena aku tidak bisa mengambil manfaat dari suamiku, dan tidak juga aku dicerai agar aku bisa lepas darinya dan mencari suami yang lain.”

Kedua :

Yaitu ia menjelaskan akan buruknya suaminya yang tidak sabaran jika mendengar keluhan-keluhannya. Ia mengetahui jika ia mengeluh kepada suaminya maka sang suami langsung mencerikannya dan ia tidak ingin dicerai karena cintanya yang dalam kepada suaminya. Namun jika ia berdiam diri maka ia akan tersiksa karena seperti wanita yang tidak bersuami padahal ia bersuami.

Faidah :

Suami yang shaleh adalah suami yang dekat kepada istrinya, yang bisa menjadi tempat mencurahkan hati istrinya, dan bukan yang ditakuti istrinya.

((Wanita yang keempat berkata, “ Suamiku seperti malam di Tihamah, tidak panas dan tidak dingin, tidak ada ketakutan dan tidak ada rasa bosan.”))

Tihamah adalah daerah yang dikelilingi gunung-gunung dan daerah yang mayoritas musimnya terasa panas dan tidak ada angin segar yang bertiup. Namun pada malam hari panas tersebut tidak begitu terasa maka penduduknya akan merasa nyaman dan nikmat jika dibanding keadaan mereka di siang hari.

Maksud dari sang wanita adalah menceritakan tentang kondisi suaminya yang seimbang, tidak ada gangguan dari suaminya dan tidak ada sesuatu yang di bencinya sehingga tidak membosankan untuk terus bersamanya. Sehingga ia merasa aman karena tidak takut gangguan suaminya sehingga kehidupannya nyaman sebagaimana kehidupan penduduk Tihamah tatkala di malam hari.

((Wanita yang kelima berkata, “Suamiku jika masuk rumah seperti macan dan jika keluar maka seperti singa dan tidak bertanya apa yang telah diperbuatnya (yang didapatinya).”))

Dan macan kuat namun suka tidur.

Ada dua kemungkinan makna yang terkandung dari perkataan wanita yang kelima ini.

Pertama adalah pujian (dan ini adalah pendapat mayoritas pensyarah hadits ini)

Yaitu suaminya jika masuk ke dalam rumah menemuinya maka seperti macan yang kuat yang menerkam dengan kuat. Maksudnya yaitu sang suami sering menjimaknya yang menunjukkan bahwa ia sangat dicintai suaminya sehingga jika suaminya melihatnya maka tidak sabar dan ingin langsung menerkamnya untuk menjimaknya. Dan jika keluar rumah maka seperti singa yang pemberani.

Ia tidak pernah bertanya tentang apa yang telah dikeluarkannya yang menunjukkan ia adalah suami yang baik yang sering bersedekah dan tidak peduli dengan sedekah yang ia keluarkan. Atau jika ia masuk ke dalam rumah maka ia tidak peduli dengan aib-aib yanag terdapat dalam rumah.

Faidah :

Termasuk sifat suami yang baik adalah tidak ikut campur dengan istrinya dalam mengatur urusan rumah, oleh karena itu jika ia melihat perubahan-perubahan atau keganjilan-keganjilan dalam rumahnya hendaknya ia pura-pura tidak tahu, ia membiarkan istrinya lah yang menangani hal itu. Atau jika ia memang harus bertanya kepada istrinya tentang keganjilan yang timbul maka hendaknya ia bertanya dengan lembut. Disebutkan bahwa diantara sifat macan adalah banyak tidur sehingga sering lalai dari mangsa yang terkadang berada di hadapannya. Ini merupakan isyarat bahwa sang suami adalah orang yang kuat namun sering tidak ikut campur dalam urusan sang istri dalam mengatur runah. Inilah makna dari perkataan sang wanita, “tidak bertanya apa yang didapatinya.”[13]

Disebutkan juga bahwa seorang Arab ditanya, “ Siapakah yang disebut dengan orang yang pandai? “, maka ia menjawab “ Orang yang mengerti namun berpura-pura tidak tahu.”

Betapa banyak permasalahan rumah tangga yang timbul karena sang suami terlalu detail dalam menghadapi istrinya, segala yang terjadi di rumahnya bahkan sampai perkara-perkara yang sepele dan ringan ia tanyakan, ia cek pada istrinya. Akhirnya timbullah permasalahan dan cekcok antara dia dan istrinya. Kalau seandainya ia sedikit berpura-pura tidak tahu,terutama pada perkara-perkara yang ringan maka akan banyak permasalahan yang bisa diselesaikan, bahkan hanya dengan salam. Bahkan sebagian kesalahan-kesalahan yang ringan yang dilakukan oleh sang istri –dan sang istri menyadari bahwa ia telah bersalah-  jika dibiarkan saja oleh sang suami maka akan selesai dengan sendirinya. Oleh karena itu seorang yang cerdik adalah yang menerapkan sifat pura-pura tidak tahu pada beberapa permasalahan keluarga yang dihadapinya terutama permasalahan-permasalahan yang ringan[14]. Sifat inilah yang disebut dengan mudaraah (pura-pura tidak tahu atau basa-basi) dan akan datang penjelasannya.

Kedua adalah celaan

Yaitu suaminya jika masuk ke dalam rumah seperti macan dimana jika suaminya menjimaknya maka langsung terkam tanpa dibuka dengan cumbuan dan rayuan karena sifatnya yang keras seperti macan. Atau karena sifatnya yang jelek sehingga kalau masuk ke dalam rumah sering memukulnya dan menamparnya. Dan jika keluar rumah maka seperti singa yang lebih keras lagi dan lebih berani lagi. Dan jika ia masuk rumah maka ia tidak bertanya-tanya, yaitu sang suami tidak pernah perduli dengan keadaan istrinya dan juga urusan rumahnya.

Faidah:

Suami yang baik adalah yang selalu bertanya kepada istrinya tentang kondisi istrinya meskipun sang istri tidak menampakkan tanda-tanda perubahan, yang hal ini menyebabkan sang istri merasa bahwa ia sangatlah diperhatikan oleh suaminya.

=Bersambung insya Allah=

Sumber: Suami Idaman Istri Pilihan (Surat dari Seorang Suami untuk Suami), Abu Abdil Muhsin Firanda, M.A. , Pustaka Muslim

[1] Al-Minhaj XV/221
[2] HR. Al-Bukhari V/1988 no. 4893 dan Muslim IV/1896 no. 2448
[3] Fathul Bari jilid IX hal. 256 hingga hal. 278
[4] Seperti Fathul Bari, Al-Minhaj Syarah An-Nawawi, majalah Al-Asholah no. 46, ceramah Abu Ishaq Al-Huwaini yang berjudul Lailah fi baitin Nabi Shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam
[5] Yang dibenci dan tinggalkan orang karena kurusnya (Al-Fath IX/ 259)
[6] Yang tanahnya berlumpur, jika ditanjaki maka kaki akan tertahan dalam lumpur tersebut dan sulit untuk dikeluarkan.
[7] HR. Al-Bukhari no. 2591
[8] HR. Muslim no. 1628
[9] Al-Minhaj XI/ 78
[10] Fathul bari V/ 368
[11] HR. Muslim no. 995
[12] Urat timbul yang nampakpada badan dan perut merupakan istilah untuk mengungkapkan aib baik yang Nampak maupun yang tidak nampak.
[13] Al-Minhaj XV/ 214
[14] Lihat ceramah Syaikh Abu Ishaq Al-Huwaini yang berjudul “Lailah fi bait An-Nabi Shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam”.

11 PRINCIPLES FOR SUCCESSFULL ISLAMIC LIVING ~ (1) HIDAYATH : Prepare yourself for a Paradigm Shift


A paradigm refers to a model, a perception, a pattern, or set of mental thoughts that illustrates certain aspects about the world and its reality. Our mind usually constructs these models or ideas about the world, which we use to make our day to day decisions.

A paradigm is like a map. A map shows where the different places are located and how they are related to each other by distance, horizon, objective etc. When we first enter a city, the map of that city helps us to move around. As we get familiar with the city, it develops into a mental map, more detailed and realistic than the one on a paper. The more we move around in the city, the more our paradigm shifts towards the comprehension and reality of that city.

When paradigms are not true reflections of reality, they can limit our progress. Imagine exploring the city of London with a map titled New York! Similarly, the wrong paradigm could result in enormous inconvenience and failure. It may happen that when we reach the zenith, we might find a different place than we planned earlier. Therefore, it is important to understand truth and reality before we take our first step.

Majority of the problems with the Muslims is that they are away from the true Islamic paradigm. They are lost with the circumstances, hijacked by worldly benefits and also their failure to discover human role and responsibilities.

If we are in the Truth Paradigm, we are safe and successful. To attain the truth paradigm, we need to adhere to four basic themes: Truth, Submission, Humility and Accountability.

Major Changes in life come from shifting our paradigm. These shifts take place due to a variety of reasons

A deep crisis in life – an accident, a tragedy, a loss – usually makes one to think about the causes and effects of the crisis, leading to a paradigm shift which becomes a turning point in one’s life.

Deep motivation to attain a cherished goal – Motivation leads one to strive for lofty aims and helps the individual to retain the focus that is so important for success.

The fear of ill health, disease, death gives us an opportunity to think and reflect. Imagine if one were to know that he would live only for a few more months what is expected from him. Obviously he would try to do only good deeds in the balance of his lifetime. The fear of death can be the cause for a paradigm shift.

An open mind and willingness to exert oneself is the ground for a paradigm shift. Personal effort determines the extent to which the paradigm shift can take place.

The Truth is the Starting point of all explorations. It is the destiny of the target. It is a vehicle to explore or an instrument to probe. Scriptures say about Truth. so does science.

Paradigm shift in Islam

Hidayath or True Guidance, given by God, constitutes the paradigm shift in Islam. Hidayath is the True Guidance that make the human beings accept the Truth without doubt in humility and accountability.
If one puts the efforts to learn one may get Hidayath.

Learning can take place in two ways

By studying Holy Quran and Prophetic Traditions, Islamic literature, books, magazine, audio/video cassettes, CD-ROMs etc.

Effects of paradigm shift

The Truth paradigm (Hidayath) can change our mental setup and perceptions towards the Islamic reality leading to the Straight Path – the only Path.
This Principle is the opening point of successful philosophy of Islamic living.
This shift protects from all failures and defeats.

By studying the life and experiences of the Prophet and His Companions.

The first step towards achieving success both in this world land the hereafter is to practice the True Guidance of Almighty. This demands a flexible approach towards attuning the mind to change for a shift in paradigm.

Prepare yourself for a paradigm shift, is the starting point towards success. This shift in paradigm continues throughout in the succeeding principles and every principle is shifting towards Islamic reality like a class beginning with a problem and ending with a solution.

Effects of paradigm shift

The Truth paradigm (Hidayath) can change our mind set and perceptions towards the Islamic reality leading to the Straight Path – the only Path.

This Principle is the opening point of successful philosophy of Islamic living.

This shift protects from all failures and defeats.

Paradigm shift in Islam

Hidayath or True Guidance, which is given by God, constitutes the paradigm shift in Islam. Hidayath is the True Guidance that make the human beings accept the Truth without doubt in humility and accountability.

33 Ways of developing Khushoo’ in Salaah [33 Sababun Lil-Khushoo’ Fi Salaah] Part-1


Part 1: Key to happiness
Khushoo’ means calmness, serenity, tranquility, dignity and humility.

Fearing Allah in a calm manner; the heart stands before the Lord in humility and submission. Khushoo linked to theheart; if heart corrupt rest body is also corrupt (eg: king and people, if king/leader is good…people will be good, else king sucks ppl will be messed up too))

  • State during salat : Obedience to Allah(swt) by bowing, lower gaze, humble oneself out of fear of Allah(swt)
  • Salat is extremely hard except for people who have Khushu
  • Shaytans number one project: divert us from Salat; Khushu is first thing that will be lost from our religion.

Concealment of Khushoo:

  • Shouldn’t show more khushoo then we feel (its in heart not shoulder)
  • Heart feels pure, filled with light of greatness of Allah, desires die because of the fear of Allah and awe which have filled his heart to overflowing so that his physical faculties have calmed down, his heart has become dignified and feels secure in Allaah the remembrance of Him, and tranquillity descends upon him from his Lord. So he has become humble (mukhbit) before Allaah, and the one who is humble is the one who is assured.”
  • Empty our heart for prayer; focuses on it exclusive of anything else, and prefer it to everything else. Find joy and comfort. 
Part 2: Evaluating khushoo level
Rulings on Khushoo: 
·
Obligatory to have it, people with it will inherit Firdaws.
·
Lacking Khushu are sinners, it is wajib.
·
Allah promised forgiveness to those who pray 5 salats with khushoo. 
Evaluation·It is impossible to achieve Khushoo without the help of Allaah.

·Being deprived of khushoo’ is nothing short of a calamity, make dua that Allaah makes our heart amongst the khashioun.

·Five Levels of Prayer:

1. Wrongs himself and is negligent. Does not do wudoo’ properly, or pray at the right time or make sure he does all the necessary parts of prayer.

2. observes the outward essentials of prayer, prays on time and does wudoo’, but he has lost the battle against his own self and is overwhelmed with waswaas.

3. who observes the outward essentials of prayer, prays on time and does wudoo’, and also strives against his own self and against waswaas, but he is preoccupied with his struggle against his enemy (i.e. the Shaytaan), lest he steal from his prayer, so he is engaged in salaah and jihaad at the same time.

4. one who when he stands up to pray, he fulfils all the requirements of the prayer, and his heart is fully focused and alert lest he omit anything, and his concern is to do the prayer properly and perfectly. His heart is deeply immersed in his prayer and worship of his Lord.

5. one who does all of that, but he takes his heart and places it before his Lord, looking at his Lord with his heart and focusing on Him, filled with love and adoration, as if he is actually seeing Him. That waswaas and those thoughts diminish, and the barriers between him and his Lord are lifted. The difference between the prayer of this person and the prayer of anyone is else is greater than the difference between heaven and earth. When this person prays, he is preoccupied with his Lord and content with Him.

The first type is punishable; the second is accountable; the third is striving so he is not counted as a sinner; the fourth is rewarded and the fifth is drawn close to his Lord, because he is one of those for whom prayer is a source of joy. Whoever finds their joy in prayer in this life, will find their joy in being close to Allaah in the Hereafter, and will also find his joy in Allaah in this world. Whoever finds his joy in Allaah will be content with everything, and whoever does not find his joy in Allaah, will be destroyed by his feelings of grief and regret for worldly matters.”


Part 3: Strengthening Khushoo
How to get khushu: Two parts to achieve this as follows.
Part A: Strengthen your khushoo add those things: desire to do fardh

§Focus what your say and do.

§Ponder on Quran recitation, dhikr, duaa.

§Remember your speaking to Allah (all seer/hearer) {Ihsaan : worship Him(swt) as if you see Him, and if u cant see him, He can see you.}

§The more one tastes salats sweetness, more you will be attracted to it; this can be done through strength of the Eeman

§Preparing oneself for prayer properly

·By repeating the words of the adhaan after the muezzin

·By pronouncing the du’aa’ to be recited after the adhaan

·Reciting du’aa’ between the adhaan and the iqaamah; Doing wudoo’ properly, saying Bismillaah before it and making dhikr and saying the du’aa’ after it

·Using siwaak to cleanse and perfume the mouth that is going to recite Qur’aan in a short while

·Wearing one’s best and cleanest clothes, because Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): O Children of Adam! Take your adornment (by wearing your clean clothes) while praying…” [al-A’raaf 7:31]. Allaah is most deserving of seeing us “take our adornment” for Him. Clean, pleasant smelling clothes are also more comfortable and relaxing, unlike clothes for sleeping or working in.

§Moving at a measured pace during prayer

·Perform ruku , sujood properly (else will be worst kind of thief)

·Move in pace else cant get khushoo in hasty prayers.

§Remembering death whilst praying

·Pray as if you wont be able to pray again

·One day our prayer will be the last one…and we wont know it until death comes. 

§Thinking about the aayaat and adhkaar being recited during the prayer and interacting with them

·Ponder on meanings of ayat, study tafsir else how can you fully enjoy even reading the quran?

·Repeat ayats (prophet repeated this till morning came)

·Interact with ayat (praise, ask question, seek refuge , ask for mercy, ..if ayat asks)

·Memorize quran, dua’s for diff. parts of prayer and think of the meaning during recitation.

§Pause at the end of each aayah

§Reciting in slow, rhythmic tones (tarteel) and making one’s voice beautiful when reciting

·Clear recitation with each letter pronounced distinctly

·Beautify the voice, for fine voice increases quran in beauty

§Knowing that Allaah responds to prayers

·The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Allaah, the Blessed and Exalted has said: ‘I have divided the prayer between Myself and My slave, into two halves, and My slave shall have what he has asked for.” When the slave says ‘Praise be to Allaah, Lord of the Worlds,’ Allaah says, ‘My slave has praised Me.’ When the slave says, ‘The Most Merciful, the Bestower of Mercy,’ Allaah says, ‘My slave has extolled me.’ When the slave says, ‘Master of the Day of Judgement,’ Allaah says, ‘My slave has glorified me.’ When the slave says, ‘It is You alone we worship and it is You alone we ask for help,’ Allaah says, ‘This is between Me and My slave, and My slave shall have what he asked for.’ When the slave says, ‘Guide us to the Straight Path, the path of those whom You have favoured, not the path of those who receive Your anger, nor of those who go astray,’ Allaah says, ‘All these are for My slave, and My slave shall have what he asked for.’” (Saheeh Muslim, Kitaab al-Salaah, Baab wujoob qiraa’at al-Faatihah fi kulli rak’ah). [Words in italics are the translation of the meaning of Soorat al-Faatihah – Translator]. This is a great and important hadeeth. If everyone kept it in mind when he prays, he would attain immense khushoo’ and al-Faatihah would have a great impact on him. How could it be otherwise, when he feels that his Lord is addressing him and giving him what he is asking for?

§Praying with a barrier (sutrah) in front of one and praying close to it

·Lessens distractions (vision limits, ppl wont pass by, etc)

·Allowed to fight with someone trying to pass between you and your sutrah

§Placing the right hand on the left hand on the chest

·It is Humility before Allah

§Looking at the place of prostration

·Don’t leave gaze other then prostration place, except when moving index finger.

·Opened eyes from sunnah (if extremely difficult for khushoo allowed to close eyes)

§Moving the index finger

·Move it and its harmfull for shaytan more then iron rod, reminds of Allah’s unity

§Varying the soorahs, aayaat, adhkaar and du’aa’s recited in prayer

·Varying what one recites is the Sunnah and is more conducive to khushoo’. Different opening dua’s…of saw

§Performing sujood al-tilaawah when reciting an aayah where this is required 

·When reading an ayat requiring sujood, we should prostrate.

§Seeking refuge with Allaah from the Shaytaan

·Be consistence in the ibadah, that will ward off shaytan.

·If you get waswasas spit 3 times on the left …The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, “That is a shaytaan whose name is Khanzab. If you sense his presence, seek refuge with Allaah from him, and spit [dry spitting] towards your left three times.”

·If forgot the number of rakats performed, perform 2 prostrations while sitting. 

·If confused in passing wind (don’t end prayer unless heard voice or smell an odour)

§Thinking of how the salaf were when they prayed

·Haatim (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: “I carry out what I am commanded; I walk with fear of Allaah in my heart; I start with the [correct] intention; I magnify and glorify Allaah; I recite at a slow and measured pace, thinking about the meaning; I bow with khushoo’; I prostrate with humility; I sit and recite the complete tashahhud; I say salaam with the [correct] intention; I finish with sincerity towards Allaah; and I come back fearing lest [my prayer] has not been accepted from me, so I continue to strive until I die.” (Al-Khushoo’ fi’l-Salaah, 27-28).

By majelis ilm Posted in Prayers

Fiqh of Marriage


The Marriage Contract

 

Goals of this Chapter

Definition of some important fiqh terms including arkaan, shuroot, sahih, baatil and faasid.

The different conditions and/or prerequisites needed for a marriage contract to be considered valid, enforceable and binding.

In particular, the importance of the guardian (wali), witnesses (shuhood) and the dowry (mahr).

General concepts concerning conditions or stipulations in any type of contract and the ruling regarding adding such stipulations into a marriage contract in particular.

The ramifications and effect on the contract when certain conditions are not properly met.

Introduction

 

Marriage in Islam is a contract. Thus, as in any contract in Islam, there are elements which are considered essential to its existence, called arkaan, the possibility of stipulations of different kinds, legal effects of the contract, etc. Each of these should be understood properly in order to ensure that the marriage has been performed in the proper manner and the rightful effects of the marriage are granted to each of the participating partners.

Definition of Rukn and Shart

 

Rukn (plural: arkaan) can be translated as “pillar” and is an essential part of the legal reality of something. Without it, that legal reality does not exist.

Shart (plural: shuroot) can be translated as “prerequisite” or “condition” is a requirement for the legal reality/validity of something but 1) is external to it and/or 2) does not completely void the legal reality if not found.

Az-Zuhaili writes:

“According to the Hanafis, a rukn is something upon which the existence of something else is dependent, however it is also part of that thing which is dependent on it. A shart for them is a prerequisite upon which the existence of something else depends but it does not form a part of that other thing.

For the majority (of the scholars), a rukn is the thing upon which something and its existence rests, it cannot be in reality without it or it is something which is a must. Their famous expression is “It is a thing by which the shari’a reality of a thing will not exist except with it.” That is the case regardless of whether it be an actual part of the thing or something separate from it. A shart for them is something upon which another thing is dependent but which does not form part of it.” (Wahbah Az-Zuhaili, Al-Fiqh Al-Islami wa Adillatuhu (Berut: Dar Al-Fikr, 1985) vol. 7 p. 36)

The following example will demonstrate the different between the Hanafi approach and that of the rest of the schools of thought. The actual existence of the girl that is to be wed is something external to the process of the marriage contract. Therefore, since it is external, the Hanafis would not call it a rukn although, obviously, no marriage would actually take place without her existence. This makes it a shart in their terminology. In the other schools of thought, the fact that no marriage can occur without the existence of the girl getting married is sufficient to call her existence a rukn of the marriage contract even though her existence is external to the actual contract process itself.

The Arkaan of a Marriage Contract

 

All the scholars agree that “offer and acceptance” (Al-Ijaab wa al-qubool) is among the arkaan of a marriage. There is a difference of opinion concerning the other arkaan as discussed below:

The Arkaan of a Marriage According to the Hanafis

 

Offer and acceptance are the only arkaan of the marriage contract in Hanafi fiqh due to their definition of rukn as explained above. Furthermore, in Hanafi fiqh, the offer/acceptance can begin from either party.

The Arkaan of a Marriage According to the Jamhoor (Majority of Scholars)

    1. Offer and acceptance are among the arkaan. For most of these scholars, the offer must be from the woman’s side and the acceptance from the man.
    2. The two parties to the contract: the prospective husband and the guardian of the woman.

Some also count the following among the arkaan, although the majority of these scholars count them among the shuroot:

    1. The presence of witnesses.
    2. Dowry.

The Wording of the Contract

 

There are a variety of opinions as to exactly which phrases are valid in the transaction of the marriage contract. Of all these opinions, it seems clear that the best of them is that any wording that makes the intent of the contract clear to all involved should be considered a valid marriage, while the best format would be that actually used by the Prophet (sas) and his companions. Also, it is considered best if the contract is executed in spoken form. However, due to need or necessity, it may be done through writing or signing.

Among the different possible phraseology, the very clear terms such as “I marry you” as accepted by all. Anything which indicates a temporary nature of the contract is forbidden. In others there is some difference of opinion such as “I present to you”, “I give to you”, “I sell to you”, etc.

The Hanafi and Maliki Approach

 

This opinion says that any term which is clear by itself or by the context and in this way implies marriage would be considered valid if the witnesses and the parties understand it as such. This supported by the following segment of along verse in which Allah mentions all of the categories of women which are halal for the Prophet (saw):

{…Wa imra’atan in wahabat nafsahaa lin Nabiy in araada an-nabiy an yastankihahaa khaalistan laka min duni al-mu’mineen…}

{…and a woman who gives herself to the Prophet if the Prophet wishes to marry her – exclusively for you and not the [rest of the] believers…}Al-Ahzaab:50

It is also reported that the Prophet (saw) himself used the following expression in performing a marriage:

“Qad mallaktukahaa bima ma’aka min al-qur’an.”

“I have put her in your possession for the Qur’an which you possess.” Al-Bukhari

The Hanbali and Shafi’iy Approach

 

This opinion says that the marriage is not proper unless it uses forms of the following words which are found in the Qur’an and hadith: nikah or zawaaj. Their response to the above evdience is that since the verse clearly applied to something given specifically to the Prophet (saw) it is not applicable here and that the actual words of the hadith are from the narrator who may not have transmitted it exactly. Bottom line: Marriage is a contract and, like any other contract if the intention and goal of the contract is clear to all parties, there need not be any additional restrictions on the actual words used. On the other hand, due to the seriousness of this contract, there is no hardship in sticking to the original words used most commonly by the Prophet (sas) and his companions.

Does it Have to be in Arabic?

 

According to the majority of the scholars, it is not necessary for the marriage contract to be transacted in Arabic, even for those who have the ability to speak Arabic. Those in the Hanbali school who required the use of forms of the words nikah or zawaaj also required that the contract be transacted in Arabic for this reason.

The Different Types of Shuroot (Conditions or Prerequisites)

 

At this point, we need to learn the definition of some general terms in Islamic fiqh which come up in many subject areas, including the one at hand.

Sahih (Sound). A contract which fulfills all of the arkaan and the shuroot and has full effect in the law.

Baatil (Void). A contract that has failed to fulfill specific arkaan or vital shuroot. A contract which is baatil is the opposite of one which is sahih and has no legal effect at all. If a marriage contract is found to be void, even if it is only discovered after consummation, the legal condition will be as if it never happened at all. The lineage of the father will not be established and there is no waiting period (‘iddah) upon the woman. An example of this would be if a man married a woman who was married to someone else at the time.

Faasid (Defective). This is a contract which fails to fulfill some of the shuroot, but not thearkaan. For non-Hanafis, faasid and baatil have the same meaning. In Hanafi fiqh, a marriage which was faasid has some legal ramifications, especially if it was consummated.

With respect to marriage, there are four different kinds of conditions which must be met:

    1. Conditions Required for Initiating the Contract (shuroot al-in’iqaad). These are the conditions that must be present with respect to the arkaan or fundamentals of the marriage contract.
    2. Conditions Required for the Soundness of the Contract (shuroot as-sihha). These are conditions which must be fulfilled in order for the marriage to have its proper legal effect. If these conditions are not met, the contract is “defective” (faasid), according to Hanafifiqh, “void” (baatil) according to the others.
    3. Conditions Required for the Execution of the Contract (shuroot an-nifaadh). These are conditions which must be met for the marriage to have actual practical effect. If these conditions are not met, then the marriage is “suspended” (mauqoof) according to Hanafi and Maliki fiqh. For example, a minor girl until she reaches puberty.
    4. Conditions Required for Making the Marriage Binding (shuroot al-luzoom). If these conditions are not met, then the marriage is non-binding meaning that either of the two parties or others may have the right to anull the marriage. If they accept the marriage with such shortcomings, it becomes binding.

First: Shuroot Required for Initiating the Contract

 

In this category, there are conditions concerning the two who are getting married as well as the form in which the contract takes place.

Concerning the Two Getting Married

 

The two people must meet the qualification of legal competence, i.e, they must be adult and sane. If they are not, the marriage will be invalid.

Secondly, the woman cannot be from those categories of women that are forbidden for a man to marry. For example, suppose a man married a woman and later discovered that they had been breastfed by the same woman. In this case, it is as if the marriage never took place because those two were not qualified or allowed to marry each other and the marriage becomes null and void.

Concerning the Contract

 

There is near complete agreement on the following conditions relating to the transaction of the marriage contract:

    1. The offer and acceptance must be done in one sitting. In general, this means that the response must be immediate. Exactly what is considered a “sitting” depends on custom and related factors.
    2. The acceptance must correspond to what is being offered. If the guardian says: “I marry you to Khadijah”, a response of “I accept Fatimah as my wife” would not constitute a valid contract. An exception to this is if the wali mentions a specific dowry amount and the groom responds with a higher amount. It is regarded that there is no reason for dispute since it is assumed that a higher dowry will be acceptable.
    3. The wali cannot rescind the offer. Unlike transactions of selling, neither party can say “I have changed my mind” once they have uttered the offer/acceptance. It is immediately binding. In a sale, they both continue to have the option to change their mind until the “sitting” is over and they part.
    4. The marriage must be effective immediately. If the wali says “I will marry her to you after one month”, there is not marriage and the two remain unmarried.

Note that the custom of saying “I accept” three times common in some Muslim cultures has no legal significance. Once the first “I accept” has been uttered, everything after that is meaningless – whether positive or negative.

Adding Stipulations to the Marriage Contract

 

This is where one party states a stipulation binding on the other party for specific reasons or goals. The offer/acceptance are tied to this stipulation by mention. There is a difference of opinion among the scholars concerning the validity of conditions of this nature.

Conditions of contracts are two types: 1) those imposed directly by the shari’a and 2) those drawn up by one or more of the parties. When any contract is entered into, the first type of conditions are covered automatically even if they are not stated in the contract.

Understood Conditions Based on what is Customary

 

It is a general principle in fiqh that customs can take the status of law. It becomes understood that people are going to behave in a certain fashion. Since that is understood, one party has the right to ask it of the other even if it is not stated in the contract. In the area of marriage, there are some stipulations that are known by custom. These do not have to be mentioned in the contract to be considered binding. However, there are some strict conditions that must be met before a customary act is considered something equivalent to a legal stipulation. These conditions are as follows:

    1. The customary practice cannot contravene or contradict anything expressly laid down by the shari’a. For example, it is custom in some parts of the world for the woman to pay dowry to the man. In other parts, it is customary to prepare two or three times amount of food that the guests could possibly eat at the walima (wedding feast). Neither party has the right to demand of the other the fulfillment of such customs.
    2. The customary act must be common, well-known and universal and not something practiced only by some portions of the population.
    3. The custom must have been in existence and known before the marriage contract took place.

Other conditions Laid Down by the Two Parties

 

Any condition which contradicts, compromises or nullifies the main goals and purposes of the marriage contract itself are rejected and, even if stated, are of no legal consequence. For example conditions which state that the woman receives no dowry or that he does not have to support her or that they will not consummate the marriage are all null and void and of no effect whatsoever.

Such conditions must be stipulated and agreed upon at or before the time of the offer/acceptance. Even those scholars who accept such stipulations do not accept them if they are made after the offer/acceptance.

Sound and Acceptable Stipulations

 

There are two types of sound and acceptable stipulations:

    1. Those embodied in the contract even if they are not stated. This includes conditions known from the shari’a as well as those known from custom as discussed previously. The Prophet (sas) said:“Ahaqqu maa aufaitum min ash-shurooti maa istahlaltum bihi al-furooj.”“The conditions which you have the most duty to fulfill are those by which you have made marital relations lawful.” Bukhari & MuslimMany scholars understand this hadith to be referring to these kinds of conditions only, that is, those that are covered by theshari’a in the first place. This is the view of the shafi’i school. They do no allow any additional stipulations to be added to the marriage contract.
    2. Those conditions not covered by the essential nature of the contract but which are agreed upon by the contracting parties. These are those stipulations that do not contradict the general goals of the contract, do not bring harm to anyone and which apply to things which are permissible and within the right of the person to agree – that is something that does not go against the shari’a. They are laid out in the beginning to avoid any conflict or hardship in the future.

In General, Muslims Must Fulfill Their Agreements

 

Generally speaking, Muslims must comply with any agreements that they make. Allah said about the believers:

{…Wa al-moofoona fi ‘ahdihim idhaa ‘aahadoo…}

{…And those who fulfill their pacts when they make one…} Al-Baqara:177

{Yaa ayyuhaa alladhina aamanoo aufoo bi al-’uqood…}

{O you who believe fulfill your contracts…} Al-Ma’idah:1

The Prophet (saw) said:

“Al-muslimoona ‘alaa shurootihim.”

“Muslims are bound by their stipulations.” Abu Daud & Al-Hakim (sahih)

During the time of Umar ibn Al-Khattab, a man married a woman upon the condition that he would not move her from his house. The time came when he wanted to move her. They took their dispute to Umar and he said: “She has the right to her stipulation.” The man said, “In that case, they will certainly end the marriage.” He said, “The rights are broken off due to the stipulations.” This was the view of many of the Companions, Followers and scholars including Saad ibn Abi Waqqas, Mu’awiyah, Amr ibn Al-Aas, Shuraih, Umar ibn Abdul Aziz, Tawoos, Al-Awzaa’i and Ishaq.

There is another opinion which says that external stipulations – those not covered by the nature of the contract itself – carry no weight and need not be met. This was the opinion of Abu Hanifa, Ash-Shafi’i, Malik, Az-Zuhri, Qatada, Al-Laith, Ath-Thauri, Ibn Al-Mundhir and has been narrated from Ali.

The Proofs of Those Who Say that Such Stipulations are Neither Binding nor Valid

“Kullu shartin laisa fiy kitaabi Allahi fahuwa baatil wa in kaana mi’atu shartin.”

“Every stipultion which is not in the book of Allah is void even if it be one hundred stipulations.” Muslim & Bukhari

They also cite the following extension to the hadith mentioned earlier about stipulations:

“Al-Muslimoon ‘alaa shurootihim illa shartin ahalla haraaman au harrama halaalan.”

“Muslims are bound by their stipulations except for a stipulation which makes the unlawful lawful or makes the lawful unlawful.”

However, this version of the hadith with the added sentence is weak and cannot be used as evidence. As for the hadith mentioned earlier that “The conditions which you have the most duty to fulfill are those by which you have made marital relations lawful.”, they claim that this only applies to the conditions which are essential parts of the nature of the contract itself.

Response to Those Arguments

 

The scholars who permit such stipulations in the marriage contract have responded to the above. As for the hadith “Every stipulations which is not in the book of Allah…”, they say that for a woman’s wali to make some conditions to her advantage is something permissible and does not go against the Book of Allah.

Actually, such conditions do not violate the Book of Allah and do not make anything forbidden permissible, etc. They simply give the woman the right to annul the marriage if the condition is not satisfied.

Also, there remains no real meaning to the hadith “The conditions which you have the most duty to fulfill…” if one says that it only applies to conditions that are already in force due to the nature of the contract anyway.

The Crux of this Difference of Opinion

 

This discussion boils down to the understanding of two seemingly contradictory hadith:

“Every stipulation which is not in the book of Allah is void even if it be one hundred stipulations.” Muslim & Bukhari

“The conditions which you have the most duty to fulfill are those by which you have made marital relations lawful.” Bukhari & Muslim

It seems clear from the second hadith along with the fatwa of Umar mentioned earlier that there is some room for adding stipulations to a marriage contract. It also seems clear from the first hadith that there are limits on what can be stipulated. Specifically, any stipulations which go against the basic goals and principles of the marriage contract and not allowed and, if stated, are null and void. Thus, the only remaining problem is understanding exactly how this principle applies in practical situations.

For those scholars who don’t accept such external stipulations at all, they have no effect, are not binding, and don’t affect the validity of the underlying contract. For those who accept them, they give the woman the option to annul the marriage upon he request if the condition is violated. We only mention the woman because the man can divorce at any time with or without a particular cause and so has no need of such an option. Notice that even in the fatwa of Umar, he didn’t require the man to fulfill the condition, rather he allowed that she could end the marriage if she so demanded.

Conditions for Which there is Agreement that they are Invalid

 

Even those who accept these stipulations all agree that certain conditions are not allowed. Among them are the following:

    1. Nikaah Ash-Shighaar. This is where the two dowries are stolen and “exchanged”. For example a man marries his son to another’s daughter in “exchange” for the other marrying his daughter to the first one’s son. Neither woman receives their dowry.
    2. Nikaah Al-Mut’a. Any kind of marriage with a stipulated time limit.
    3. Nikaah At-Tahleel. A woman who has been divorced three times and wishes to return to her first husband marries a man on the condition that he divorce her. If this is discovered or if this is her intention, the first husband still does not become lawful for her in spite of this marriage.

Second: Conditions for the Soundness of a Marriage Contract

 

There are ten conditions (shuroot) in this category. Some are agreed upon by virtually all the scholars while others are the subject of some disagreement.

    1. The woman is permissible to the man.i.e., that she is not one of those forbidden to him by relation, nursing or other existing and conflicting marriage. Some would consider this on of the arkaan (pillars) or one of the conditions for initiating the contract. In any case, this condition must definitely be met.
    2. The offer and acceptance is of a permanent nature and not temporary.All forms of temporary marriage are forbidden in Islam. If anything stated in the offer and acceptance indicates a temporary nature, the marriage is not valid.
    3. Two non-discredited witnesses.

      There is some difference of opinion on this issue, but in the final analysis, the hadith is clear.Ibn Taimia mentioned four existing opinions on this issue:

      (1) The marriage must be announced and made public, regardless of whether the contract was actually witnessed or not. This was the opinion of Malik as well as the scholars of hadith, the Dhaahiris and one opinion reported from Ahamd.

      (2) It is obligatory to have witnesses, regardless of whether the marriage contract is made public or not. This was the view of Abu Hanifah, Ash-Shafi’iy and another opinion reported from Ahmad.

      (3) Both witnesses and a public announcement are necessary. This is a third narration from Ahmad.

      (4) Either one of the two is necessary. This is a fourth narration from Ahmad.Ibn Taimia himself felt that the second opinion (only witnesses required) is weak. He claimed that there was no authentic source for same and that it was not widely known among the Muslims. Instead, what is required is the public pronouncement letting the people know that the parties got married. He says that if a marriage takes place without witnesses or public announcement it is definitely invalid, if it takes place with witnesses but no announcement it is questionable and if it takes place with both it is definitely valid.The portion of Ibn Taimia’s opinion which finds the witnesses NOT a requirement must be rejected, because the hadith on this subject has been found to be sahih:

      “Laa nikaaha illa bi waliyin wa shaahidaiy ‘adlin”

      “No marriage except with a guardian and two non-discredited witnesses.”

      So the bottom line here is that BOTH the witnesses AND the public announcement are required. In fact, regarding public announcement, the Maliki school says that if the other parties ask the witnesses to keep it silent that the marriage is not valid and the two are to be separated – PERMANENTLY! The Hanbali school holds that such a marriage is not invalid although it is disliked to do so. The witnesses must be two adult and sane Muslim men whose testimony has not been previously discredited.

    4. Both parties to the contract and the bride have willingly accepted the marriage.The Hanafis say that this is not a condition, but their position is unacceptable and rejected because of ample evidence from the Qur’an and the Sunnah to the contrary. In thejahiliya, Arabs used to “inherit” (i.e., forcibly marry) their brothers wives if they died. Allah forbid this saying:{Yaa ayyuhaa alladhina aamanoo, laa yahillu lakum an tarithoo an-nisaa’a karhan…}

      {O, you who believe, it is not lawful for you to inherit women against their will…} An-Nisaa:19There are also two sound and very clear hadith on this matter:“Laa tunkahu al-ayyimu hatta tusta’mara wa laa tunkahu al-bikru hatta tusta’dhana qaaloo yaa rasoolu Allahi kaifa idhinihaa? Qaala: an taskut.”

      A previously married woman cannot be married until her order is sought and a virgin cannot be married until her premission is sought. They said: How does she give permission? He (sas) said: If she keeps quiet.” Bukhari & Muslim“‘An ibn Abbasin anna jaariyatan bikran atat an-nabiyya (sas) fa dhakarat lahu anna abaaha zawwajahaa wa hiya kaariyatun fa khayyarahaa an-nabiyyu (sas)”

      “From Ibn Abbas that a virgin girl came to the Prophet (sas) and mentioned that her father had married her against her will and so the Prophet (sas) gave her the choice.”Abu Daud & others (sahih)Many early scholars allowed this in only one case: a father or grandfather marrying a girl below the age of puberty without her consent. According to them, she has no right to refuse the marriage upon becoming mature. This position is clearly unacceptable and rejected based on the above verse and ahadith.

    5. The bride and groom are specifically identified and known.
    6. Neither of the two contracting parties are in a state of ihraam.
    7. The marriage must be with a dowry (mahr).It does not have to be exactly specified nor does it have to change hands, but it has to be there. More is coming on this subject later.
    8. The parties and witnesses are not bound to keep it quiet.It is not allowed to make attempts to keep a marriage a secret. The universal custom of the Arabs before Islam was to have marriages very publicly where all around became aware of its existence. Islam confirmed this practice and it is the only acceptable way of marrying. As we have seen, the Maliki school takes this so seriously that they separate the two parties permanently. Some other scholars said that it was a wrong practice, but didn’t necessarily invalidate the marriage.
    9. No party is on his/her deathbed.The “parties” intended here are the bride and the groom. This is because of possible injury to the heirs because of another person becoming entitled to inheritance.
    10. The presence of the guardian or representative (wali) of the woman.The wali is a Muslim man charged with marrying the one under his charge to a man who will be good for her. There is no disagreement that the first wali is her natural father if he is Muslim and that the last in line is the ruler. Between those two, there is some disagreement about the order but agreement that they come from the girl’s fathers relatives – no one from her mother’s side enters into the picture. The order, according to many is: father, paternal grandfather, son, grandson, full brother, paternal half-brother, paternal uncle. The wali is an absolute requirement for a marriage, and any marriage done without him is null and void according to the following hadith:“Laa nikaaha illa bi waliyyin wa as-sultaanu waliyyu man laa waliyya lahaa.”

      “No marriage except with a guardian and the ruler is the guardian of she who has no guardian.” Abu Daud & others (sahih)“Ayyumaa imra’atin nakahat bi ghairi idhni waliyyihaa fa nikaahuhaa baatilun fa nikaahuhaa baatilun fa nikaahuhaa baatilun.”

      “If any woman marries without the permission of her guardian, then her marriage is void, then her marriage is void, then her marriage is void.” Abu Daud & others (sahih)It is the job of the wali to marry her to the best possible husband. He must not be guided by his desires nor by her desires. If the person is acceptable in both his religion and his character and appropriate to her in some other way discussed by the scholars, then he must facilitate the marriage and not refuse it for his own desires or biases. If the conditions are not right, then he must refuse the marriage, even if both the woman under his charge and the man desire it. This is a grave trust and he must do his best to fulfill it properly and not bring harm to the woman and/or to society. Allah said:{Yaa ayyuhaa alladhina aamanoo laa takhunoo Allaha wa ar-rasoola wa takhunoo amaanaatikum wa antum ta’lamoon.}

      {O, you who believe, do not commit treachery against Allah and against the Prophet (sas) nor betray your trusts though you know.} Al-Anfaal:27What about the case where the wali refuses someone on a non-Islamic basis? As was stated earlier, it is the job of the wali to act in the best interest of the woman according to the standards established by Islam. If a qualified person asks to marry the woman and he turns him down, then he is not doing his job. In such a case, the woman can complain to the judge or ruler and have her wali “fired” (removed). The scholars then differ as to who becomes her newwali, the next male relative in line or the ruler.The wali must be the same religion as the woman. A non-Muslim father cannot be the wali for his Muslim daughter.

A Rejected Opinion of the Hanafi School

 

In the Hanafi school of thought there is an opinion that the wali is not a requirement for the validity of the marriage. They even claim to have an argument from Aisha, the one who narrated the hadith:

 

“Laa nikaaha illa bi waliyyin wa as-sultaanu waliyyu man laa waliyya lahaa.”

“No marriage except with a guardian and the ruler is the guardian of she who has no guardian.” Abu Daud & others (sahih)

They say that: “Aisha married the daughter of her brother, Hafsa bint Abdul Rahman while Abdul Rahman was gone to Sham. When Abdul Rahman returned he was upset but he did not wish to undo what Aisha had done do he left his daughter with her groom, Al-Mundhir ibn Az-Zuhair.”

Other scholars responded to their argument: It seem from other narrations of the same incident that Aisha simply set up the arrangement but did not actually perform the marriage. Also, it was Aisha herself who said that “Women cannot perform marriages.” In this way, she did not contradict what she herself narrated from the Prophet (sas).

Being Serious is NOT a Condition for the Soundness of a Marriage Contract

 

Note that marriage is not a laughing matter and is very serious. Therefore, the mere words make the marriage happen and intention is not required. Also, as we have seen, there is no khiyaar al-majlis (a choice to back out until the sitting is concluded and the parties part ways) in marriage as there is in sales and other contracts. The Prophet (sas) said:

“Thalaathun jidduhunna jiddun wa hazluhunna jiddun: an-nikaahu wa at-talaaqu wa ar-ruj’atu.”

“Three things which when serious are serious and when vain are serious: marriage, divorce and returning (to one’s wife after a divorce).” Ahmad & others (sahih).

Third: Conditions for the Execution of a Marriage Contract

    1. The bride and groom must be legally capable for such a marriage, i.e., sane, conscious, past the age of puberty, etc. The contract can take place earlier than this, but the execution must wait until the time that they can actually enter into the marriage relationship.
    2. The wali who performed the marriage was not a more distant wali while a closer one was alive and reachable. For example, if the woman’s uncle married her to someone, the marriage would not be valid unless and until the woman’s father’s consent was verified. In such a case, the contract could be execute

Fourth: Conditions for the Marriage Contract to be Binding

If these conditions are met, neither party has the right to anull the marriage.

  1. If the age of an underage or insane person is done by other than the father or the grandfather, then the father or grandfather has the right to annul it.
  2. That the husband is socially compatible and qualified for the woman.
  3. That the dowry is at least equivalent to those similar to her.
  4. That there is no defect in either spouse. Included in this category would be the case where the woman was said to be a virgin but is then discovered to be otherwise or where either spouse is not physically capable of marital relations.

If, after being married, any of these conditions are not met, both parties (bride and groom) would have the right to annul the marriage. The matter would be taken to a judge or one in authority. However, this is a right or an option. Once the parties accept the marriage with the deficiency it contains, they will after that be bound to such a marriage.

Effects of the Various Conditions on the Marriage Contract

Based on which conditions above are or are not fulfilled, the ruling concerning the validity and legal effect of the marriage contract differs among different schools of fiqh. In the hanafi school, a contract may fall into one of five categories: sound and binding, sound and non-binding, suspended, defective and void. For most of the other scholars, the marriage contract will fall into one of three categories: sound and binding, sound and non-binding or void.

The following table describes the effect of failure to meet certain conditions on the legal effect or conclusion concerning the contract itself:

Effects on the Marriage Contract of Failing to Meet Conditions

a.Contract fails to meet thearkaan(pillars)

b.Contract fails to meet the conditions for its Initiation

c.Contract fails to meet the conditions for its Soundness

d.Contract fails to meet the conditions for its Execution

e.Contract fails to meet binding conditions.

f.Contract meets all necessary conditions

a.The contract is null and void. This is actually a moot point since in reality there WAS no contract if essential components are missing.

b.The contract is completely void.

c.Hanafi school: the contract is “defective” and hence has some legal effect.  

  Others: The contract is null and void.

d.In Hanafi and Maliki fiqh, such a contract is considered “suspended” or on hold until such conditions are met.

e.The contract is sound but non-binding. The affected party has the right to annul the contract.

f.Contract is sound and binding.

Civil Marriages in Countries Which Do Not Apply the Shari’a

 

In the light of what has been discussed, a very important question arises for Muslims living in lands where the Shari’a is not the law of the land. For Muslims to marry in such situations under the “auspices” of such governments will often involve serious flaws in both the execution and the legal effects of the non-Islamic marriage contract. For example:

    1. No proper wali. Many such secular laws may not require the woman to have a wali at all or the one appointed may not be the rightful one in the Shari’a.
    2. The secular law may not require two witnesses,
    3. Witnesses may be required but not qualified such as non-Muslim witnesses.
    4. The marriage establishes various property rights, inheritance rights etc. both during and after the marriage for which Allah sent no authority. (Avoiding the harm of such issues while living in a non-Islamic society is a much larger issue and involves many things besides marriage.)
    5. The civil marriage may cause additional marriages by the husband to be a crime punishable by a prison sentence.

Because of these and other issues, a secular marriage contract is not sufficient for two Muslims to be considered married Islamically. In fact, they should be avoided if possible. In any case, it is the Islamic marriage with its prerequisites and conditions which makes the two married before Allah. Whether or not a civil marriage should also be undertaken is a case of weighing the harms and benefits involved.

Regarding these “marriages”, the following important points should be noted:

    1. If such a marriage was entered into by non-Muslims who later became Muslim, they are considered married and there is not need whatsoever to have another marriage contract.
    2. If they were Muslim but married in a secular manner out of extreme ignorance, it would be best for them to redo the marriage. However, the first marriage could be considered valid and any children resulting from it would be both of their children Islamically.
    3. If two Muslims marry in such a manner knowingly, for example to circumvent the objections of her wali, then the marriage is null and void and they are committing fornication.

Review Questions

  1. What would be the ruling for the following case: A man and a woman are married for ten years and then discover that they were breastfed by the same woman.
  2. What is the ruling concerning a marriage contract in which the woman did not have a wali? What was the Prophet’s (sas) statement about such a marriage (2 hadith).
  3. Discuss the different opinions concerning whether or not it is allowed to add stipulations to the marriage contract. For those who allow them, what exactly is their effect and which conditions are allowed? Which are not allowed?
  4. Give definitions for the following important fiqh terms: rukn, shart, sahih, faasid and baatil.
  5. Is it necessary to have witnesses for a marriage contract? What are some of the different opinions on this matter and what is the conclusive evidence from the sunnah?
  6. What be the ruling on the following case: A man claims that the marriage contract he just made is not valid because he was only joking when he did it?

Last Part: A Code For Every Living (Al-Adab al-Mufrad) By Imam Al-Bukhari


Topics

I. Parents
II. Ties of Kinship
III. Mawlas
IV. Looking After Girls
V. Looking After Children
VI. Neighbours
VII. Generosity and Orphans
VIII. Children Dying
IX. Being a Master
X. Responsibility
XI. Correctness
XII. Dealing with people cheerfully
XIII. Consulation
XIV. Dealings with people and good character
XV. Cursing and Defamation
XVI. Praising People
XVII. Visiting and Guests
XVIII. The Elderly
XIX. Children
XX. Mercy
XXI. Social Behaviour
XXII. Separation
XXII. Advice
XXIII. Defamation
XXIV. Extravagance in Building
XXV. Compassion
XXVI. Attending to this world
XXVII. Injustice
XXVIII. Illness and Visiting those who are ill
XXIX. General Behaviour
XXX. Supplication
XXXI. Guests and Spending
XXXII. Speech
XXXIII. Names
XXXIV. Kunyas
XXXV. Poetry
XXXVI. Words
XXXVII. General Behaviour
XXXVIII. Omens
XXXIX. Sneezing and Yawning
XD. Gestures
XDI. Greeting
XDII. Asking Permission to Enter
XDIII. People of the Book
XDIV. Letters and greetings
XDIV. Gatherings
XDV. Behaviour with people
XDVI. Sitting and lying down
XDVII. Mornings and evenings
XDVIII. Sleeping and going to bed
XDIX. Animals
D. Midday Naps
DI. Circumcision
DII. Betting and similar pastimes
DIII. Various
DIV. Aspects of Behaviour
DV. Anger

XDII. ASKING PERMISSION TO ENTER

481. How was the Ayat of Veiling revealed?

1051. Anas said that he was ten years old when the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came to Madina. He said, “My mothers decided that I would serve him and I served him for ten years. He died when I was twenty. I am the person who knows best about the business of the veil. The first instance that was revealed occurred when the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, built a room for Zaynab bint Jahsh. He celebrated the wedding there, invited the people who came, ate and then left. A group remained with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. They stayed for a long time and then the Prophet went out and I went out hoping that they would leave. He walked and I walked with him until he came to the threshold of ‘A’isha’s room. Then, thinking that they would have left, he returned and I returned with him. He went to Zaynab but they were still sitting there. He left again and I left with him until he once more reached the threshold of ‘A’isha’s room. When he thought that they would have gone, he went back again and I went back with him. This time they had indeed left. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, then put up a curtain between me and him, and the veil was revealed.”

482. Three times of nakedness

1052. Tha’laba ibn Abi Malik al-Qurazi reported that he rode to ‘Abdullah ibn Suwayd, one of the Banu Haritha ibn al-Harith, to ask him about the three times of nakedness. ‘Abdullah used to observe these times.

Tha’laba said, “‘Abdullah asked, ‘What do you want?’ I replied, ‘I want to observe them.’

He said, ‘When I take off my garment at midday, none of my family who have reached puberty comes to me without my permission unless I call them. Nor do they do that when it is Fajr until people know that I have prayed, nor when I have prayed ‘Isha’ and removed my clothes so that I can sleep.'”

483. A man eating with his wife

1053. ‘A’isha said, “I used to eat date and butter mixture with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. ‘Umar visited and the Prophet invited him and he ate. ‘Umar’s hand touched my fingers and he said, ‘Oh! If I were to be obeyed about you, no eye would ever see you!’ Then the veil was revealed.”

1054. Umm Habiba bint Qays (Khawla) was heard to say, “My hand and that of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, mixed together in the same vessel.”

484.When someone enters a house which is uninhabited

1055. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar said, “When someone enters a house which is not lived in, he should say,

‘Peace be upon the righteous slaves of Allah.'”

1056. Ibn ‘Abbas said, “The verse, ‘Do not enter houses other than your own until you have asked permission and greeted their inhabitants’ (24:27) has an exception made to it when Allah says,

”There is nothing wrong in your entering houses where no one lives where there is some service for you. Allah knows what you divulge and what you conceal.'”

485. “Those you own as slaves should ask your permission to enter” (24:56)

1057. Regarding the ayat, “Those you own as slaves should ask your permission to enter” (24:56), Ibn ‘Umar said, “That applies to men rather than women.”

486. The words of Allah, “Once your children have reached puberty” (24:57)

1058. Ibn ‘Umar reported that when his children had reached puberty and he had withdrawn to his room, none of them entered where he was except with his permission.

487. Someone asking permission to come in to visit his mother

1059. ‘Alqama said, “A man came to ‘Abdullah and said, ‘Should I ask permission to go in where my mother is?’ He said, ‘At all times. Do you want to see her (exposed)?'”

1060. Muslim ibn Nadhir said, “A man asked Hudhayfa, ‘Should I ask permission to enter where my mother is?’ He replied, ‘If you were not to ask her permission, you would see what you dislike.'”

488. Asking permission to enter where one’s father is

1061. Musa ibn Talha said, “I entered where my mother was with my father. He went in and I followed him. He turned and pushed me in the chest so that I fell on my bottom. Then he said, ‘Will you enter without permission!'”

489. Asking permission to go in to one’s father and one’s child

1062. Jabir said, “A man should ask permission from his son and his mother, even if she is old, his brother, his sister and his father.”

490. Asking a sister’s permission to enter

1063. ‘Ata’ said, “I asked Ibn ‘Abbas, ‘Does one ask permission of one’s sister?’ He replied, ‘Yes.’ I repeated it and said, ‘My two sisters live in my room and I provide for them and spend on them, so do I ask them for permission?’ He said, ‘Yes. Do you want to see them naked?’

Then he recited, ‘O you who believe! Those you own as slaves and those of you who have not as yet reached puberty should ask your permission to enter at three times: before the Dawn Prayer and when you have undressed at noon and after the Night Prayer – three times of nakedness for you.’ (24:56)

Ibn ‘Abbas said, ‘He did not command these individuals to ask permission other than at these three times of nakedness.’ Then he went on to say, ‘The verse in Surat an-Nur:57 is: ‘Once your children have reached puberty, they should ask your permission to enter as those before them also asked permission.'”

Ibn ‘Abbas said, “Asking permission is obligatory.” Ibn Jurayj added, “For all people.”

491. Asking your brother for permission to enter

1064. ‘Abdullah said, “A man asks permission of his father, his mother, his brother and his sister.”

492. Asking permission three times

1065. ‘Ubayd ibn ‘Umayr reported that Abu Musa al-Ash’ari asked permission of ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab, but he did not grant him permission. It seemed that he was busy. Abu Musa came back and ‘Umar had finished. He said, “Didn’t I hear the voice of ‘Abdullah ibn Qays? Give him permission to enter.” He was told, “He has gone away,” so he sent after him. Abu Musa said, “We were commanded to behave like that (i.e. to go away after having asked permission to enter three times).” ‘Umar said, “Bring me a clear proof of it.”

He then went to the gathering of the Ansar and questioned them. They said, “Only the youngest of us will attest to that Abu Sa’id al-Khudri.” He went with Abu Sa’id. ‘Umar said, “Is something of what the may Allah bless him and grant him peace,, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, commanded hidden from me? Doing business in the markets distracted me,” i.e. going out to trade.

493. Asking permission to enter is not a greeting

1066. Regarding the person who asks for permission to enter before he gives the greeting, Abu Hurayra said, “He is not given permission until he has first given the greeting.”

1067. Abu Hurayra said, “When someone comes in and does not say, ‘Peace be upon you,’ then say, ‘No,’ until he brings the key which is the greeting (salam).”

494.When someone looks without permission, his eye is gouged out

1068. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “If a man looks into your house and you take some pebbles and gouge out his eye, there is no fault in you.”

1069. Anas said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was standing in prayer and a man looked into his room. He took an arrow from his quiver and aimed it at his eyes.”

495. Asking permission without looking

1070. Sahl ibn Sa’d told him that a man looked from a room through the door of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, while the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had a comb with which he was scratching his hair. When the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, saw him, he said, “If I had known that you were looking at me, I would have stabbed you in the eye with this!”

1071. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The ear is put in the place of the eye.”

1072. Anas said, “A man looked through a gap into the room of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and the Messenger of Allah aimed an arrow-head at him, and the man withdrew his head.”

496.When a man greets another man in his room

1073. ‘Ubayd ibn Hunayn related to him that Abu Musa said, “I asked permission three times to come in to ‘Umar, but he did not give me permission and so I went away. He said, ”Abdullah, is it hard on you to be kept waiting at your door.’ I said, ‘I asked permission from you three times and you did not give me permission, so I went away (and we were commanded to do that).’

‘Umar said, ‘From whom did you hear this?’ I replied, ‘I heard it from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.’

‘Umar said, ‘Did you hear something from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, which I did not hear? If you do not bring me a clear proof, I will make an example of you!’ Therefore I went to a group of Ansar who were sitting in the mosque. I asked them and they said, ‘Does anyone doubt this?’ I told them what ‘Umar had said. They said, ‘Only the youngest of us will go with you.’

So Abu Sa’id al-Khudri or Abu Mas’ud went with me to ‘Umar. He said, ‘We went out with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, when he was going to Sa’d ibn ‘Ubada. He gave the greeting, but Sa’d did not give permission. Then he greeted him a second time and then a third time, but Sa’d did not give him permission. So the Prophet said, ‘We have done what we must.’ Then he went back and Sa’d caught up to him and said, ‘Messenger of Allah! By the One who sent you with the Truth, every time you greeted me, I heard and answered you, but I wanted to have a lot of greeting (peace) from you for me and the people of my house.'”

Abu Musa said, “By Allah, I am a guardian of the hadith of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.” ‘Umar said, “Yes, but I wanted to make sure.”

497. A man’s invitation is his permission

1074. ‘Abdullah said, “When a man is given an invitation, that is his permission to enter.”

1075. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “When one of you gives someone an invitation and the person you invited comes with your messenger, that is his permission to enter.”

1076. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “A man’s messenger to another man is his permission to enter.”

1077. Abu’l-‘Alaniyya said, “I came to Abu Sa’id al-Khudri and greeted him, but he did not give me permission. Then I greeted him again and he did not give me permission. Then I greeted him a third time, raising my voice and said, ‘Peace be upon you, people of the house,’ and he did not give me permission. Then I went off to one side and sat down. A slave boy came out to me and said, ‘Enter.’ I entered and Abu Sa’id said to me, ‘If you had said it any more times, I would not have given you permission.’ I asked him about vessels (i.e. those used for wine) and other things. He said, ‘Haram.’ I asked him about an old milk-skin made into a bucket for fermentation purposes. ‘Haram,’ he said.”

498. How does someone stand at a door

1078. ‘Abdullah ibn Busr, the Companion of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said that when the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came to a door when he wanted to ask permission to enter, he did not face it directly. He stood to the right or the left. If he was given permission, he went in. Otherwise he went away.

499.When someone asks permission to enter, he says, “When shall I leave? Where shall I sit?”

1079. Mu’awiya ibn Hudayj said, “I came to ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, and asked him for permission to enter. They told me, ‘Stay where you are until he comes to you.’ I sat down near his door.”

He continued, “‘Umar came out to me, called for water and did wudu’. Then he wiped over his leather socks. I said, ‘O Amir al’-Mu’minin, is this on account of urine?’ He replied, ‘On account of urine or other things.'”

500. Knocking on a door

1080. Anas ibn Malik reported that people knocked on the door of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, using their fingernails.

501.When someone enters without having asked permission

1081. Kalda ibn Hanbal reported that Safwan ibn Umayya sent him to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, during the Conquest of Makka with some milk, gazelle, and cucumber. (Abu ‘Asim said that the meant vegetables.) The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was at the top of the valley and I did not give the greeting nor ask for permission.

He said, “Go back and say, ‘Peace be upon you. May I enter?’ That was after Safwan had become Muslim.”

1082. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “If someone looks inside, he should not be given permission to enter.”

502.When someone says, “Can I come in?” and does not give a greeting

1083. ‘Ata’ reported that Abu Hurayra said, “When someone says, “Can I come in?” and does not give the key.'” ‘Ata’ said, “Peace?” and Abu Hurayra replied, “Yes.”

1084. Rib’i ibn Hirash reported that a man of the Banu ‘Amir came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, “Can I come in?” The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, told his slavegirl, “Go out and say to him,, ‘Say, “Peace be upon you. Can I come in?” He is not good at asking permission to enter.” The man said, “I heard that before the slavegirl came out to me and I said, ‘Peace be upon you. Can I come in?’ Then the Prophet said, ‘And on you. Enter!'”

The man continued, “I went in and asked, ‘Why have you been sent?’ The Prophet replied, ‘I have only brought good. I have come to you in order that you worship Allah alone with no partner and stop worshipping al-Lat and al-‘Uzza and pray five prayers in the night and day, fast a month in the year and go on hajj to this House. You are to take from the property of your rich men and give it toy our poor.’

I said to him, ‘Is there anything you do not know?’ The Prophet replied, ‘Allah knows the good. There is knowledge which no one except Allah knows. There are five things which only Allah knows:

“Truly Allah has knowledge of the Hour and sends down abundant rain and knows what is in the wombs. And no self knows what it will earn tomorrow and no self knows in what land it will die.” (31:34)'”

503. How to ask permission to enter

1085. Ibn ‘Abbas said, “‘Umar asked permission to visit the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, ‘Peace be upon the Messenger of Allah! Peace be upon you! Can I come in?'”

504. The one who says, “Who is it?” and is answered, “Me”

1086. Jabir said, “I came to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, about a debt my father owed. I knocked at the door and he asked. ‘Who is it?’ ‘Me,’ I replied. He said, ‘Me?

Me?’ as if he disliked that.”

1087. Burayda said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went out to the mosque while Musa was reciting. He said, ‘Who is it?’ I said ‘I am Burayda, may I be your ransom!’ The Prophet said, ‘This man has been given one of the flutes of the family of Da’ud.'”

505.When someone asks permission, he is told, “Enter with peace”

1088. ‘Abdu’r-Rahman ibn Ju’dan said, “I was with ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar and he asked permission from the people of the house to enter. He was told, ‘Enter with peace,’ and he refused to enter them.'”

506. Looking into houses

1089. Abu Hurayra said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “When the eye enters, permission to enter should not be given.”

1090. Muslim ibn Nadhir said, “A man asked permission to enter from Hudhayfa. He looked in and said, ‘May I come in?’ Hudhayfa replied, ‘As for you eye, it has already entered. As for your bottom, it has not entered.'”

1090 (sic). A man said, “Shall I ask permission from my mother?” He replied, “If you do not ask her permission, you will see something you might dislike.”

1091. Anas ibn Malik reported that a bedouin came to the house of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and put his eye to the crack of the door. Therefore the Prophet took an arrow or a sharp stick and aimed it at the bedouin as to gouge out his eye.

The man left and the Prophet said, “If you had stayed, I would have gouged out your eye.”

1092. ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab said, “Anyone who fills his eye with the contents of a house before he has been given permission has gone astray.”

1093. Thawban, the mawla of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, related that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “It is not lawful for a Muslim man to look inside a house until he has been given permission. If he does so, he has entered. He should not act as the imam of a people and then single himself out for supplication to the exclusion of others. He should not pray while he needs to urinate until he has relieved himself.”

507. The excellence of someone who enters his house saying “Peace”

1094. Abu Umama reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, Allah is responsible for three: if they live, they will have enough, and if they die, they will enter the Garden. Allah Almighty is responsible for whoever enters his house , saying ‘Peace’. Allah is responsible for whoever goes out to the mosque. Allah is responsible for whoever goes out in the Way of Allah.”

1095. Jabir said, “When you come in to your family, greet them with a greeting from Allah which is blessed and good.” He added, “I only think that it is what is meant by His words, ‘When you are greeted with a greeting, greet with one better than it or return it.’ (4:86)”

508.When someone does not mention Allah when he enters his house, shaytan spends the night in it

1096. Jabir reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “When a man enters his house, he should Allah mention Allah Almighty, both when he enters and he eats.

If he does so, Shaytan says (i.e. to the shayatin), ‘You cannot spend the night or eat.’ When he enters and does not mention Allah when he enters, Shaytan says, ‘You have got your lodgings for the night and your supper.'”

509.What one is not given permission for

1097. A’yan al-Khwarizmi said, “We came to Anas ibn Malik while he was sitting his foyer with anyone else with him. My companion greeted him and said, ‘May I come in?’ Anas said, ‘Come in. This is a place where no one asks for permission.’ He had food brought to us and we ate. Then a cup of sweet nabidh was brought and we drank and were full.”

510. Asking permission in shops in the market

1098. Mujahid said, “Ibn ‘Umar did not ask permission to enter shops in the market.”

1099. ‘Ata’ said, “Ibn ‘Umar used to ask permission to enter market-stalls.”

511. How to ask permission from Persians

1100. Abu Malik, the mawla of Umm Miskin, the daughter of (‘Umar) ibn ‘Asim ibn ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab, said, “My mistress sent me to Abu Hurayra and he came with me. When he was at the door, he asked in Persian, ‘Can we come in?’ ‘Come in!’ she replied.’ Then she said, ‘Abu Hurayra, if visitors come to me after ‘Isha’, should I enter into conversation with them?’ He replied, ‘Converse as long as you have not done the witr prayer. If you have down the witr, there is no conversation after it.'”

XDIII. THE PEOPLE OF THE BOOK

512.When a dhimmi writes and gives the greeting, he is answered

1101. Abu ‘Uthman an-Nahdi said, “Abu Musa wrote to a Persian grandee and greeted him in his letter. He was asked, ‘Do you greet him when he is an unbeliever?’ He replied, ‘He wrote to me and greeted me, so I have answered him.'”

1102. Abu Basra l-Ghifari reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “I will ride to the Jews tomorrow. Do not give them the greeting first. If they greet you, then say, ‘and on you.'”

1103. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Do not give the People of the Book the greeting first. Force them to the narrowest part of the road.”

513. A person greeting a dhimmi with a gesture

1104. ‘Alqama said, “‘Abdullah used to greet the Persian grandees with a gesture.”

1105. Anas said, “A Jew passed by the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, saying,

‘Peace be upon you.’ His Companions returned the salam.’ The Prophet said, ‘The Jew said, ‘Poison (sam) be upon you.’ He caught hold of the Jew who admitted it.’ The Prophet said, ‘Answer him with what he said.'”

515. How to answer dhimmis

1106. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “When one of the Jews greets you and says, ‘Poison be upon you (as-samu ‘alaykum),’ say, ‘And on you.'”

1107. Ibn ‘Abbas said, “Return the greeting to whomever it is, Jew, Christian, or Magian. That is because Allah says, ‘When you are greeted with a greeting, greet with one better than it or return it.’ (4:86)”

516. The greeting to the gathering which includes both Muslims and idolaters

1108. Usama ibn Zayd related that one day the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was riding on a donkey on a straw saddle covered by a blanket from Fadak. Usama ibn Zayd was riding behind him. He was on his way to visit Sa’d ibn ‘Ubada. He passed by a meeting which included ‘Abdullah ibn Ubayy ibn Salul before the enemy of Allah had become Muslim. The gathering contained a mixture of Muslims, associaters and idolaters. He greeted them.

517. How does one write to the People of the Book?

1109. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas related that Abu Sufyan ibn Harb sent him to Heraclius, the Byzantine Emperor, and he called for the letter of the Messenger of Allah which Dihya had brought to the governor of Busra, who in turn passed it on to Heraclius.

He read it out, saying, ‘In the name of Allah, the Merciful, the Compassionate, from Muhammad, the slave of Allah and His Messenger, to Heraclius, ruler of the Byzantines. Peace be upon the one who follows guidance. I call you to Islam. If you become Muslim, you will be safe and Allah will double your reward. If you turn away, then you incur the wrong action of your subjects. “O People of the Book! Come to a proposition which is the same for us and you (to His words) Bear witness that we are Muslims.” (3:54)'”

518.When the People of the Book say, “Poison be upon you”

1110. Jabir said, “Some of the Jews greeted the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, by saying, ‘Poison be upon you (as-Samu ‘alaykum)’ and the Prophet replied, ‘And on you.’

‘A’isha, may Allah be pleased with her, said angrily, ‘Didn’t you hear what they said?’ The Prophet replied, ‘Yes, and I answered them. What I said about them will be accepted and what they said about me will not be accepted.'”

519. The People of the Book are forced to the narrowest part of the road

1111. See 1103.

520. How to make supplication for a dhimmi

1112. ‘Uqba ibn ‘Amir al-Juhani passed by a man who looked like a Muslim who greeted him. ‘Uqba answered him, saying, “And on you and the mercy of Allah and his blessings.” His slave said to him, “He is a Christian.” ‘Uqba got up and followed him until he caught up to him. He said, “The mercy of Allah and His blessings are for the believers, but may Allah make your life long and give you much wealth and many children.”

1113. Ibn ‘Abbas said, “If Pharaoh had said to me, ‘May Allah bless you,’ I would have said, ‘And you.’ But Pharaoh is dead.”

1114. Abu Musa said, “The Jews used to sneeze in the presence in the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, hoping that he would say to them, ‘May Allah have mercy on you,’ but he used to say, ‘May Allah guide you and out your affairs in order.'”

521.When someone greets a Christian whom he does not recognise

1115. ‘Abdu’r-Rahman said, “Ibn ‘Umar passed by a Christian who greeted him and Ibn ‘Umar returned the greeting He was told that the man was a Christian. When he learned that, he went back to him and said, ‘Give me back my greeting.'”

522.When someone says, “So-and-so sends you his greetings”

1116. ‘A’isha reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to her, “Jibril sends you the greeting.” She replied, “And peace be upon him and the mercy of Allah.”

XDIV. LETTERS AND GREETINGS

523. Answering a letter

1117. Ibn ‘Abbas said, “I think that answering a letter is a duty, just like returning the greeting.”

524. Letters to women and their reply

1118. ‘A’isha bint Talha said, “I spoke to ‘A’isha when I was under her protection. People used to visit her from all places. Shaykhs used visit me because of my place with her. Young men used to treat me as a sister and give me presents and write to me from their cities.

I said to ‘A’isha, ‘Aunt, this is a letter from so-and-so and his gift.’ ‘A’isha told me, ‘My girl, answer him and reward him. If you do not have anything to give, I will give you something.’ She told her to give it to her.”

525. How to write the beginning of a letter

1119. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar wrote to ‘Abdu’l-Malik ibn Marwan in order to pledge him his allegiance.

He wrote to him, “In the Name of Allah, the All-Merciful, Most Merciful. To ‘Abdu’l-Malik, the Amir al-Mu’minin, from ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar. Peace be upon you. I praise Allah to you. There is no god but Him. I offer you obedience according to the sunna of Allah and the sunna of His Messenger as much as I can.”

526. “Following on from that”

1120. Zayd ibn Aslam said, “My father sent me to Ibn ‘Umar and I saw him write, ‘In the Name of Allah, the All-Merciful, Most Merciful. Following on from that'”

1121. Hisham ibn ‘Urwa said, “I saw some of the letters of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. After the introduction he said, ‘Following on from that'”

527. Beginning letters with “In the Name of Allah, the All-Merciful, Most Merciful”

1122. It is reported that Zayd ibn Thabit wrote this letter: “In the Name of Allah, the All-Merciful, Most Merciful. To the slave of Allah, Mu’awiya, the Amir al-Mu’minin, from Zayd ibn Thabit. Peace be upon you, Amir al-Mu’minin, and the mercy of Allah. I praise Allah to you. There is no god but Him. Following on from that'”

1123. Abu Mas’ud al-Jurayri related to him that a man asked al-Hasan about reading, “In the Name of Allah, the All-Merciful, Most Merciful.” He said, “That should be put at the beginning of letters.”

528. The one who is put first in a letter

1124. Nafi’ said, “Ibn ‘Umar needed something from Mu’awiya and he wanted to write to him. People said, ‘Begin with his name.’ They kept on at him until he wrote, ‘In the Name of Allah, the All-Merciful, Most Merciful, to Mu’awiya.'”

1125. Anas ibn Sirin said, “I wrote for Ibn ‘Umar and he said, ‘Write: “In the Name of Allah, the All-Merciful, Most Merciful. Following on from that: To so-and-so.”‘”

1126. Anas ibn Sirin said, “A man wrote in the presence of Ibn ‘Umar, ‘In the Name of Allah, the All-Merciful, Most Merciful, to so-and-so.’ Ibn ‘Umar forbade him and said, ‘Say: ‘In the Name of Allah. It is for Him.'”

[This had to do with using “ilâ” instead of “li”.]

1127. See 1122.

1128. Abu Hurayra said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘A man from the tribe of Israel and he mentioned the entire hadith had his friend write to him, ‘From so-and-so to so-and-so.'”

529. How are you this morning?

1129. Mahmud ibn Labid said, “When Sa’d’s eye was gravely wounded in the Battle of the Ditch, they moved him to the house of a woman called Rufayda who used to treat the wounded. When the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, passed by him, he would inquire, ‘How are you this evening?’ and in the morning, ‘How are you this morning?’ and he would tell him.”

1130. It is related from Ka’b ibn Malik, who was one of the three to whom Allah turned that Ibn ‘Abbas informed him that ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib emerged from the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in his illness from which he died and the people said,

“O Abu’l-Hasan! How is the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, this morning?” He said, “Praise be to Allah, he is well this morning.”

‘Abbas ibn ‘Abdu’l-Muttalib took him by the hand and said to him, “By Allah, in three days time you will be a subject. By Allah, I think that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, will die of this illness. I recognise death in the faces of the Banu Abdu’l-Muttalib when they are dying. Let us go to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and ask him who will have this authority. If it is for us, then we will know that, and if it is for other than us, we will know it and he can advise him to look after us.” ‘

Ali replied, “By Allah, if we ask him for it and he refuses us, then the people would never give it to us afterwards. By Allah, I will not ask it from the Messenger of Allah.”

530. Someone who writes at the end of a letter, “Peace be upon and the mercy of Allah” and writes so-and-so, son of so-and-so on the 20th of the month

1131. Ibn Abi-Zinad related from his father that he tool this letter from Kharija ibn Zayd and from the great members of the family of Zayd:

“In the Name of Allah, the All-Merciful, Most Merciful. To the slave of Prophet, Mu’awiya, the Amir al-Mu’minin, from Zayd ibn Thabit. Peace be upon you, Amir al-Mu’minin, and the mercy of Allah. I praise Allah to you. There is no god but Him. Following on from that, you asked me about the inheritance of the grandfather and brothers (and he mentioned the letter). We ask Allah for guidance, preservation and firmness in all our affairs. We seek refuge with Allah from being misguided or ignorant or taking on what we have no knowledge of. Peace be upon you, Amir al-Mu’minin, and the mercy of Allah and His blessings and His forgiveness. Wuhayb has written it on Thursday, the 20th Ramadan, 42 (AH).”

531. How are you?

1132. Anas ibn Malik reported that he heard ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab being greeted by a man and he returned the greeting. Then ‘Umar asked the man, “How are you?” The man replied, “I praise Allah to you.” ‘Umar said, :This is what I wanted to hear from you.”

532. How to answer when someone asks you, “How are you this morning?”

1133. Jabir ibn ‘Abdullah reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was asked, “How are you this morning?” He replied, “Well. Away from people who do not attend funerals or visit sick people.”

1134. Muhajir (who is as-Sa’igh) said, “I was sitting with one of the Companions of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, called Dakhm, from al-Hadramaym.

When someone asked him, ‘How are you this morning?’ Dakhm replied, ‘We do not associate anything with Allah.'”

1135. Sayf ibn Wahb reported that Abu’t-Tufayl asked him, “How old are you?” “Thirty-three years old,” he replied. He said, “Shall I tell you a hadith which I heard from Hudhayfa ibn al-Yaman?A man from Muharib ibn Khasafa called ‘Amr ibn Sulay’, a Companion, was my age on that day and I was your age.

Hudhayfa came to us in the mosque and sat at the edge of the people. ‘Amr went over until he was standing in front of him and asked, ‘How are you this morning (or evening), slave of Allah?’

Hudhayfa said, ‘I praise Allah.’ ‘Amr said, ‘What are these hadiths which have come to us from you?’ Hudhayfa said, ‘What have you heard from me, ‘Amr?’ He said, ‘Hadiths which I have not heard from anywhere else.’ Hudhayfa said, ‘By Allah, if I were to relate to you all that I have heard, you would be here with me until the middle of the night. ‘Amr ibn Sulay’, if you see Qays taking control of Syria, then beware and again beware. By Allah, Qays will not leave a believing slave of Allah without causing him to be in a state of fear or killing him. By Allah, a time will come to you in which the flood will not be stopped.’ He said, ‘Then what will help you against your people, may Allah have mercy on you?’ He said, ‘That is my business.’ Then he sat down.”

XDIV. GATHERINGS

533. The best gathering is the most expansive one

1136. ‘Abdu’r-Rahman ibn Abi ‘Amra al-Ansari related to him, “Abu Sa’id al-Khudri was told of a funeral.” He continued, “It seemed that he was hanging back until people had taken their seats. Then he came. When the people saw him, they quickly made room for him. One of them stood up for him to let him sit in his place.

He said, ‘Don’t. I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, “The best gathering is the most expansive one.” ‘Then he went to the side and sat in an expansive gathering.”

534. Facing qibla

1137. Munqidh said, “In most of the gatherings of ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar, he would face qibla. Once Yazid ibn ‘Abdullah ibn Fusayt recited Sajda after sunrise. He prostrated and the people there prostrated with the exception of ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar. When the sun rose, ‘Abdullah uncurled his legs and then prostrated.

He said, ‘Did you see the prostration of your companions? They prostrated at a time when the prayer should not be done.”

536.When someone stands up and then returns to his place

1138. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “When one of you gets up from his place and then returns to it, he is more entitled to.”

537. Sitting in the road

1139. Anas said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came to us when we were children. He greeted us and sent me to get something he needed. He sat in the road waiting for me until I came back to him.”

Anas continued, “I kept Umm Sulaym [his mother] waiting and she asked, ‘What kept you?’ I replied, ‘The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, sent me for something he needed.’ ‘What was it?’ she asked. ‘It is a secret,’ I replied. She said, ‘Keep the secret of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.'”

538. Making room in a gathering

1140. Ibn ‘Umar reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “None of you should make a man rise from his seat and then sit in it. Rather make room and spread out.”

539. A man sitting at the edge of a gathering

1141. Jabir ibn Samura said, “When we came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, we would sit at the edge of the group.”

540. Do not separate two people

1142. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “It is not lawful for a man to separate two people except with the permission of both of them.”

540. Stepping over people to move towards the leader of a gathering

1143. Ibn ‘Abbas said, “When ‘Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, was attacked, I was one of those who carried him into his house. He said to me, ‘Nephew, go see who wounded me and who was wounded with me.’

I went and returned to tell him, but the room was full at that time. I did not want to step over people’s necks because I was young, and so I sat down. ‘Umar’s rule when he sent someone for a need was that he commanded him not to tell about it. ‘Umar had a cover over him.

Ka’b came and said, ‘By Allah, if the Amir al-Mu’minin makes supplication, Allah will let him remain alive and restore him to this community until he does such-and-such and such-and-such for them’ until Ka’b mentioned the hypocrites. He actually named them and used their kunyas. I said, ‘Shall I convey to him what you have said?’ Ka’b said, ‘I only said it because I intended that it be done.’

I plucked up courage and stood up, I stepped over people’s necks until I sat by ‘Umar’s head. I said, ‘You sent me to find out such-and-such. Thirteen people were wounded with you. Kulayb ibn al-Jazzar was wounded while he was doing wudu’ from the cistern. Ka’b swore such-and-such by Allah.’

He said, ‘Summon Ka’b.’ He was summoned and ‘Umar asked, ‘What did you say?’ He replied, ‘I said such-and-such.’ He said, ‘No, by Prophet, I will not make supplication. ‘Umar will be wretched if Allah does not forgive him.'”

1144. Ash-Sha’bi said, “A man came to ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr when there were some people sitting with him. He stepped over them in order to reach him. They stopped him and ‘Abdullah said, ‘Leave the man.’

He approached until he sat with him and then said, ‘Tell me something which you heard from the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.’ ‘

Abdullah said, ‘I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, “A Muslim is the one from whose tongue and hand the Muslims are safe. An emigrant (muhajir) is someone who abandons what Allah has forbidden.”‘”

541. The noblest of people for a person is his companion

1145. Ibn ‘Abbas said, “The most precious of people in my opinion is my sitting companion.”

1146. Ibn ‘Abbas said, “The most precious of people in my opinion is my sitting companion. This is so much the case that he can step over the shoulders of people until he sits with me.”

542. Can a man put his foot in front of someone he is sitting with

1147. Kathir ibn Murra related, “I entered the mosque on Friday and found ‘Awf ibn Malik al-Ashja’i sitting in a circle of men. He stretched out his feet in front of him. When he saw me, he pulled his feet back in. Then he said to me, ‘Do you know why I put my foot out? So that a righteous man might come and sit down.'”

543.When someone in a group of people spits

1148. Al-Harith ibn ‘Amr as-Sahmi related, “I came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, when he was at Mina or at ‘Arafa. People crowded around him and some Bedouins arrived.

When they saw his face, they said, ‘This is a blessed face.’ I said, ‘Messenger of Allah, pray for forgiveness for me.’ He said, ‘O Allah, forgive us!’ I said, ‘Ask forgiveness for me.’ He said, ‘O Allah, forgive us!’ I turned and said, Ask forgiveness for me.’ He said, ‘O Allah, forgive us!’ He spat on his hand and wiped it on his sandal. He did not want it to get on anyone around him.”

544. Gatherings on roads

1149. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade gatherings in the road. They said, “Messenger of Allah, it is hard for us to sit in our houses.”

He said, “If you must sit there, then fulfil the rights of the gathering.” They asked, ‘What is their right, Messenger of Allah?” He replied, “Guiding anyone who asks for directions, returning the greeting, lowering the eye, commanding the correct and forbidding the bad.”

1150. Abu Sa’id al-Khudri reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Beware of sitting in the road.” They said, “Messenger of Allah, we must meet where we can sit to talk.”

The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “If you must do it, then give the road its due.

“What is the due of the road, Messenger of Allah,” they asked.

He replied, “Lowering the eye, avoiding doing anything harmful, commanding the correct and forbidding the bad.”

545. Someone who sits dangling his feet in a well with his legs uncovered

1151. Abu Musa al-Ash’ari said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went out one day to one of the walled gardens of Madina, and I went out after him. When he entered the garden, I sat at the gate and said, I will be the doorkeeper of the Messenger of Allah today even if he has not commanded me to do it.’

The Prophet went and answered a call of nature and then sat on the edge of the well. He uncovered his legs and dangled them in the well. Abu Bakr came and asked for permission to enter.’

I said, ‘Stay where you are until I ask permission for you.’ He waited and I went to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, ‘Messenger of Allah, it is Abu Bakr asking permission to come in.’ He said, ‘Let him in and give him the good news of the Garden.’

He entered and sat at the right side of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, uncovered his legs and dangled them in the water. Then ‘Umar came. I said, ‘Stay where you are until I ask permission for you.’ The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘Let him in and give him the good news of the Garden.’ ‘Umar went in and sat at the left side of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, uncovered his legs and dangled his feet in the well. The rim of the well was then full and there was no place left to sit.

Then ‘Uthman came. I said, ‘Stay where you are until I ask permission for you.’ The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘Let him in and give him the good news of the Garden as well as an affliction which will befall him.’

‘Uthman came in and could not find a place with them. He moved around until he was facing them on the other side of the well, uncovered his legs and dangled them in the well. I began to wish that a brother of mine would come and I asked Allah to make him come, but he did not come before they had got up.”

Sa’id ibn al-Musayyab said, “I interpreted it as their graves. They (the Prophet, Abu Bakr and ‘Umar) were buried together here, but ‘Uthman was alone.”

1152. Abu Hurayra said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went out in the heat of the day. He did not speak to me nor did I speak to him until he came to the market of Qaynuqa’. He sat in the courtyard of Fatima’s house and asked, ‘Is the little one here? Is the little one here?’

Fatima held her son back for a short time. I think that she was putting a necklace on him or washing him. Then he came running and he hugged him and kissed him. He said, ‘O Allah, love him and love those who love him.'”

546.When a man rises to give place for someone in a gathering, that person should not sit in it

1153. Ibn ‘Umar said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade anyone forcing a man to rise from his seat so that someone else could sit in his place.”

XDV. BEHAVIOUR WITH PEOPLE

547. The Trust

1154. Anas said, “I was serving the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, one day. When I thought I had finished serving him, I said, ‘The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, is having a midday nap.’

So I left him and there were some children playing. I stood looking at them and their game. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came out, and came up to them and greeted them. Then he called me and sent me to get something he needed. He remained in the shade until I came back to him.

I was late for my mother and she and he asked, ‘What kept you?’ I replied, The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, sent me for something he needed.’ ‘What was it?’ she asked. I replied, ‘It is a secret of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.’

She said, Keep the secret of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.’ I did not tell anyone that secret. If I had told it, I would have told it to her.'”

548.When he turned, he turned completely

1155. Abu Hurayra described the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, with the words, “He was of medium height, but nearer to being tall. He was very white with a black beard and good front teeth. He had long eye-lashes. He was very broad between the shoulders and had full cheeks. He walked on his entire foot, but they did not have a hollow. He turned completely towards people or turned his back completely. I have not seen anyone like him before or since.'”

549.When a man is sent to another man for some reason and he does not tell him what it is

1156. Aslam said, “‘Umar said to me, ‘If I send you to a man, do not tell him why I sent you to him. If you do, Shaytan will prepare a lie for him in that.'”

550. Should you say, “Where have you come from?”

1157. Mujahid said, “It is disliked for a man to look sharply at his brother or to follow him with his glance when he leaves or to ask him, ‘Where have you come from and where are you going?'”

1158. Malik ibn Zubayd said, “We passed by Abu Dharr at ar-Rabadha. He said, ‘Where have you come from?’ We said, ‘Makka or from the Ancient House.’ He said, ‘Is this what you have done?’ We said, ‘Yes.’ He said, ‘And was there commerce or selling with it?’ ‘No,’ he replied. He said, ‘Then resume your actions anew.'”

551. Someone who listens to people’s conversation when they dislike for him to do that

1159. Ibn ‘Abbas reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Whoever fashions an image will have to breathe life into it and he will be punished since he will not be able to breathe life into it.

Anyone who claims to have seen a vision in a dream will have to string two beads of barely together and he will be punished because he will not be able to string them together.

Anyone who listens to people’s conversation when they move away from him will have molten lead poured into his ears.”

552. Sitting on an elevated seat

1160. Al-‘Iryan ibn al-Haytham said, “My father came to Mu’awiya when I was a body. When he reached him, he said, ‘Welcome, welcome.’ A man was sitting with him on the elevated seat.

He said, ‘Amir al-Mu’minin, who is this you are welcoming?’ He said, ‘This is the master of the people of the east. This is al-Haytham ibn al-Aswad.’

I asked, ‘Who is this?’ They replied, ‘This is ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr ibn al-‘As.’ I said to him, ‘Abu so-and-so. From where will the Dajjal emerge?’

He said, ‘I have not seen the people of a town who asked about what is far nor left what is near. You are from the people of a town.’ Then he said, ‘He will emerge from the land of Iraq with the trees and palm trees.'”

1161. Abu’l-‘Aliyya said, “I sat with Ibn ‘Abbas on an elevated seat.” Abu Jamra said, “I used to sit with Ibn ‘Abbas. He used to make me sit on his seat. He told him, ‘Stay with me so that I can allot you a portion of my property.’ I stayed with him for two months.”

1162. Abu Khulda reported that he heard Anas ibn Malik when he was with al-Hakam, the amir of Basra, on a seat. He said, “When the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was hot, he delayed the prayer until a cooler time of the day. When it was cold, he made the prayer early.”

1163. Anas ibn Malik said, “I came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, while he was on a seat with a bad woven on it. He had a pillow under his head made of skin stuffed with fibre.

There was a cloth between his skin and the seat. ‘Umar visited him and wept. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘What made you weep, ‘Umar?’

He said, ‘By Allah, Messenger of Allah, I am only weeping since I know that you are more noble with Allah than Chosroes and Caesar. They both live in what they live of this world while you, Messenger of Allah, are in the place I see.’

The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘Are you not content, ‘Umar, that they have this world while we have the Next?’

I replied, ‘Yes, Messenger of Allah.’ He said, ‘That is the way of it.'”

1164. Abu Rifa’a al-‘Adawi said, “I came to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, while he was speaking [i.e. on Jumu’a].

I said, ‘Messenger, a stranger man has come to ask about his deen. He does not know what his deen is.’

He turned to me and stopped speaking. He was brought a chair which I think had iron legs. (Hamid [one of the transmitters] said, ‘I think that it was black wood like iron).’] He sat down on it and began to teach me what Allah had taught him. Then he finished his speech.”

1165. Musa ibn Dihqan said, “I saw Ibn ‘Umar sitting on a bridal seat wearing a red garment.”

1165. (sic) ‘Imran ibn Muslim said, “I saw Anas sitting on a bed, placing one foot over another.”

553.When someone sees people conversing secretly, he should not enter where they are

1166. Sa’id al-Maqburi said, “I passed by Ibn ‘Umar who had a man with him with whom he was conversing. I went to them, and he struck me on the chest and said, ‘When you find two men conversing, do not go up to them nor sit with them until they give you permission.’

I said. ‘May Allah make you prosper, Abu ‘Abdu’r-Rahman. I hoped that I would hear something good from you.'”

1167. Ibn ‘Abbas said, “Whoever listens to people’s conversations when they do not want him to do so will have molten lead poured into his ears. Anyone who lies about a dram will be obliged to string a barley bead.”

554. Two should not converse to the exclusion of a third

1168. ‘Abdullah reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said,

“When there are three people, two should not converse together to the exclusion of the third.”

555.When there are four people

1169. ‘Abdullah reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said,

“When there are three people, two should not converse together to the exclusion of the third for that would grieve him.”

1170. Ibn ‘Umar reported something similar from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.

He stated, “We said, ‘If there are four?’ He said, ‘Then it will not harm him.'”

1171. ‘Abdullah reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Two should not converse to the exclusion of another until they are mixing with people since that would distress him.”

1172. Ibn ‘Umar said, “When there are four, there is no harm.”

556.When someone sits without someone else, he should ask his permission to leave

1173. Abu Burda ibn Abi Musa said, “I sat with ‘Abdullah ibn Sallam. He said, ‘You have sat down with us, but now it is time for us to leave.’ I said, ‘If you like.’ He got up and I followed him to the door.”

557. Do not sit in the edge of the sunlight

1174. Qays related that his father arrived while the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was speaking. He stood in the sun and the Prophet told him to move to the shade.

XDVI. SITTING AND LYING DOWN

558. Sitting wrapped up in a garment

1175. Abu Sa’id al-Khudri said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade two types of dress and two sales transactions. He forbade the sales transactions called mulamasa and munabadha.* The two types of dress are samma’ ** and wrapping oneself up in garment while sitting down [with the legs drawn up] without anything covering the private parts.”

[*Mulamasa is when a person touches something and that completes the sale without him examining it properly. Munabadha is when the seller throws the garment to someone and that completes the sale, without any inspection.

** Samma’ is put the corner of the garment over one shoulder so that one side is uncovered with nothing covering it.]

559. Someone who has a cushion thrown to him

1176. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr reported his fasting was mentioned to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. He said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came to visit me and I threw him a leather cushion stuffed with palm fibre, but he sat on the ground. The cushion remained between me and him.

He asked me, ‘Are three days every month enough for you?’ I said, ‘Messenger of Allah!’ He said, ‘Five?’ I said, ‘Messenger of Allah!’ He said, Eleven?’ I said, ‘Messenger of Allah!’ Then he said, ‘Do not exceed the fast of Da’ud. Half of the time. Fast one day and break the fast the next.'”

[‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr was fasting every day.]

1177. ‘Abdullah ibn Busr reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, passed by ‘Abdullah’s father who threw the Prophet a rug on which he sat.

560. Squatting

1178. Qayla related, “I saw the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, sitting squatting. When I saw the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, humble in his form of sitting, I trembled from dear.”

561. Sitting cross-legged

1179. Dhayyal ibn Hanzala said, “I visited the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and I saw him sitting cross-legged.”

1180. Abu Ruzayq related that he saw ‘Ali ibn ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas sitting cross-legged with one foot crossed over the other, the right on the left.

1181. ‘Imran ibn Muslim said, “I saw Anas ibn Malik sitting like that cross-legged, with one of his feet over the other one.”

562.Wrapping oneself up

1182. Salim ibn Jabir al-Hujaymi said, “I came up to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, when he was wrapped up in a cloak whose edges were cover his feet.

I said, ‘Messenger of Allah, advise me.’ He said, ‘You must have fearful awareness of Allah. Do not scorn anything correct, even pouring water from your bucket into the bucket of someone else who asks you for water or talking to your brother with a happy face. Beware of dragging your waist-wrapper it is part of arrogance and Allah does not like it. If a man blames you for something he knows about you, do not blame him for anything you know of him. Leave him to his own evil. You will have your reward. Do not abuse anything.'”

He said, “After that, I did not ever abuse anything, animal or man.”

1183. It is related that Abu Hurayra said, “I never saw al-Hasan without my eyes overflowing with tears. That is because the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went out one day and I found him in the mosque. He took my hand and I went along with him. He did not speak to me until we reached the market of Banu Qaynuqa’. He walked around it and looked. Then he left and I left with him until we reached the mosque. He sat down and wrapped himself in his garment.

Then he said, ‘Where is the little one? Call the little one to me.’ Hasan came running and jumped into his lap. Then he put his hand in his beard. Then the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, opened his mouth and put his tongue in his mouth. Then he said, O Allah, I love him, so love him and the one who loves him!'”

563. Someone who kneels

1184. Anas ibn Malik related that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, prayed Dhuhr with them. When he said the taslim, he stood on the minbar and talked about the Final Hour.

He mentioned terrible things about it. Then he said, ‘Whoever wants to ask about something should ask about it. By Allah, whatever you ask me about, I will tell you as long as I am in this place.’

People wept a great deal when they heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say that. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, repeated frequently, ‘Ask.’

‘Umar knelt on knees and said, ‘We are content with Prophet as a Lord, with Islam as a deen and Muhammad as a Messenger.’ The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was silent when ‘Umar said that.

Then the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘Better! By the One in Whose hand the soul of Muhammad is, I have been shown the Garden and the Fire inside this garden while I was praying. I have not seen any good and evil such as I have seen this day.'”

564. Lying down

1185. ‘Abdullah ibn Zayd ibn ‘Asim al-Mazini said, “I saw him.” Malik ibn Isma’il asked Ibn ‘Uyayna (who had transmitted this to him), “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace?” He replied, “Yes, lying down with one of his feet over the other.”

1186. Al-Miswar said, “I saw ‘Abdu’r-Rahman ibn ‘Awf lying down with one of his feet over the other.”

565. Lying on one’s face

1187. Ibn Tikhfa al-Ghifari reported that his father told him that he had been one of the People of the Bench. He told him, “I was sleeping in the mosque during the last part of the night, lying on my stomach. Someone came to me and moved me with his foot, saying, ‘Get up. This is a manner of lying

down which Allah hates.’ I raised my head and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was standing by my head.”

1188. Abu Umama reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, passed by a man in the mosque who was lying on his front. He kicked him with his foot and said, “Get up. It is the sleep of Jahannam.”

566. Only give or take things with the right hand

1189. Ibn ‘Umar said, “the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘None of you should eat with his left hand nor drink with his left hand. Shaytan eats and drinks with his left hand.'”

567.Where you should place your sandals when you sit down

1190. Ibn ‘Abbas said, “Part of the sunna is that when a man sits down, he removes his sandals and puts them at his side.”

568. Shaytan comes with a stick or something to chase a person out of bed

1191. Abu Umama said, “Shaytan comes to one of you in bed after his family has covered him and wished him good night. He throws sticks, stones or other things on him to make him angry with his family. When he feels that, he should not get angry with his family.’

He said, ‘It is part of the work of Shaytan.'”

569. Someone who spends the night on a roof without any covering

1192. ‘Ali reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “If anyone spends the night on the top of his house without protection, Allah has no responsibility for (protecting) him.”

1193. ‘Ali ibn ‘Umara said, “Abu Ayyub al-Ansari came and went up on the flat roof. He came down and said, ‘I almost spent the night with no protection.'”

1194. Zuhayr reported that one of the Companions of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “If anyone spends the night on a flat roof (without walls) and then falls off of it and dies, no one bears any responsibility for him. If anyone embarks on the sea when it is fierce (i.e. stormy) and is destroyed, no one bears any responsibility for him.”

570. Should you let your feet dangle while you are sitting?

1195. Abu Musa al-Ash’ari related that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was sitting in a walled garden on the rim of a well, dangling his feet into the well.

571.What to say when you go out for something

1196. When Ibn ‘Umar left his house, he used to say, “O Allah, keep me and those with me safe!”

1197. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to say when he left his house, “In the Name of Allah. Reliance is on Allah. There is no power nor strength except by Allah.”

572. Can a man put his feet out in front of his companions and can he lie down in their presence?

1198. Some of the delegation of ‘Abdu’l-Qays heard him mention the following: “When it became clear to us that we should go to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, we travelled until we were in sight of our destination. We were met by a man on a young camel. He greeted is and we returned the greeting.

Then he stopped and asked, ‘Which tribe are you from?’ We replied, ‘We are the delegation of ‘Abdu’l-Qays.’ The man said, ‘Welcome. I was looking for you. I came to give you good news. Yesterday the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, looked towards the east and told us, “Tomorrow from that direction (i.e. the east) there will come the best delegation of the Arabs.”

I spent the night preparing to leave. This morning I rode long and hard on my camel until dawn rose. Then I thought of returning, but I caught sight of the heads of your mounts.’

“Then he turned his mount with his reins and went back the way he had come until he reached the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, who was surrounded by his Companions from both the Muhajirun and the Ansar.

The man said, ‘May my father and mother be your ransom, I have come to give you the good news of the delegation of the ‘Abdu’l-Qays!’ The Prophet said, “‘Umar, where did you see them?’ He said, ‘They are coming after me.’ When he mentioned that, the Prophet said, ‘Allah gives you good news of blessings.’

The people prepared their places. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was sitting and took the end of his robe in his hand. He was lying on it with his feet stretched out.

“The delegation arrived and the Muhajirun and Ansar expressed joy at seeing them. When they (the delegation) saw the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, the Companions, they made their mounts prance for joy. They came forward swiftly. The people made room for them while the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, remained reclining. Al-Ashajj, who is Mundhir ibn ‘A’idh ibn Mundhir ibn al-Harith ibn an-Nu’man ibn Ziyad ibn ‘Asar, stayed back. He rounded up their mounts and made them kneel. He removed their loads and collected their baggage together. Then he took out a bag which belonged to him, removed his travel garments, and put on a robe. Then he came walking slowly.

The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, asked,, ‘Who is your master and leader and the one in command?’ They all pointed at al-Ashajj. He said, ‘Is this man the son of your leaders?’ They replied, ‘His fathers were out masters in the time of the Jahiliyya and he led us to Islam.’

When al-Ashajj arrived, he wanted to sit in a corner, but the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, sat upright and said, ‘Here, Ashajj!*’ It was the first day that al-Ashajj was called that. He had got some redness in his skin when he was weaned. It was like a moon on his face. The Prophet seated al-Ashajj at his side and was kind to him and acknowledged his higher position over them. People came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, to ask him things and he answered them (and so on to the end of the hadith.)

“Then the Prophet said, ‘Is there someone with you who will give you anything to eat?’ ‘Yes,’ they said. They got up quickly, every man going to his load. They brought a heap of dates in their hands and placed them on a amt before him. Also in front of him there was a palm branch less than two armspans and more than one span long. He was sorting them. When he had divided them up, he pointed with it to a pile of those dates and said, ‘You called these Ta’dud?’ ‘Yes,’ they said. He said, ‘And you call these ones Sarafan?’ ‘Yes,’ they replied. He continued, ‘And you call these ones Barni?’ ‘Yes,’ they said. He said, ‘They are the best of your dates and the one beneficial for you.’

“One of the shaykhs of area said, ‘They have the greatest blessing, We had a lot which we used to feed our camels and donkeys. When we returned from the delegation, that increased our desire for them and we asked for them until their price increased. We saw the blessing in them.”

[* meaning to have a mark on his forehead.]

XDVII. MORNINGS AND EVENINGS

573.What to say in the morning

1199. Abu Hurayra said, “In the morning, the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, would say,

‘O Allah, We enter the morning by You and we enter the evening by You. We live by You and we die by You and to You is gathering.’ In the evening, he would say, ‘O Allah, we enter the evening by You and we enter the morning by You and we live by You and we die by You and to You is the return.'”

1200. Ibn ‘Umar said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did not omit saying the following words in the morning and evening:

‘O Prophet, I ask you for well-being in this world and the Next. O Allah, I ask you for forgiveness and well-being in my deen and in this world and in my family and my property. O Allah, veil my faults and calm my fears. O Allah, give me protection in front of me and behind me, on my right and my left and above me. I seek refuge by Your might from being overwhelmed from under me.'”

1201. Maymuna, the wife of the Prophet, said, “I heard Anas ibn Malik say that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said,

‘Whoever days in the morning, “O Allah, we bear witness to you and we bear witness to the bearers of You Throne and Your angels and all Your creation. You are Allah. There is no god but You alone with no partner and Muhammad is your slave and Messenger”,

by that Allah will free a quarter of him from the Fire on that day. If someone says it twice, Allah will free half of him from the Fire. If he says it four times, Allah will free him completely from the Fire on that day.'”

574.What to say in the evening

1202. Abu Hurayra reported that Abu Bakr said, “Messenger of Allah, teach me something that I can say morning and evening.” The Prophet said,

“O Allah, Knower of the Unseen and the Visible, Creator of the heavens and the earth, everything is in Your hands. I testify that there is no god but You. I seek refuge with You from the evil of myself and the evil of shaytan and his (encouragement to) associate others (with You).”

Say it in the morning and the evening and when you go to sleep.”

1203. A similar report from Abu Hurayra in which he said, “The Lord of everything and its Master.”

He said, “The evil of shaytan and his encouragement to associate.”

1204. Abu Rashid al-Hayrani said, “I came to ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar and asked him to relate to us what he had heard from the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. He handed me a paper and said, ‘This is what the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, wrote for me.’ I looked at it and it read: ‘Abu Bakr as-Siddiq asked the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, “Messenger of Allah, teach me what to say in the mornings and evenings.” He said, “Abu Bakr, say,

‘O Allah, the Creator of the heavens and the earth, the Knower of the Unseen and Visible. the Lord of all things and their Master. I seek refuge with You from the evil of shaytan and his encouragement to associate and that I bring evil on myself or bring it on another Muslim.'”‘”

XDVIII. SLEEPING AND GOING TO BED

575.What to say when you go to bed

1205. Hudhayfa said, “When the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, wanted to go to sleep, he said,

‘By Your Name, O Allah, I die and live.’ When he woke up, he said, ‘Praise be to Allah who gave us life after He made us die, and to Him is the gathering.'”

1206. Anas said, “When the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went to bed, he said,

‘Praise be to Allah who has given us food and drink, and given us enough and given us refuge. How many people have neither enough nor refuge!'”

1207. Jabir said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did not sleep until he had recited, ‘Alif-Lam-Mim. The Sending-down’ (32) and ‘Blessed is the One in whose hand the kingdom is’ (67).'”

Abu’z-Zubayr (the transmitter) observed, “They are better than every sura in the Qur’an to the amount of seventy good deeds. Anyone who recites them will have seventy good actions written for him, will be raised seventy degrees by it, and will have seventy errors falls from him.”

1208. ‘Abdullah said, “Going to sleep during dhikr comes from Shaytan. if you like, you can put it to the test. When one of you goes to bed and wants to go to sleep. he should mention Allah Almighty.”

1209. Jabir said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did not go to sleep until he had recited ‘Blessed’ (67) and ‘Alif-Lam-Mim. The Sending-down’ (32).”

1210. Abu Hurayra said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘When one of you goes to bed, he should undo the inside of his lower garment and dust the bed with it. He does not know what has come on his bed since he left it. He should lie down on his right side and say,

‘In Your Name I have laid down on my side. If You take my soul, then have mercy on it. If You release it, then preserve it in the manner in which You preserve the men of right action.”

1211. Al-Bara’ ibn ‘Azib said, “When the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went to bed, he laid down on his right side. Then he said,

‘O Allah, I have turned my face to You and I have surrendered my self to You and I have committed my back to You out of fear and desire for You. There is no place of safety or refuge from You except with You. I have believed in Your book which You revealed and Your Prophet whom You sent.’

He said, ‘Whoever says it at night and then dies, dies in fitra (natural state).'”

1212. Abu Hurayra said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to say when he went to bed,

‘O Allah, Lord of the heavens and the earth, and Lord of all things, Splitter of the grain and seeds, the One who sent down the Torah, the Gospel and the Qur’an! I seek refuge with You from every evil. You take by the forelock. You are the Outward, and there is nothing above You. You are the Inward and there is nothing below You. Pay my debts for me and keep me safe from poverty.'”

576. The excellence of making supplication when going to sleep

1213. See 1211.

1214. Jabir said, “When a man enters his house or goes to bed, an angel and shaytan hasten to him. The angel says, ‘Seal it with good!’ The Shaytan says, ‘Seal it with evil.’ If he praises Allah and remembers Him, he chases the shaytan away and spends the night with him guarding him. When he wakes up, the angel and shaytan hasten to him and say the same thing. If he mentions Allah and says,

‘Praise be to Allah, who keeps firm hold of the heavens and earth, preventing them from vanishing away. And if they vanished no one could then keep hold of them. Certainly He is Most Forbearing, Ever-Forgiving.’ (35:41) Praise be to Allah who holds back the sky preventing it from falling on the earth, except by His permission. Allah is All-Compassionate to mankind, Most Merciful .’ (22:63)

If he dies, he dies a martyr, If he gets up and prays, he prays in virtue.'”

577. Placing one’s hand under his cheek

1215. Al-Bara’ said, “When the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, wanted to go to sleep, he put his hand under his right cheek and said, ‘O Allah, protect me from Your punishment on the Day you raise up Your slaves.'”

578. Chapter

1216. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “If a Muslim man persists in two actions, he will enter the Garden. They are easy, but those who do them are few.’

He was asked, ‘What are they, may Allah bless him and grant him peace?’ He said, ‘That you say “Allahu akbar” ten times, “al-hamdu lillah” ten times, and “Subhana’llah” ten times after every prayer. That is 150 on the tongue and 1500 in the balance.’ I saw the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, counting them with his hand.

Then he said, ‘When you go to bed, you should say, “Subhana’llah”, “al-hamdu lillah”, and “Allahu akbar”. That is 100 on the tongue and 1000 in the balance. Who among you can do 2500 bad actions morning and night?’ He was asked, ‘Messenger of Allah, how is it that they are not counted?’

He said, ‘Shaytan comes to one of you while he is praying and reminds him of something he has to do such-and-such and such-and-such, so he does not remember to do it.'”

579.When someone gets up from his bed and then goes back to it, he should dust it

1217. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “When one of you goes to bed, he should dust his bed with the inside of his lower garment. he should say, ‘In the Name of Allah.’ He does not know what might have come on it after he left it. If he wants to lie down, he should lie down on his right side and say, ‘Glory be to You, my Lord, I have laid down on my side by You and I raise it up by You. If you take my soul, then forgive it. If you release it, then guard over it as You guard over Your righteous slaves.'”

580.What to say when you wake up in the night

1218. Rabi’a ibn Ka’b related, “I used to spend the night at the door of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and I would give him his wudu’ water.”

He said, “After a long period of the night had passed, I heard him say, ‘Allah hears whoever praises Him,’ and I heard him say after a long period of the night had passed, ‘Praise be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds.'”

581. Someone who goes to sleep with grease on his hand

1219. Ibn ‘Abbas reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Whoever goes to sleep with grease on his hand before washing it off and is afflicted by something should not blame anyone except himself.”

1220. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Anyone who spends the night with grease on his hand and is afflicted by something should not blame anyone but himself.”

582. Putting lamps out

1221. Jabir ibn ‘Abdullah reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Lock the doors, tie the water-skins, turn over the vessels, cover the vessels, and put out the lamps. Shaytan does not open a locked door, nor untie a water-skin, nor uncover a vessel. A mouse can cause a house to burn down with its inhabitants inside it.”

1222. Ibn ‘Abbas said, “A mouse came and began to drag the wick. The slavegirl moved to stop it. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘Leave it.’ The mouse brought the wick and put it on the mat where he was sitting. It burned a hole in it the size of a dirham. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘When you go to sleep, put out the lights. Shaytan guides things like this and then they burn you.'”

1223. Abu Sa’id said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, woke up one night and found that a mouse had taken the wick and climbed onto the roof with it to burn the house down over them. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, cursed it and it became lawful to kill it in the Haram.”

583. A fire should not be left burning in the house when people go to sleep

1224. Ibn ‘Umar reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Do not leave the fire burning in your house when you go to sleep.”

1225. ‘Umar said, “Fire is an enemy, so beware of it.” He used to go around an put out the fires of his family before he went to sleep at night.

1226. Ibn ‘Umar heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, “Do not leave a fire burning in your houses. It is an enemy.”

1227. Abu Musa said, “A house in Madina burned down with its inhabitants during the night. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was informed about that and said, ‘Fire is your enemy. When you go to sleep, put out the fires.'”

584. Seeing the Blessing of Rain

1228. Abu Mulayka related that when it rained, Ibn ‘Abbas said, “Slavegirl! Bring out my saddle and bring my garment. Allah says, ‘We sent down blessed water from the sky.’ (50:9)”

585. Hanging up a whip in the room

1229. Ibn ‘Abbas reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, commanded that whips be hung up in houses.

586. Locking the door at night

1230. Jabir ibn ‘Abdullah said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Beware of conversing after the night is still. None of you knows what creatures Allah will send, so lock your doors, tie up the water-skins, cover vessels and put out the lamps.”

587. Bringing children inside when evening falls

1231. Jabir reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Keep children in until the evening has completely fallen. That time is the hour when the shaytans come out.”

XDIX. ANIMALS

588. Making animals fight each other

1232. It is reported from Mujahid that Ibn ‘Umar disliked making animals fight each other.

589. The barking of dogs and braying of donkeys

1233. Jabir ibn ‘Abdullah reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said “Do not go out often after the night is still. Allah has animals which he sends out. Anyone who hears the barking of a dog or the braying of a donkey should seek refuge with Allah from the Accursed Shaytan. They see what you do not see.”

1234. Jabir ibn ‘Abdullah reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “When you hear a dog barking or a donkey braying in the night, seek refuge with Allah. They see what you do not see. Shut the doors and mention the Name of Allah over them. Shaytan will not open a door which has been shut and had the name of Allah mentioned over it. Then cover the pots, tie the water-skins and cover the vessels.”

1235. See previous two hadiths.

590.When you hear a cock

1236. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “When you hear the crowing of a cock in the night, it has seen an angel. Ask Allah for its blessing. If you hear the braying of a donkey in the night, it has seen a shaytan, so seek refuge with Allah from shaytan.”

591. Do not curse fleas

1237. Anas ibn Malik reported that a man cursed fleas in the presence of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Do not curse them. A flea woke up one of the Prophets for the prayer.”

D. MIDDAY NAPS

592. Sleeping at Midday

1238. ‘Umar said, “Sometimes some of the men of Quraysh sat at the door of Ibn Mas’ud. When the shadows shifted from west to east, he said, ‘Get up, Any time spent here after this is for Shaytan.’

He made everyone he passed by get up. While we were getting up, someone said to him, ‘This is the mawla of the Banu’l-Hashas who composes poetry.’ ‘Umar called and said, ‘What have you got to say?’

The man said: ‘Say farewell to Salma if you prepare to go in the morning, White hair and Islam is enough prohibition for a man’

‘Umar said, ‘Enough! You have spoken the truth. You have spoken the truth.'”

1239. As-Sa’ib ibn Yazid said, “‘Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, used to pass by us in the middle of the day or near to it and say, ‘Get up and take a midday nap. Any time spent here after this is for shaytan.'”

1240. Anas said, “They used to gather and then take a midday nap.”

1241. Anas said, “At the time that wine was made unlawful, there was no drink that the people of Madina liked better than that made from dried dates and unripe dates. I used to give the drink to the Companions of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. They were in the home of Abu Talha when a man passed by and announced, ‘Wine has been forbidden.’

They did not say, ‘When?’ or ‘Wait until we see.’ They said, ‘Anas, break them!’ Then they said in the presence of Umm Sulaym, ‘Wait until it becomes cool and we have washed ourselves.’ Then Umm Sulaym put perfume on them. Then they went to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and the news was as the man had said.”

Anas added, “After this they never drank it again.”

593. Sleeping at the end of the day

1242. Khawwat ibn Jubayr said, “Sleeping during the beginning of the day is stupidity. Sleeping during the middle of the day is also stupidity, and sleeping at the last part of it is imbecility.”

594. Banquet

1243. Maymun (ibn Mahran) said, “I asked Nafi’, ‘Did Ibn ‘Umar ever invite people to a banquet?’ He said, ‘A camel of his once broke something and so we sacrificed it. Then Ibn ‘Umar said, “Gather the people of Madina for me.”

I said, “Abu ‘Abdu’r-Rahman, for what? We do not have any bread.” He said, “O Allah, praise belongs to You. These are bits of meat and this is broth,” or he said, “Broth and meat chunks. Whoever wishes can eat and whoever wishes can leave it.”‘”

DI. CIRCUMCISION

595. Circumcision

1244. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Ibrahim, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was circumcised when he was eighty years old. He was circumcised with an axe (qadum).”

Abu ‘Abdullah said that “qadum” refers to the name of a place (rather than an axe).”

596. Female circumcision

1245. An old woman from Kufa, the grandmother of ‘Ali ibn Ghurab, reported that Umm al-Muhajir said, “I was captured with some girls from Byzantium. ‘Uthman offered us Islam, but only myself and one other girl accepted Islam. ‘Uthman said, ‘Go and circumcise them and purify them.'”

597. Supplication during circumcision

1246. Salim said, “Ibn ‘Umar, Nu’aym and I were circumcised and they sacrificed a ram on our behalf. I think that we were more happy about it than the other children since a ram had been sacrificed on our behlaf.”

598. Diversion during circumcision

1247. Umm ‘Alqama related that when the nieces of ‘A’isha’s brother were circumcised, ‘A’isha was asked, “Shall we call someone to amuse them?” “Yes,” she replied. ‘Adi was sent for and he came to them. ‘A’isha passed by the room and saw him singing and shaking his head in rapture and he had a large head of hair. ‘Uff!’ she exclaimed, ‘A shaytan! Get him out! Get him out!'”

599. The dhimmi’s invitation

1248. Aslam, the client of ‘Umar, said, “When we came to Syria with ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab, the chief came to him, ‘Amir al-Mu’minin, I have prepared some food for you and I would like you to bring some nobles with you. That will be a stronger and nobler action for me.’ ‘Umar said, ‘We cannot enter these churches of yours with the images which are inside them.'”

600. Circumcising slavegirls

1249. See 1245.

601. Circumcision of an older person

1250. Abu Hurayra said, “Ibrahim, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was circumcised when he was 120 years old. Then he lived eighty years after that.”

Sa’id ibn al-Musayyab said, “Ibrahim was the first to be circumcised, the first to give hospitality, the first to trim his moustache, the first to cut his nails and the first to get white hair.

He said, ‘O Lord, what is this?’ ‘Gravity,’ Allah replied. Ibrahim said, ‘O Lord, increase me in gravity!'”

1251. It is reported that al-Hasan said, “Are you not astonished by this man? (i.e. Malik ibn al-Mundhir) He went to some of the old people of Kaskar who had become Muslim and examined them and then commanded that they be circumcised although it was winter. I heard that some of them died.

Greeks and Abyssinians became Muslim with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and they were not examined at all.”

1252. Ibn Shihab said, “When a man became Muslim, he was ordered to have himself circumcised, even if he was old.”

602. An invitation when a child is born

1253. Bilal ibn Ka’b al-‘Ukki said, “We Ibrahim ibn Adham, ‘Abdu’l-‘Aziz ibn Qarir, Musa ibn Yasar and I visited Yahya ibn Hassan (al-Bakri al-Filistini) in his village. He brought us some food, but Musa held back because he was fasting.

Yahya said, ‘We had a man with the kunya of Abu Qursafa from the Banu Kinana who had been one of the Companions of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he was in this mosque for forty years. He would fast one day and break the fast the next day, My father had a son born to him and he invited this man on the day that he was fasting and he broke his fast.’ Ibrahim stood up and swept him with cloak and Musa broke his fast.”

603. Rubbing a child’s gums

1254. Anas said, “On the day he was born, I took ‘Abdullah ibn Abi Talha to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. I found him wearing a woollen robe while he was marking one of his camels with tar.

The Prophet said, ‘Do you have any dates with you?’ ‘Yes,’ I replied. I gave him some dates. He chewed the dates and opened the child’s mouth and put some chewed dates into the child’s mouth. The child licked his lips. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘The Ansar love dates,’ and gave him the name ‘Abdullah.”

604. Supplication at birth

1255. Mu’awiya ibn Qurra said, “When Iyas was born to me, I invited a group of the Companions of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and I fed them and they made supplication. I said, ‘You have made supplication, so may Allah bless you for your supplication. If I make supplication, then you say, “Amen”.’ He went on, ‘I made a lot of supplication for him for his deen, his intellect and things like that.’ He added, ‘I still recognise the supplication of that day in him.”

605. The person who praises Allah when he is born if he is well-formed and is not concerned whether it is a boy or a girl

1256. Kathir ibn ‘Ubayd said, “When someone in the family of ‘A’isha had a child, she did not ask, ‘Boy or girl?’ She asked, ‘Was he created well-formed?’ If the answer was ‘Yes,’ she said, ‘Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds.'”

606. Shaving pubic hair

1257. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Five things are included in the fitra: trimming the moustache, cutting the nails, shaving the public hair, plucking the armpits, and using the siwak (arak stick for cleaning the teeth).”

607. The time for cutting the nails and hair

1258. Nafi’ reported that Ibn ‘Umar used to trim his nails every fifteen days and shave his pubic hair every month.

DII. BETTING AND SIMILAR PASTIMES

608. Betting

1259. Ja’far ibn Abi’l-Mughira said, “Sa’id ibn Jubayr stayed with me and said tht Ibn ‘Abbas related to me that he used to say, ‘Where are those who play with gambling arrows for the slaughtered camel? They buy a camel with ten shares. Then they shuffle the arrows and it becomes nine shares and they continue until comes down to one share. The others lose their shares to the one share. That is gambling (arrow-shuffling).'”

1260. Ibn ‘Umar said, “Arrow-shuffling is gambling.”

609. Betting a cock

1261. Rabi’a ibn ‘Abdullah ibn al-Hadir ibn ‘Abdullah reported tht two men wagered two cocks in the time of ‘Umar. ‘Umar ordered that the cock be killed and a man of the Ansar said to him, “Will you kill a something which glorifies Allah?” So ‘Umar left it.

610. Someone who says to his companion, “Come, I’ll make a bet with you”

1262. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “If any of you makes an oath and swears in his oath by al-Lat and al-‘Uzza should say, ‘There is no god but Allah.’ If any of you tells him companion, ‘Come on, I will make a bet with you’ should give sadaqa.”

611. Betting a pigeon

1263. Husayn ibn Mus’ab reported that someone told Abu Hurayra, “We wager two pigeons and we do not want for there to be a third unwagered pigeon between them so that the unwagered pigeon might take the winnings.” Abu Hurayra said, “That is how children behave. You are at the point where you should abandon that.”

612. Doing the camel-chant for women’s camels

1264. It is related tht al-Bara’ ibn Malik used to do the camel-chant for the men and Anjasha used to do the camel-chant for the women. He had a good voice and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Anjasha, be gentle when you drive the glass-vessels.”

613. Singing

1265. Ibn ‘Abbas said that the words of Allah in Luqman (35:6), “There are people who trade in distracting tales” mean “singing and things like it.”

1266. Al-Bara’ ibn ‘Azib reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Extend the greeting and you will be safe. The saw is evil.”

Abu Mu’awiya (one of the transmitters) said, “The ‘saw’ is trivial pursuit.'”

1267. Salman al-Ilhani reported that Fadala ibn ‘Ubayd was in a gathering. He heard that some people were playing backgammon. He got up in anger and forbade it in the strongest possible terms. Then he said, “Anyone who plays it in order to consume its winnings is like someone who eats pig meat and does wudu’ with blood.”

614. The person who does not greet backgammon players

1268. Al-Fadil ibn Muslim reported that his father said, “When ‘Ali, may Allah be pleased with him, went out through the Bab al-Qasr, he saw some backgammon players. He took them and locked them up from morning to night. Some of them he only locked up for half the day. Those he locked up until night were those who used silver. Those he locked up for half the day were those who played it. He also commanded that they should not be greeted.”

615. The wrong action of someone who plays backgammon

1269. Abu Musa al-Ash’ari reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Anyone who plays backgammon has rebelled against Allah and His Messenger.”

1270. ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ud said, “Beware of these two marked cubes. They should be forcibly prohibited. They are part of gambling.”

1271. Burayda reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Someone who plays backgammon is like a person who puts his hand in the meat and blood of a pig.”

1272. Abu Musa reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Anyone who plays backgammon has rebelled against Allah and His Messenger.”

616. Manners and removing those who play backgammon and the people of trivial pursuits (ahl al-batil)

1273. Nafi’ related that if ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar found any of his family playing backgammon, he would beat them and break the board.

1274. ‘Alqama ibn Abi ‘Alqama reported from his mother that ‘A’isha, may Allah be pleased with her, heard that some people living in a room in her house had a backgammon game. She sent to them, Saying, “If you do not remove it, I will evict you from my house.” He censured them for playing that.

1275. Kulthum ibn Jabir said, “Ibn az-Zubayr addressed us and said, ‘People of Makka, I have heard that there are men of Quraysh who play a game called backgammon. It is done with the left hand. Allah says, ‘Wine and gambling.’ (5:90) I swear by Allah that if anyone who plays it is brought before me, I will punish him in his hair and skin, and I will give his booty to the one who brings him to me.”

1276. Ya’la ibn Murra reported that he heard Abu Hurayra speaking about someone who plays backgammon and bets on it, saying that he is like someone who eats pig meat and that the person who plays it without betting on it is like someone who washes his hands in pig’s blood. The person who sits looking at it is like someone who looks at pig’s meat.

1277. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr ibn al-‘As said, “Someone who plays dice for a bet is like a person who eats pig met. Someone who plays it without betting is like someone who washes his hands in pig’s blood.”

617. A believer is not harmed by the same stone twice

1278. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “A believer is not hurt by the same stone twice.”

618. Someone who shoots at night

1279. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Anyone who shoots at night is not one of us.”

[Abu ‘Abdullah [i.e. al-Bukhari] noted, “There is something doubtful in its isnad.]

1280. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Anyone who bears arms against us is not one of us.”

1281. Same hadith as 1280, but from Abu Musa.

DIII. VARIOUS

619.When Allah wants to take the soul of one of His slaves in some land, he gives him a reason for going there

1282. Abu’l-Malih reported from one of his people (who was a Companion) that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “When Allah wants one of His slaves to die in some land, he makes him have a reason for going there.”

620. The person who blows his nose in his garment

1283. Muhammad ibn Sirin related that Abu Hurayra blew his nose in his garment and then said, “Excellent! Excellent! Abu Hurayra blows his nose in cotton. You saw me lying prone between ‘A’isha’s room and the minbar when people said I was mad, but I was only hungry.”

621.Whispering

1284. Abu Hurayra related, “Some people said, ‘Messenger of Allah, we feel in ourselves something which we do not want to speak about and we have been in that state since sunrise.’ He said, ‘Have you really felt like that?’ ‘Yes,’ they said. He said, ‘That is clear belief.'”

1285. Shahr ibn Hawshab said, “I and my maternal aunt visited ‘A’isha and said, ‘Sometimes something occurs to one of us such that, if he had spoken about it, that would have been the end of his hopes for the Next World. If it were to be revealed, he would be killed for it.’ She said the takbir three times and then said, ‘The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was asked about that and said, “If that happens to one of you, he should say the takbir three times. Only a believer feels that.'”

1286. Anas ibn Malik said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘People will continue to ask about things that do not exist to such an extent that they will say, “Allah created everything, so who created Allah?”‘”

622. Opinion

1287. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Beware of opinion. Opinion is the most lying form of speech. Do not spy. Do not fight one another. Do not try to ensnare one another (in sales). Do not hate one another. Be slaves of Allah and brothers.”

1288. Anas said, “While the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was with one of his wives, a man passed by and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, called him and said, ‘So-and-so, this is my wife so-and-so.’ The man said, ‘Whoever I might suspect, I would not suspect you!’ The Prophet said, ‘Shaytan flows in the son of Adam like blood flows.'”

1289. ‘Abdullah said, “The person who has had something stolen from him continues to be suspicious until he is worse than the thief.”

1290. Bilal ibn Sa’d al-Ash’ari related that Mu’awiya wrote to Abu Dharr, “Write down for me the deviants of Damascus.” Abu Dharr said, “What do I have to do with the deviants of Damascus and how would I know them?”

His son Bilal said, “I will write them,” so he wrote them. Abu Dharr said, “How do you know? You would only know that they are deviants if you were one of them. Begin with yourself and do not send their names.”

623. The slavegirl and wife shaving the husband

1291. ‘Abdul-‘Aziz ibn Qays said, “I visited ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar while a slavegirl was shaving his hair.” He said, “The lime depilatory makes the skin supple.”

624. Plucking the armpits

1292. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The fitra consists of five: circumcision, shaving the pubic hair, plucking the armpits, clipping the moustache and clipping the moustache.”

1293. As 1292 but a different order.

1294. Similar to 1292.

625. Good contract

1295. Abu’t-Tufayl reported, “I saw the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, divide the meat at al-Ji’rana. At that time, I was a boy who carried the joint of the camel (after it had been sacrificed). A woman came to him and he spread out his robe for her. I asked, ‘Who is this?’ The reply was, ‘This is the woman who suckled him.'”

626. Recognition

1296. Al-Mughira ibn Shu’ba reported that a man said, “May Allah make the amir thrive! Your chamberlain recognises certain men and gives them preference in permission to enter.” He said, “May Allah excuse him! Recognition helps with a voracious good and attacking camel.”

627. Children playing with nuts

1297. Ibrahim said, “Our companions used to allow us all sorts of play things except for dogs.”

(Abu ‘Abdullah said that he meant the children.)

1298. Abu ‘Uqba said, “I once walked along the road with Ibn ‘Umar. I passed some Abyssinian lads who were playing and he brought out two dirhams which he gave to them.”

1299. ‘A’isha reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to call her companions to her who were playing with dolls.”

628. Sacrificing pigeons

1300. Abu Hurayra said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, saw a man following a dove and said, ‘A shaytan following a shaytan.'”

1301. Al-Hasan said, “‘Uthman did not speak on any Jumu’a without commanding the killing of dogs and slaughtering of doves.”

629. Someone who has a need is the person most entitled to go out for it

1302. Zayd ibn Thabit reported that ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab came to him to ask to see him one day and he gave him permission while his head was in the hands of a slavegirl of his who was combing his hair. He removed his head and ‘Umar said to him, ‘Let her comb it.’ He said, ‘Amir al-Mu’minin, if you were to send for me, I would come to you.’ ”Umar said, ‘It is my need.'”

630.When someone spits when he is with people

1303. Abu Hurayra said, “When someone spits in the presence of people, let him catch it with his palms so that his spit does not fall on the ground. When he fasts, he should oil his palm so that the trace of the fast is not seen on him.”

631.When a man speaks to people, he does not turn to one particular person

1304. Habib ibn Abi Thabit said, “When a man spoke, they used to like that he not turn to one particular man, but rather he should address everyone.”

DIV. ASPECTS OF BEHAVIOUR

632. Excess looking

1305. Ibn Abi’l-Hudhayl said, “Messenger of Allah visited a man with one of his companions. When he entered the house, his companion began to look around. ‘Abdullah told him, ‘By Allah, it would have been better for you if your eyes had been gouged out.”

1306. Nafi’ reported that a group of the people of Iraq visited Ibn ‘Umar. They saw a gold crown on one of their servants and looked at one another. He remarked, “How quick you are to see evil!”

633. Excess words

1307. Abu Hurayra said, “There is no good in excess words.”

1308. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The worst of my community are those who speak a lot, those who are diffuse in speech and those who fill their mouth with words. The best of my community are the best of them in character.”

634. The two-faced

1309. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The worst person is someone who is two-faced. He is the person who comes to one group of people with one face and another group of people with another face.”

635. The wrong action of the two-faced

1310. ‘Ammar ibn Yasir said, “I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say,

“The person who has two faces in this world will have two tongues of the Fire on the Day of Rising.’ He passed by a stout man and said, ‘This is one of them.'”

636. The worst person is the one from whose evil one must be on guard

1311. ‘Urwa ibn az-Zubayr heard ‘A’isha say, “A man asked permission to visit the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and the Prophet said, ‘Give him permission. He is an evil brother of his tribe.’

When he entered he spoke kindly to him. I said, ‘Messenger of Allah, you said what you said and then you spoke kindly to him.’ He replied, ‘Yes, ‘A’isha. The worst of people is the one people leave alone fearing his coarseness.'”

637. Modesty

1312. ‘Imran ibn Husayn said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said,

“Modesty brings nothing but good.” Bashir ibn Ka’b said, “It is written in books of wisdom, ‘From modesty comes gravity. From modesty comes tranquillity.””

‘Imran said, “I relate to you from the Messenger of Allah and you then relate to me from some page!”

1313. Ibn ‘Umar said, “Modesty and belief are together. If one of them is removed, the other is removed.”

638. Coarseness

1314. Abu Bakra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Modesty is part of belief. Belief is in the Garden. Foul language is part of coarseness and coarseness is in the Fire.”

1315. Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyya said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had a large head and large eyes. When he walked, he bent forward as if he was walking up a hill. When he turned around, he turned completely.”

639. If someone is not shy, let him do whatever he likes

1316. Abu Mas’ud said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Part of what people know of the words of first prophethood is that if someone is not shy, he can do whatever he likes.”

DV. ANGER

640. Anger

1317. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The person who is strong is not strong because he can knock people down. The person who is strong is the one who controls himself when he is angry.”

1318. Ibn ‘Umar said, “There is nothing that is swallowed greater with Allah in reward than a slave of Allah who swallows and contains his rancour out of desire for the pleasure of Allah.”

641.What to say in anger

1319. Sulayman ibn Surad said, “Two men abused one another in the presence of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and one of them began to get angry and his face got red.

The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, looked at him and said, ‘I know some words that, if he says them, will remove this from him. They are:

“I seek refuge with Allah from the Accursed Shaytan.”‘

The man went to that man and said, ‘Do you know what he said? He said, “I seek refugewith Allah from the Accursed Shaytan.”‘ The man retorted. ‘Do you think me mad?'”

1319. (sic) Another variant of 1319.

642. A person should remain silent when he is angry

1320. Ibn ‘Abbas said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘ Teach and make it easy. Teach and make it easy.’ three times. He went on, ‘When you are angry, be silent’ twice.”

643. Loving the one you love is an easy matter

1321. ‘Ali was heard to say to Ibn al-Kawwa’, “Do you know what the first one said? ‘Loving the one you love is an easy matter. It may be that one day he will be the one you hate. Hating the one who hate

is an easy matter, It may be that one day he will be the one you hate.'”

644. Do not let your anger be destruction

1322. Aslam said, ” ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab said, ‘Do not let your love be a total infatuation. Do not let your anger be destruction.’ I asked, ‘How is that?’ He replied, ‘When you love, you are infatuated like a child. When you hate, you desire destruction for your companion.'”

Taken From Kitab “Al-adab al-mufrad” by Imam al-Bukhari

Part 4: A Code For Every Living (Al-Adab al-Mufrad) by Imam Al-Bukhari


Topics
I. Parents
II. Ties of Kinship
III. Mawlas
IV. Looking After Girls
V. Looking After Children
VI. Neighbours
VII. Generosity and Orphans
VIII. Children Dying
IX. Being a Master
X. Responsibility
XI. Correctness
XII. Dealing with people cheerfully
XIII. Consulation
XIV. Dealings with people and good character
XV. Cursing and Defamation
XVI. Praising People
XVII. Visiting and Guests
XVIII. The Elderly
XIX. Children
XX. Mercy
XXI. Social Behaviour
XXII. Separation
XXII. Advice
XXIII. Defamation
XXIV. Extravagance in Building
XXV. Compassion
XXVI. Attending to this world
XXVII. Injustice
XXVIII. Illness and Visiting those who are ill
XXIX. General Behaviour
XXX. Supplication
XXXI. Guests and Spending
XXXII. Speech
XXXIII. Names
XXXIV. Kunyas
XXXV. Poetry
XXXVI. Words
XXXVII. General Behaviour
XXXVIII. Omens
XXXIX. Sneezing and Yawning
XD. Gestures
XDI. Greeting
XDII. Asking Permission to Enter
XDIII. People of the Book
XDIV. Letters and greetings
XDIV. Gatherings
XDV. Behaviour with people
XDVI. Sitting and lying down
XDVII. Mornings and evenings
XDVIII. Sleeping and going to bed
XDIX. Animals
D. Midday Naps
DI. Circumcision
DII. Betting and similar pastimes
DIII. Various
DIV. Aspects of Behaviour
DV. Anger

 

 

XXXI. GUEST AND SPENDING

316. A man serving his guest himself

746. Abu Usayd as-Sa’idi invited the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, to his wedding. His wife, who was the bride, served them that day. She said, “Do you know what I served the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace? I served him some dates which had been infused in a pot overnight.”

317. Someone who brings his guest food and then stands up to pray

747. Nu’aym ibn Qa’nab said, “I went to Abu Dharr and did not find him at home. I asked his wife, ‘Where is Abu Dharr?’ ‘Fetching some things for the house. He will be back presently.’ I sat down to wait for him and he came with two camels. One of them was lined up behind the other and each of the camels had a waterskin on its neck. Abu Dharr took them off. Then he came and I said, ‘Abu Dharr! There was no man who I desired to meet more than you and there was none that I hated to meet more than you!’

He said, ‘Your father belongs to Allah! How can these two be joined together?’ I replied, ‘In the Jahiliyya, a buried a daughter alive and I feared that I would meet you and you would say, “There is no way for you to repent. There is no way out.” On the other hand, I used to hope that you would say, ‘There is a way for you to repent. There is a way out.”‘

“Abu Dharr asked, ‘Was it during the time of the Jahiliyya that you did it?’ ‘Yes,’ I replied. He said, ‘Allah has pardoned what was already done.’ Then he told his wife, ‘Bring us some food.’ She refused. Then he ordered again and she refused. This continued until their voices were raised in argument.

Abu Dharr said, ‘All right then! They (women) do not consider what the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said!’ ‘What did the Messenger of Allah say about women?’ I asked.

He replied, ‘Woman is a crooked rib. If you try to straighten her out, you will break her. If you coax her gently, there will be love and a sufficient means (of obtaining what you want).’ She went and brought a stew, behaving like a dove.

“Abu Dharr said, ‘Eat. Don’t let me alarm you. I am fasting.’ Then he got up to pray. He began to perform rak’ats in quick succession. Then he turned and ate. I exclaimed, ‘We belong to Allah! I never thought that you would lie to me!’ He replied, ‘Your father belongs to Allah! I have never lied since the moment I met you!’ I said, ‘Did you not tell me that you were fasting?’ ‘Yes, he replied, ‘I have fasted three days of this month and so the reward for an entire month has been written for me and it is therefore lawful for me to eat.'”

318. A man spending on his family

748. Thawban reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The best dinar a man spends is the dinar which he spends on his family, the dinar which he spends on his companions in the Way of Allah, and the dinar which he spends on his riding animal in the Way of Allah.”

One of the transmitters, Abu Qilaba, said, He began with the family, Who has a greater reward that the man who spends on small children until such time that Allah Almighty makes them able to support themselves.”

749. Abu Mas’ud al-Badri reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “When someone spends something on his family and reckons its reward to be with Allah, then it is sadaqa for him.”

750. Jabir said, “A man said, ‘Messenger of Allah, I have a dinar.’ He said, ‘Spend it on yourself.’ The man said, ‘I have another.’ He said, ‘Spend it on your servant (or he said, ‘on your child’).’ The man said, ‘I have another.’ He said, ‘Use it in the Way of Allah, but that is the least form of sadaqa.'”

751. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “There are four dinars: a dinar which you give to a poor person, a dinar you give to free a slave, a dinar you spend in the Way of Allah, and a dinar which you spend on your family. The best of them is the dinar which you spend on your family.”

319. There is a reward for everything, even the morsel given to a wife

752. Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas transmitted that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to him, “You do not spend anything by which you desire the face of Allah Almighty but that you art rewarded for it, even what you place in your wife’s mouth.”

320. Supplication in the last third of the night

753. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Our Lord, the Blessed and Exalted, descends to the lowest heaven every night when a third of the night remains. He says, ‘Who is calling on Me so that I can answer him? Who is asking Me for something so that I can give to him? “Who is asking Me for forgiveness so that I can forgive him?'”

XXXII. SPEECH

321. Someone’s words, “So-and-so with the curly black hair” or someone “tall” or “short” when he intends to describe him and does not mean to slander him

754. Abu Ruhm, one of the Companions of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, who had offered his allegiance to the Prophet under the Tree [i.e. at Hudaybiyya] was heard to say,

“I went on the expedition to Tabuk with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. While we were travelling at night at al-Akhdar, I was near to the Prophet. A deep sleepiness overcame us, but I began to wake up when my camel wandered near to the Prophet’s camel. I was worried that when it came close, it would his foot in the stirrup. I began to pull my camel back, but at a certain point in the night I feel asleep. Then my camel jostled against the camel of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, while his foot was in stirrup, hitting his foot. I did not wake up until he exclaimed, ‘Ow!’ I said, ‘Messenger of Allah, ask for forgiveness for me!’

The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘Never mind.’ “Then the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, began to ask about those of the Banu Ghifar who had stayed behind. He asked, ‘What happened to the people with thin red beards?’

I replied that they had stayed behind. He asked,, ‘What did the people with the short black curly hair with camels in Shabakatu Shadakh do?’ Then I remembered that they were among the Banu Ghifar, but I did not remember them until I remembered that they were a party from Aslam. So I replied, ‘Messenger of Allah, they are from Aslam.’ He said, ‘What kept one of these men who failed to come letting one of his camels by ridden by an man eager in the Way of Allah? The most painful thing for me is that Muhajirun from Quraysh, the Ansar, Ghifar and Aslam should stay behind.'”

755. ‘A’isha said, “A man asked for permission to come in to see the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and the Prophet remarked, ‘He is a bad brother of his tribe.’ When the man came in, the Prophet was cheerful towards him. I asked the Prophet about that and he said, ‘Allah does not love anyone who is obscene and coarse.'”

756. ‘A’isha said, “Sawda, who was a heavy, sluggish woman, asked for permission to come in (to see the Prophet) on the night of Jam’ (Muzdalifa) and he gave her permission.”

322. Someone who does not see any harm in a historical story

757. Ibn Mas’ud said, “When the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, divided the booty of Hunayn at Ji’rana, the people crowded up against him. Then the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘Allah sent on of His slaves to a people and they rejected him and wounded him in the head. He wiped the blood from his brow, saying, “O Allah, forgive my people for they do not know.”‘”

‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ud added, “I can almost visualise the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, telling about the man wiping his brow.”

323. Someone who shields a Muslim

758. Abu’l-Haytham said, “Some people came to ‘Uqba ibn ‘Amir and said, ‘We have some neighbours who drink (wine) and behave incorrectly. Shall we bring them before the ruler?’ ‘No,’ he replied, ‘I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, “Whoever sees the fault of a Muslim and then veils it, it is as if he brought girl buried alive back to life from her grave.””

324. Someone saying, “People are destroyed.”

759. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “When you hear a man saying, ‘People are destroyed,’ then he has destroyed them.”

325. Do not call a hypocrite “master (sayyid)”

760. ‘Abdullah ibn Burayda reported from his father that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Do not call a hypocrite ‘master’. He is not your master and you will have angered your Lord, the Mighty and Exalted.”

326.What someone says when he is praised

761. ‘Adi ibn Arta’ said, “When one of the Companions of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was praised, he said in supplication to Allah), ‘Do not take me to task for what they say and forgive me for what they do not know.'”

762. Abu Qilaba reported that ‘Abdullah said to Abu Mas’ud or Abu Mas’ud said to ‘Abdullah, “What did you hear the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say about ‘(false) assertion?” He said, “It is a bad mount for a man.”

763. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr said, “Abu Mas’ud, what did you hear the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say about ‘People who make false claims?” He replied, “I heard him say, ‘A bad mount for a man’ and I heard him say, ‘Cursing a believer is like killing him.'”

327. One should not say about something he does not know, “Allah knows it”

764. Ibn ‘Abbas said, “None of you should say about a thing which he does not know, ‘Allah knows it’ when Allah may know that it is other than what he said and thus he (tries to) teach Allah what he does not know. That is something terrible in Allah’s sight.”

328. The rainbow

765. Ibn Abbas said, “The Milky Way is one of the gates of the heavens. The rainbow is security from being destroyed by flood after the people of Nuh, peace be upon him.”

329. The Milky Way

766. Ibn al-Kawwa’ asked ‘Ali about the Milky Way. He said, “It is the water-trough (or loop of the bag) from which the heaven opens up flowing water.”

767. Ibn ‘Abbas said, “The rainbow is security for the people of the earth that they will not be drowned. The Milky Way is the door of the heavens and forms a furrow through it.”

330. Someone who dislikes for it to be said, “O Allah, place me in the Abiding Abode of Your mercy”

768. Abu’l-Harith al-Kirmani heard a man say to Abu Raja’, “I greet you and I ask Allah to join both of us together in the Abiding Abode of His mercy.” Abu Raja’ said, “Is anyone capable of that?” He continued, “What is the Abiding Abode of His mercy?” “The Garden,” the man replied. “That is not correct,” he said. The man asked, “Then what is the Abiding Abode of His mercy?” “The Lord of the Worlds,” he replied.

331. Do not curse time

769. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “None of you should say, ‘May time (ad-Dahr) be disappointed. Allah is time (ad-Dahr).”

770. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “None of you should say, ‘May time be disappointed!’ Allah Almighty said, ‘I am time (ad-Dahr). I send the night and the day. If I so wished, I could take them away.’ None of you should the grape-vine ‘karm” (instead of ‘inab). Karm* is the Muslim man.”

[* Karm suggests honour.]

332. A man should not look sharply at his brother when he turns away

771. Mujahid said, “It is disliked for a man to stare at his brother or let his eye follow him when he turns his back or to ask, ‘Where have you come from? Where are you going?'”

333. Someone saying to someone else, “Bother you”

772. Anas reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, saw a man driving a sacrificial camel. “Ride it,” he told him. The man replied, “It is a sacrificial camel.” “Ride it,” he repeated. The man said again, “It is a sacrificial camel.” “Ride it,” he repeated. The man said, “It is a sacrificial camel.” The Prophet said, “Ride it, and bother you!”

773. Al-Miswar ibn Rifa’a al-Quruzi said, “I heard a man ask Ibn ‘Abbas, ‘Should I do wudu’ after I have eaten bread and meat?’ He replied, ‘Woe to you! Would you do wudu’ on account of good things?'”

774. Jabir said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was at al-Ji’rana on the Day of the Battle of Hunayn with the spoils in the custody of Bilal. The Prophet was dividing them out. A man came up to him and said, ‘Be just! You are not being just!’ The Prophet said, ‘Bother you! Who will be just if I am not just?’ ‘Umar said, ‘Messenger of Allah, let me strike off the head of the hypocrite!’ The Prophet said, ‘This man is with his followers who recite the Qur’an and it does not go beyond their throats. They pass through the deen as an arrow passes through the target (i.e. nothing of it remains on the arrow).'”

775. Bashir ibn Ma’bad as-Sadusi (whose name was Zahim ibn Ma’bad) made hijra (emigration) to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and the Prophet asked him, “What is your name?” “Zahim,” he replied. The Prophet said, ‘No, you are Bashir.”

Bashir said, “While I was walking with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, he passed the graves of some idolaters. He said, ‘These people have missed much good’ three times. Then he passed by the graves of the Muslims and observed, ‘These people have obtained much good.’

The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, suddenly looked up and saw a man wearing sandals walking among the graves. He said, ‘You with the ox-hide sandals, take off your sandals!’ When he saw the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, he removed his sandals and threw them away.'”

334. Building

776. Muhammad ibn Hilal reported that he saw the rooms of the wives of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. The rooms were made of palm trunks covered with hair. The transmitter (Muhammad ibn Abi Fudayk) said, “I asked him about ‘A’isha’s room and he said, ‘Its door faced Syria.’ I asked, ‘Was it one or two spans?’ ‘Its door was one span,’ he replied. I asked, ‘And what was it made of?’ He said, ‘From cypress or teak wood.'”

777. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The Final Hour will not come until houses’ adornments resemble painted garments.” Ibrahim (the transmitter) said, “He meant striped garments.”

335. A man saying, No, by your father”

778. Abu Hurayra said, “A man came to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, ‘Messenger of Allah, which sadaqa has the best reward?’ He said, ‘By your father, you will learn of it. It is that you give sadaqa while you are healthy and avaricious, fearful of poverty and desirous of wealth. You should not delay it until you are at the point of death and then say, “This much is for so-and-so. This much is for so-and-so. This much is for so-and-so.”‘”

336.When a person seeks something, he should ask for something small and not praise the person

779. ‘Abdullah said, “When one of you seeks something he needs, he should ask for something small. He will have what is decreed for him. None of you should go to his companion and then praise him and thus break his back.”

780. Abu ‘Izza Yassar ibn ‘Abdullah al-Hudhali reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “When Allah wants a slave to die in a particular country, he makes him have some reason for being there.”

337. Someone’s words, “May the one who hates you not have good!”

781. Abu ‘Abdu’l-‘Aziz said, “Abu Hurayra spent the night with us and looked at a star before him. Then he said, ‘By the One who holds Abu Hurayra in his hand, some people wish that they would be appointed commanders in the earth while their actions are as if they were handing from that star. They are not appointed to those positions of command not to those positions.’ Then he turned to me and said, ‘May the one who hates you not have good! Is all of this allowed by the people of the east in the east?’ ‘Yes, by Allah,’ I replied. He said, ‘May Allah make them ugly and drive them like angry camels as if their faces were beaten shields until they give the owner of a field his field and the owner of sheep his sheep!'”

338. Someone should not say, “Allah and so-and-so”

782. Mughith claimed that Ibn ‘Umar once asked him about his mawla and Mughith replied, “By Allah and so-and-so.” Ibn ‘Umar responded, “Do not speak like that. Do not put anyone with Allah. Say “soand- so: after you have said, “Allah.”

339. Someone saying, “What Allah wills and you will”

783. Ibn ‘Abbas said, “A man said, to the Prophet, ‘Whatever Allah wills and you will.’ He said, ‘You have put an equal with Allah. It is what Allah alone wills.'”

340. Singing and Play

784. ‘Abdullah ibn Dinar said, “I went out with ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar to the market. He passed by a small slave-girl who singing and remarked, ‘Shaytan. If he had left anyone, he would have left this girl.'”

785. Anas ibn Malik heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, “I have nothing to do with diversions and diversions have nothing to do with me.” He meant that he does not do anything worthless.”

786. Ibn ‘Abbas said about “There are some people who trade in distracting tales” (31:5) that it means singing and things like it.

787. Al-Bara’ ibn ‘Azib reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Spread the greeting to people and you will be safe. The saw is evil.” Abu Mu’awiya said that the “saw” means amusement.

788. Fadala ibn ‘Ubayd was at a meeting when he heard that some people were playing backgammon. He got up in anger to forbid it in the strongest possible terms. Then he said, “The one who plays in order to live on his winnings is like a person who eats pig meat and does wudu’ in blood.”

341. Guidance and good behaviour

789. Ibn Mas’ud was heard to say, “You are living at a time when there are many men of understanding and few orators. There are few who ask and many who give. In it there is more action than diversion. After you there will come a time when there are few men of understanding and many orators. There will be many who ask and few who give. Guidance in it directs action. Know that right guidance at the end of time is better than some actions.”

790. Abu’t-Tufayl said, “I was asked, ‘Did you see the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace?’ ‘Yes,’ I replied, ‘and I do not know of any man left alive on the face of the earth except myself who saw the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.’ He went on, ‘The Prophet had white skin and a handsome face.'”

In another transmission, al-Jurayri said, “I and Abu’t-Tufayl (‘Amir ibn Wathila l-Kinani) were doing tawaf of the House when Abu’t-Tufayl said, ‘There is no one remaining who saw the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, except me.’ I asked, ‘Did you actually see him?’ ‘Yes,’ he replied. I asked, ‘What was he like?’ He said, ‘He was white-skinned, handsome, and of medium stature.'”

791. Ibn ‘Abbas reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Right guidance, correct behaviour and being moderate form a twenty-fifth portion of prophethood.”

In another variant, “Right guidance, correct behaviour and moderation form a seventieth part of prophethood.”

342.When news comes to you from someone you do not furnish with travel provisions

792. It is related that ‘Ikrima said, “I asked ‘A’isha, ‘Did you ever hear the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, quoting poetry?’ She replied, ‘Sometimes when he entered a house, he would say, “News will come to you from someone you do not furnish with travel provisions.”*'”

[*. A line of poetry written by Abu Khirash.]

793. Ibn ‘Abbas said, “This is something that a Prophet said, ‘News will come to you from someone you do not furnish with travel provisions’ (meaning that he had quoted it.”

343.Wishing which is disliked

794. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “When one of you wishes for something, he should look to what he desires. He does not know what he will be given.”

344. Do not call the grape “kurm”

795. ‘Alqama ibn Wa’il reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “None of you should say ‘kurm.’ Rather use ‘habala’ for grape-vines.”

345. Someone saying, “Bother you”

796. See 772.

346. Someone saying, “O person!”

797. Hamna bint Jahsh said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘What is it, O person?'”

798. Habib ibn Sabhan al-Asadi said, “I saw ‘Ammar praying the obligatory prayer. Then he said to a man at his side, ‘O person!’ Then he got up.”

799. Ash-Sharid said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, rode with me behind him and said, “Do you know any of the poetry of Umayya ibn Abi’s-Salt?’ ‘Yes,’ I replied and recited a line. ‘Go on,’ he said, until I had recited a hundred lines.”

347. Someone saying, “I am lazy”

800. ‘A’isha said, “Do not forget to stand up at night to pray. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did not neglect to do it. If he was either ill or lazy, he prayed sitting down.”

348. Someone who seeks refuge from laziness

801. Anas ibn Malik said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to often say,

‘O Allah, I seek refuge with You from worry, sorrow, incapacity, laziness, cowardice, avarice, being overburdened by debt and being overcome by other men.'”

349. Someone’s words, “May my self be your ransom!”

802. Anas ibn Malik said, “Abu Talha used to kneel before the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and sprinkle water on his quiver and say:

‘May my face be a protection for your face And my self be a ransom for your self.'”

803. Abu Dharr said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went towards al-Baqi’ and I began to follow him. He turned and saw me and said, ‘Abu Dharr!’ I said, ‘At your service, Messenger of Allah. May I be your ransom.’ He said, ‘Those who are rich will be poor on the Day of Rising except those who say, “Such-and-such and such-and-such is for a right (which was performed).”‘ I said, ‘Allah and His Messenger know best.’

He said, ‘That is how it is’ three times. Then we came to Uhud. He said, ‘Abu Dharr!’ I replied, ‘At your service, Messenger of Allah. May I be your ransom.’ He said, ‘It would not delight me if Uhud were to become gold for the family of Muhammad and then have them spend a night with a dinar or he said a mithqal.’

Then we were at a wadi and he went ahead, so I thought that he felt a call of nature, and so I sat down at the edge of the wadi. He was gone a long time and I feared for him. Then I heard him and it seemed as if he were talking to a man. Then he came out to me my himself. I said, ‘Messenger of Allah, who was the man you were talking to?’ ‘Did you hear him?’ he asked. I said, ‘Yes.’ He said, ‘That was Jibril. He came to me and gave me the good news that whoever of my community dies without associating anything with Allah will enter the Garden.’ I said, ‘Even if he commits adultery or steals?’ He said, ‘Yes.'”

350. A man saying, “May my father and mother be my ransom”

804. ‘Abdullah ibn Shaddad said, “I heard ‘Ali, may Allah be pleased with him, say, ‘I did not see the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, saying, (“May my father and mother be) your ransom” after Sa’d. I heard him say to him, “May my father and mother be your ransom.”‘”

805. ‘Abdullah ibn Burayda related that his father said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went out to the mosque while Abu Musa was reciting and asked, ‘Who is this?’ ‘I am Burayda,’ I replied, ‘May I be your ransom!’ He said, ‘This man has been given one of the flutes of the family of Da’ud.'”

351. A man saying, “My son” to someone whose father did not become Muslim

806. As-Sa’b ibn Hakim reported that his grandfather said, “I came to ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him. He began to say, ‘Nephew.’ Then he questioned me and I told him my lineage and so he knew that my father had not become Muslim. He began to say, ‘My son, my son.'”

807. Anas said, “I used to serve the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.” He continued, “I used to enter without asking for permission to enter. One day I came and he said, ‘My son, there is anew situation. You should not come in unless you have permission.'”

808. Ibn Abi Sa’sa’sa reported from his father that Abu Sa’id al-Khudri called him “my son”.

352. Someone should not say, “khabuthat nafsi”* (an expression meaning “I am overcome with nausea”)

809. ‘A’isha reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “None of you should say, ‘khabuthat nafsi’. He should say, ‘Laqisat nafsi.'”

[* Khabutha has a connotation of foulness.”

810. Same with another isnad.

XXXIII. NAMES

353. The kunya Abu’l-Hakam

811. Hani’ ibn Yazid related that when he came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, with his people, the Prophet heard them using the kunya Abu’l-Hakam. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, called him and said, “Allah is the Judge (al-Hakam) and He has judgement. Why have you been given the kunya Abu’l-Hakam?”

He said, “When my people disagree about something, they bring it to me and I judge between them so that both parties are content.” “How excellent this!” the Prophet exclaimed. Then he asked, “Do you have any children?” Hani’ replied, “I have Shurayh, ‘Abdullah and Muslim, the Banu Hani’.’ He asked, “Which of them is the oldest?” “Shurayh,” he replied. He said, “You are Abu Shurayh,” and he made supplication for him and his children.

The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, then heard them call a man among them ‘Abdu’l-Hajar [slave of the Stone]. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, asked, “What is your name?” “‘Abdu’l-Hajar,” he replied. “No,” he said, your name is ‘Abdullah.”

Shurayh said, “When Hani was ready to return to his land, he came to the Prophet, ‘Abdullah and said, “Tell me something that will make the Garden certain for me.” He said, “You must speak good and give food.”

354. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, liked good names

812. ‘Abdullah Hudud related that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Who will drive these camels of ours?” or “Who will deliver these camels of ours?” A man said, “I will.”

He asked, “What is your name?” “So-and-so,” he said. He said, “Sit down.” Then another stood up and the Prophet asked, “What is your name?” The man said, “So-and-so.” He said, “Sit down.” Then another man stood up and the Prophet said, “What is your name?” “Najiyya (Rescuer),” he said. “The Prophet said, “You will do it. Drive them.”

355. Swiftness in walking

813. Ibn ‘Abbas said, “The Prophet of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came forward swiftly while we were sitting, He approached in such a manner that we wee alarmed by the speed with which he came towards us. When he reached us, he greeted us and said, ‘I came swiftly to you to tell you about the Night of Power. I forgot it in the time it took me to get to you, so look for it in the last ten nights (of Ramadan).'”

356. The names which Allah Almighty loves the most

814. Abu Wahb, a Companion, reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Name yourselves with the names of the Prophets. The names which Allah Almighty loves most are ‘Abdullah and ‘Abdu’r-Rahman. The most truthful names are Harith and Humam. The ugliest names are Harb and Murra.”

815. Jabir said, “A man had a child and named him al-Qasim. We said, ‘We will not give you the kunya Abu’l-Qasim nor will we so honour you. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was told and said, ‘Call your son ‘Abdu’r-Rahman.'”

357. Changing one name to another

816. Sahl said, “Al-Mundhir ibn Abi Usayd was brought to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, when he was born and the Prophet placed him on his thigh while Abu Usayd was seated near him. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was busy with something in front of him, so Abu Usayd told someone to take his son from the Prophet’s leg. When the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, became aware of it, he asked, ‘Where is the child?’ Abu Usayd replied, ‘We sent him home.’ The Prophet asked, ‘What is his name?’ He replied, ‘Such-andsuch.’ The Prophet said, ‘No, rather his name is al-Mundhir.’ So we called him al-Mundhir from that day.”

358. The name which Allah Almighty hates the most

817. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The name which hates the most is that a man be called the King of Kings.”

359. Someone who calls another person using the diminutive of his name

818. Talq ibn Habib said, “I was the most vehement person in denying intercession. I questioned Jabir and he said, ‘Tulayq, I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, “They will come out of the Fire after entering it,” and we recite (the same Book) you recite.'”

360. Calling someone by the name he loves the most

819. Hanzala ibn Hidhaym said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to like to call a man by the name that he liked best and by his favourite kunya.”

361. Changing the name ‘Asiya (meaning “rebellious”)

820. Ibn ‘Umar said that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, changed a woman’s name from ‘Asiya (rebellious), saying, “You are Jamila (beautiful).”

821. Muhammad ibn ‘Ata’ related that he visited Zaynab bint Salama and she asked him about the name of one of his sisters. He reports: “I said, ‘Her name is Barra.’ She said, ‘Change her name. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, married Zaynab bint Jahsh. Her name was Barra and he changed it to Zaynab. I visited Umm Salama when she married him and my name was Barra.

He heard her call me Barra and said, ‘Do not adorn yourselves. Allah is the One who knows those who are pious (barra) among you and those who are deviant. Call her Zaynab.’ Umm Salama said, ‘She is Zaynab.’ I said to Zaynab, ‘Give her a name.’ Zaynab said, ‘Change it to what the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, changed it.'” So he called her Zaynab.

362. Surm (meaning “separation”)

822. Ibn ‘Abdu’r-Rahman ibn Sa’id al-Makhzumi, whose name was as-Surm, reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, named him Sa’id (happy). He related that he had seen ‘Uthman reclining in the mosque.

823. ‘Ali said, “When al-Husayn was born, I named him Harb (war). The Prophet came and said, ‘Show me your son. What have you named him?’ ‘Harb,’ we replied. He said, “He is Hasan.’ When al-Husayn was born, I named him Harb. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came and said, ‘Show me your son. What have you named him?’ ‘Harb,’ we replied. He said, “He is Husayn.’

When we had a third son, I named him Harb. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came and said, ‘Show me your son. What have you named him?’ ‘Harb,’ we replied. He said, “He is Muhassin.” Then he said, ‘I have named them according to the names of the sons of Harun: Shabr, Shubayr, and Mushabbir.'”

363. Ghurab (meaning “crow”)

824. It is reported that al-Harith ibn Abza said, “I was present at Hunayn with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he asked me, ‘What is your name?’ ‘Ghurab,’ I replied. He said, ‘No, your name is Muslim.'”

364. Shihab (meaning “flame”)

825. ‘A’isha said, “A man called Shihab (flame) was mentioned in the presence of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘Rather you are Hisham.'”

365. Al-‘As (meaning “rebel”)

826. Muti’ said, “I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say on the day of the Conquest of Makka, ‘No Qurayshi will be killed in custody from today until the Day of Rising.'” Noneof the rebels of Quraysh except Muti’ became Muslim. His name had been al-‘As and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, renamed him Muti’ (obedient).

366. Someone who calls his companion and shortens or leaves out part of his name

827. ‘A’isha said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “‘A’ish!

Jibril sends you greetings.” She said, “And peace be upon him and the mercy of Allah.” She remarked,

“He sees what I do not see.”

828. Umm Kulthum, the daughter of Thumama, related that she went out to answer a call of nature,. Her brother, al-Makhariq ibn Thumama, said, “Go to ‘A’isha and ask her about ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan.

People have said a lot about him. She said, “I went to her and said, ‘One of your brothers sends you greetings and asks you about ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan.’ ‘A’isha said, ‘Peace be upon and the mercy of Allah.’

‘A’isha then went on, ‘I testify that I saw ‘Uthman in this house one hot night when the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had received revelation through Jibril. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, struck the palm or held the hand of Ibn ‘Affan, saying, ‘Write, ‘Uthma! Allah has placed in this house with His Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, only a man who is honoured with Him. If anyone curses Ibn ‘Affan, the curse of Allah is on him.'”

367. Zahm (meaning “crowd”)

829. Bashir ibn Nuhayk said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came and said, ‘What is your name?’ ‘Zahm,’ I said. He said, ‘You are Bashir (bringer of good news).’

While I was walking and keeping pace with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, he said, ‘Ibn al-Khasasiyya! Are you resentful towards Allah? Do you keep pace with the Messenger of Allah?’ I said, ‘May my mother and father be your ransom, I do not hold any resentment against Allah. I have every blessing.’

The Prophet came to the graves of the idolaters and said, ‘These people have missed a lot of good. Then he came to the graves of the Muslims and said, ‘These people have obtained much good.’

There was a man wearing ox-hide sandals walking between the graves. The Prophet said, ‘You with the ox-hide sandals! Remove your sandals!’ So he removed his sandals.”

830. Part of previous hadith.

368. Barra (meaning “pious”)

831. Ibn ‘Abbas said that Juwayriyya’s name had been Barra and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had renamed her Juwayriyya.

832. Abu Hurayra said, “Maymuna’s name was Barra and then the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, renamed her Maymuna.”

369. Aflah (meaning “most successful”)

833. Jabir reported: “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘If I will, I will prohibit my community, if Allah so wills, from any of them taking the name Baraka (blessing), Nafi’ (Helper) or Aflah (Most Successful),’ and I do not know if he said, Rafi’ (one who elevates) or not. Someone asks, ‘Is Baraka (blessing) here?’ and is told, ‘He (or it) is not here.’ The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, died because he could forbid that (using those names).”

834. Jabir ibn ‘Abdullah said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, wanted to forbid people calling themselves Ya’la (to rise), Baraka (blessing), Nafi’ (Helper), Yasar (good fortune), Aflah (most successful) and names like that. Then he was silent about that matter and did not say anything.”

370. Rabah (meaning “profit”)

835. ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab said, “When the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, withdrew from his wives, I was with Rabah, the slave of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and I called, ‘Rabah, ask permission for me to come in to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.'”

371. The Names of the Prophets

836. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Name yourselves with the names of the Prophets, but do not use my kunya.” I am Abu’l-Qasim.”

837. Anas ibn Malik said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was in the market when a man said, ‘Abu’l-Qasim!’ The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, turned towards him. He said, ‘Messenger of Allah, I was calling this man.’ The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘Call yourselves with my name but do no use my kunya.'”

838. Yusuf ibn ‘Abdullah ibn Sallam said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, named me Yusuf and let me sit in his room and stroked my head.”

839. Jabir ibn ‘Abdullah said, “One of our men among the Ansar had a son and wanted to call him Muhammad. The Ansari said, ‘I put him on my shoulder and took him to the Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. [Another variant has: “He had a son and they wanted to name him Muhammad.”]

The Prophet said, ‘Name yourselves with my name but do not use my kunya. I have been made the distributor (Qasim) to divide things between you.'” Husayn said that he added, “I was sent as a distributor to divide between you.”

840. Abu Musa said, “I had a son and I brought him to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he named him Ibrahim. He chewed up a date and gave it to him and made supplication for him to be blessed and then gave him back to me.” He was Abu Musa’s oldest son.

372. Hazn (meaning “rough”)

841. Sa’id ibn al-Musayyab reported that his grandfather went to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. He asked, “What is your name?” “Hazn (rough),” he replied. The Prophet said, “You are Sahl (easy).” He said, “I will not change a name which my father gave me.” Ibn al-Musayyab said,

“Roughness (hazuna) remained among us afterwards.”

XXXIV. Kunyas

373. The Prophet’s name and kunya, may Allah bless him and grant him peace

842. Jabir said, “One of our men had a son and named him al-Qasim. The Ansar said, “We will not give you the kunya of Abu’l-Qasim to make you happy.’ He went to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and told him what the Ansar had said. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘The Ansar did well. Call yourselves with my name but do not use my kunya. I am Qasim (the divider).”

843. Ibn al-Hanafiyya was heard to say, “There was an allowance made for ‘Ali. He asked, ‘Messenger of Allah, if I have a son after you can I name him with your name and use your kunya?’ Yes,’ he replied.”

844. Abu Hurayra said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade for someone to have both his name and his kunya. He said, ‘I am Abu’l-Qasim. Allah gives and I distribute.'”

845. See hadith 837.

374. Can one use a kunya for an idolater?

846. Usama ibn Zayd reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, arrived at a gathering which included ‘Abdullah ibn Ubayy ibn Salul before ‘Abdullah ibn Ubayy had become Muslim. He said, “Do not bother us in our gathering.” The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went to Sa’d ibn ‘Ubada and said, “Sa’d, did you not hear what Abu Hubab said?” He meant ‘Abdullah ibn Ubayy ibn Salul.

375. A kunya for a child

847. Anas said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, visited us. I had a young brother who used the kunya of Abu ‘Umayr. He had a sparrow which he used to play with it and it had died. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came it and saw that he was sad. He asked, ‘What is wrong with him?’ He was told, ‘His sparrow has died.’ The Prophet said, ‘Abu ‘Umayr, what has happened to the little sparrow?'”

376. Having a kunya before having a child

848. ‘Abdullah gave ‘Alqama the kunya Abu Shibl when he had no children.

849. ‘Alqama said, “‘Abdullah gave me a kunya before I had a child.”

377. Kunyas for women

850. ‘A’isha said, “I went to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said,

‘Messenger of Allah, you give your wives kunyas, so give me a kunya.’ He said, ‘Take the kunya of your nephew, ‘Abdullah.'”

851. ‘A’isha said, “Prophet of Allah, will you not give me a kunya?” He said, “Use the kunya of your son,” i.e. ‘Abdullah ibn az-Zubayr. She was given the kunya Umm ‘Abdullah.

378. Someone who gives a man of kunya because of something he is doing or with one of their names

852. Sahl ibn Sa’d related that the name which ‘Ali, may Allah be pleased with him, liked best was Abu Turab and that he was happy when he was called that. Only the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, called him that. One day ‘Ali was cross with Fatima and went out and reclined against the wall of the mosque. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came to look

for him and was told that he was leaning against the wall. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant

him peace, went up to him and found that his back was covered with dust. The Prophet, may Allah

bless him and grant him peace, began to wipe the dust off his back and said, ‘Sit down Abu Turab

(father of dust)!'”

379. How does a person walk with the great men and people of superiority

853. Anas said, “While the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was in one of our palm groves where the trees belonged to Abu Talha, he went out to answer a call of nature. Bilal was walking behind him. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, honoured him by asking him to walk at his side. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, passed by a grave and stood there until Bilal reached him. he said, ‘Woe to you, Bilal. Did you hear what I heard?’ He replied, ‘I did not hear anything.’ He said, ‘The man in the grave is being punished.’ He found that it was a Jew.”

380. Chapter

854. Qays said, “I heard Mu’awiya say to a young brother of his, ‘Mount your slave behind you.’ He refused. Mu’awiya said to him, ‘How badly you have been taught!’ I heard Abu Sufyan say, ‘leave your brother alone.'”

855. Musa ibn ‘Ali reported from his father that ‘Amr ibn al-‘As said, “When you have a lot of close friends, you have a lot of creditors.” The transmitter asked Musa, “What are creditors?” “Rights owed,” he replied.

XXXV. Poetry

381. There is some wisdom in poetry

856. Khalid ibn Kaysan said, “I was with Ibn ‘Umar when Iyyas ibn Khaythama got up and said to him, ‘Shall I recite some poetry, Ibn al-Faruq?’ ‘Yes,’ he replied, ‘but only recite good poetry to me.'”

He recited until he came to something which Ibn ‘Umar disliked whereupon he told him to stop.

857. Mutarrif said, “I accompanied ‘Imran ibn Husayn from Kufa to Basra. Very rarely did he arrive at my house without reciting some poetry to me. He said, ‘Indirect speech accords great scope in avoiding lies.'”

858. Ubayy ibn Ka’b mentioned that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “There is some wisdom in poetry.”

859. Al-Aswad ibn Suray’ said, “Messenger of Allah, I have praised my Lord, the Almighty and Exalted, in some words of praise.” He said, “Your Lord loves praise,” and did not say anything more.

860. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “It is better for a man to fill his belly with oozing pus than to fill it with poetry.”

861. Al-Aswad ibn Suray’ said, “I was a poet and went to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and asked, ‘Shall I recite some praises I have written for my Lord?’ He said, ‘Your Lord loves praise,’ and did not say anything more.”

862. ‘A’isha said, “Hassan ibn Thabit asked the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, for permission to satirise the idolaters. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘And what about my lineage?’ He said, ‘I will extract you from them as a hair is taken from dough.'”

863. Hisham reported that his father said, “I began to abuse Hassan [ibn Thabit] in the presence of ‘A’isha and she said, ‘Do not abuse him. He used to defend the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.'”

382. The good in poetry is like the good in words while some of it is bad

864. See hadith 858.

865. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Poetry is in the same position as speech. The good of it is like good words and its bad part is like bad words.”

866. ‘A’isha said, “Poetry is both good and bad. Take the good and leave the bad. I have related some of the poetry of Ka’b ibn Malik. That included an ode of forty verses and some less than that.”

867. Shurayh said, “I ask ‘A’isha, may Allah be pleased her with, ‘Did the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, recite any poetry?’ She said, ‘He used to recite some of the poetry of ‘Abdullah ibn Rawaha: ‘Someone to whom you have not given provision brings you news.'”

868. See hadith 859.

383. Someone who recites poetry

869. Ash-Sharid said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, asked me to recite the poetry of Umayya ibn Abi’s-Salt and I recited it. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, began to say, ‘Go on, go on!’ until I had recited a hundred lines.’ The Prophet said, ‘If only he had become Muslim.'”

384. Someone who dislikes for someone to be dominated by poetry

870. Ibn ‘Umar reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “It is better for one of you to fill his belly with pus than to fill it with poetry.”

871. In respect of “And as for the poets, is the misled who follow them. Do you not see how they ramble on in every style and that they say things which they do not do?” (26:223-225), Ibn ‘Abbas said that it was abrogated and that an exception was made in His words, “except for those who believe and do right actions Éthe kind of reversal they will receive.” (26:226)

385. Someone saying, “There is magic in eloquence”

872. Ibn ‘Abbas said that a man or a bedouin came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and spoke some eloquent words. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “There is some magic eloquence and some wisdom in poetry.”

873. ‘Abdu’l-Malik ibn Marwan entrusted the teaching of his children to ash-Sha’bi and said, “Teach them poetry so that they will possess dignity and vigour. Feed them meet so that their hearts will be strong. Cut off their hair so that their necks will be strong. Make them sit with men of distinction who will contradict them in words.”

386. Poetry which is disliked

874. ‘A’isha reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The greatest of criminals is the poet who satirises the entire tribe and a man who disclaims his father.”

XXXVI.Words

387. Too Many Words

875. Ibn ‘Umar said, “Two men came from the east as orators in the time of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. They stood up, spoke and then sat down. Thabit ibn Qays, the orator of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, stood up and spoke and the people liked what he said. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, stood up and said, ‘O people, say what you have to say. seeking to present words is the best manner is from Shaytan.’

Then the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘There is some magic in eloquence.'”

876. Anas said, “A man gave a speech in the presence of ‘Umar and said a lot. ‘Umar said, ‘Too many words in orations comes from the skills of shaytan.'”

877. Abu Yazid or Ma’n ibn Yazid reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Gather in your mosques. When the people are gathered, come and tell me.’ The first of those to whom he came was us and he sat down. One of the speakers spoke and said, ‘Praise be to Allah. No praise can be directed to anyone except Him nor is there any escape without Him.’

The

Prophet got angry, stood up and we blamed one another. Then he went to another mosque and sat in it. We sent to him and spoke to him. He came with us and sat where he had been sitting or near to it.

Then he said, ‘Praise be to Allah who puts whatever He wishes before Him and whatever He wishes behind Him. There is some magic in eloquence.’ Then he commanded us and taught us.”

388.Wishing

878. ‘A’isha said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was sleepless one night and said, ‘Would that a man of righteous action among my Companions would come and guard me tonight!’ Then he heard the sound of weapons. He asked, ‘Who is it?’ ‘Sa’d,’ came the answer. Sa’d said, ‘Messenger of Allah, I have come to guard you.’ The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, slept and we heard him snore.”

389.When someone says, “It is a sea” about a man, thing or horse

879. Anas ibn Malik, “There was some alarm in Madina and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, borrowed a horse belonging to Abu Talha called al-Mandub. He rode it, and when he returned he said, ‘We did not see anything and he found the horse to be a sea.”

[Referring to its running]

390. Beating someone for grammatical mistakes

880. Nafi’ said, “Ibn ‘Umar used to strike his son for making grammatical mistakes.”

881. ‘Abdu’r-Rahman ibn ‘Ajlan said, “‘Umar ibn al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, passed by two men who were shooting. One man said to another, ‘Do hit it (using the letter sîn instead of sâd).’ ‘Umar observed, ‘A bad grammatical mistake is worse than a bad shot.'”

391. Someone describing something by saying, “It is nothing,” meaning that it is not true

882. ‘A’isha, the wife of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “People asked the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, about soothsayers. He told them, ‘They are nothing.’ They said, But, Messenger of Allah, they speak about things which are true!’

The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, responded, ‘That is a word which Shaytan steals and then he mumbles it into the ear of his protégé with a sound like the clucking of a chicken. Then they mix a hundred lies with it.'”

392. Indirect Allusion

883. Anas ibn Malik said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was on one of his journeys and the camel-drive was chanting (to make the camels move). The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘Gently, Anjasha! Be careful with the glass vessels (meaning the women).'”

884. ‘Umar said, “A man is reckoned to be lying when he gives voice to all that he hearts.” He said, “As for cases of indirect allusion, are they enough to keep a Muslim from lying?”

885. Mutarrif ibn ‘Imran ibn ash-Shakhir said, “I accompanied ‘Imran ibn Husayn to Basra. Every day he used to recite poetry to us and he said, ‘Indirect allusions give ample scope to avoid lying.'”

393. Divulging secrets

886. ‘Amr ibn al-‘As said, “I am astonished at a man who flees from fate when he is all the time attacking it and who sees the mote in his brother’s eye and not the trunk in his own eye. He uncovers the rancour in his brother’s heart and not the rancour in himself. I have never entrusted anyone with a secret of mine and then blamed him for divulging it. How could I blame him when I have given him something he is incapable of doing?”

394. Mockery

887. ‘A’isha said, “A man suffering from an affliction passed by some women and they laughed together, mocking him, and so one of them got that same affliction.”

XXXVII. General Behaviour

395. Deliberation in things

888. Az-Zuhri reported that a man from Bali said, “I came to visit the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, with my father. My father spoke to him while I was not there. I said to my father, ‘What did he say to you?’ He replied, ‘When you desire something, then you must proceed slowly until Allah shows you a way out of it or until Allah makes a way out for you.'”

889. Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyya said, “Not wise is he who does not deal correctly with a person whose company he cannot avoid until Allah appoints for him a release or a way out.”

396. Someone who guides down an alley or on a path

890. Al-Bara’ ibn ‘Azib related that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “If anyone gives a gift or guides down a land or a path that, for him, is equivalent to freeing a slave.”

891. Abu Dharr is reported as saying, “Your putting some of the water from your bucket in your brother’s bucket is sadaqa. Your removing stones. thorns and bones from people’s path is sadaqa. Your guiding a man in a place where there are no guides is sadaqa.”

397. Someone who misguides a blind person

892. Ibn ‘Abbas reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Allah curses anyone who misguides a blind person and leads him away from the path.”

398. Tyranny (baghy)

893. Ibn ‘Abbas told Shahr (ibn Hawshab), “While the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was sitting in the courtyard of his house in Makka, ‘Uthman ibn Maz’un passed by and smiled at the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to him, ‘Why don’t you sit down?’ ‘I will,’ he said. So the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, sat facing him.

While he was conversing with him, the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, stared at the sky and said, ‘A messenger from Allah, ‘Abdullah came to me just now when you sat sown?’ He asked, ‘What did he say to you?’ He said, ‘Allah commands justice and doing good and giving to relatives. And He forbids indecency and doing wrong and tyranny. He warns you so that hopefully you will pay heed.’ (16:90) ‘Uthman said, ‘That was when belief was established in my heart and I loved Muhammad.'”

399. The punishment for outrage

894. Anas reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “I will enter the Garden with someone who brings up two daughters until they come of age, and we will be like these two,” and he indicated his index finger and middle finger.

895. “Two doors come quickly in this world: outrage and cutting off relatives.”

400. Noble descent

896. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The noble son of the noble son of the noble son of the noble one was Yusuf ibn Ya’qub ibn Ishaq ibn Ibrahim.”

897. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “My friends on the Day of Rising will be those with taqwa, even if one lineage is closer than another. People will not bring me their actions. They will come carrying this world on their shoulders and they will call out, ‘Muhammad!’ I will say, ‘no,’ to such-and-such, and I will have full power over them.”

898. Ibn ‘Abbas said, “I do not know anyone who acts by this ayat: ‘Mankind! We created you from a male and a female, and made you into peoples and tribes so that you might come to know each other. The noblest among you in Allah’s sight is the one with the most taqwa.’ (49:13) One man says to another man, ‘I am more noble than you are.’ No one is nobler than another person except by taqwa.”

899. Ibn ‘Abbas said, “What do you reckon to be nobility? Allah has made nobility clear. The noblest of you in the sight of Allah is the one with the greatest taqwa. What do you reckon as lineage? The best of you in lineage is the best of you in character.”

401. The arwah (spirits) are a massed army

900. ‘A’isha said, “I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, ‘The arwah are a massed army. When they already know each other, they are friendly. When they do not know each other, they disagree.'”

901. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The spirits are massed armies. Those of them that knew one another are friendly. Those that did not know one another disagree.”

402. A man saying, “Glory be to Allah!” when he is amazed

902. Abu Hurayra said, “I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, ‘While a shepherd was tending to his sheep, a wolf came and snatched one of the sheep. The shepherd went after the wolf which turned to him and said, ‘Who will look after them on the ‘Day of Wild Beasts’? They will have no shepherd but me.’

People said, ‘Glory be to Allah!’ The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘I believe it I, Abu Bakr and ‘Umar.'”

903. ‘Ali said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was in a funeral procession an he picked up something and began to scratch the ground with it. He said, ‘There is none of you who does not have his seat written either in the Fire or in the Garden.’ They said, ‘Messenger of Allah, thenshould we not rely on what is written for us and abandon action?’ ‘Act.’ he said. ‘Every thing is easy if you were created for it.’

He added, ‘As for someone who is one of the people of happiness, it is easy for him to perform the actions of happiness. As for someone who is one of the people of wretchedness, it is easy for him to perform the actions of wretchedness.’ Then he recited, ‘As for him who gives out and has taqwa and confirms the GoodÉ’ (92:5-10)

403.Wiping the ground with the ha