Part 2: A Code For Every Living (Al-Adab al-Mufrad) by Imam Al-Bukhari


X. Responsibility

 

108. A man is the shepherd of his family

212. Ibn ‘Umar reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, “All of you are shepherds and each of you is responsible for his flock. A man is the shepherd of the people of his house and he is responsible. A woman is the shepherd of the house of her husband and she is responsible. Each of you is a shepherd and each is responsible for his flock.”

213. Abu Sulayman Malik ibn al-Huwayrith said, “We came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, being young men of a similar age. We spent twenty nights with him. He thought that we desired our own people and he asked us about those of our family we had left behind, and we told him. He was merciful and kind, and said, ‘Go back to your family. Instruct and command them. Pray as you have seen me praying. When it is time for the prayer, then let one of you give the adhan and let the oldest of you lead the payer.;:

 

109. A woman is a shepherd

214. Ibn ‘Umar reported that he heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, “All of you are shepherds and each of you is responsible for his flock. A woman is the shepherd of the house of her husband and she is responsible as is the servant in regard to his master’s property.”

He said, “I heard these words from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and I reckoned that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “and the man regarding his father’s property.”

 

110. Someone for whom a favour is done and he repays the favour

215. Jabir ibn ‘Abdullah al-Ansari reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Whoever has a favour done for him should repay it. If he cannot find anything he can use to repay it, he should praise the one who did it. When he praises him, he thanks him. If he is silent, he is ungrateful to him. If someone adorns himself with something he has not been given, it is as if he was wearing a false garment.”

216. Ibn ‘Umar reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Anyone who seeks refuge in Allah will find refuge with Him. Anyone who asks from Allah will be receive. Anyone who does a favour should repay it. If you do not find anything, then make supplication for the doer of the favour so that he knows that you have repaid him.”

 

111. Someone who cannot repay someone should make supplication for him

217. Anas reported that the Muhajirun said, “Messenger of Allah, the Ansar have taken all the reward!” He said, “No, not as long as you make supplication for them and praise them for it.”

 

112. The one who does not thank people

218. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Allah does not thank the person who does not thank people.”

219. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Allah ta’ala said to the self, ‘Go forth.’ It replied, ‘I only go forth reluctantly.'”

 

113. A man’s maintenance of his brother

220. Abu Dharr reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was asked, “What action is best?” He replied, “Belief in Allah and jihad in His way.” He was asked, “Which slaves are best?” He replied, “The highest in price and most precious to their people.” He said, “What do you think I should do if I am unable to fight?” He replied, “Help someone in trouble or work for someone who does not work.” He asked, “What do you think that I should do if I am too weak (to act accordingly)?” He replied, “Spare people your evil. That is a sadaqa which you bestow on yourself.”

 

XI. Correctness

 

114. The people of correctness in this world are the people of correctness in the Next World

221. Qabisa ibn Burma al-Asadi said, “I was with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and I heard him say, ‘The people of correctness in this world are the people of correctness in the Next World. The people of the incorrect in this world are the people of the incorrect in the Next World.”

222. Harmala ibn ‘Abdullah went to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and stayed with him until the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, until the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, recognised him. He said, “When we set out, I told myself, ‘By Allah, I will go to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, so that I will have more knowledge. I went in the evening until I was in front of him. I asked, ‘What do you command me to do?’ He replied, ‘Harmala, do what is correct and avoid the incorrect.’ Then I went back to the caravan. Then I came back again until I was in my place near him. I asked, ‘Messenger of Allah, what do you command me to do?’ He replied, ‘Harmala, do what is correct and avoid the incorrect. Find out what you like to hear people tell you when you are with them. When you leave me, behave in that manner. Find out what you dislike for people to day to you. When you leave me, avoid that.’ When I returned, I thought that these two statements did not omit anything.”

223. Salman said, “The people of correctness in this world are the people of correctness in the Next World.”

Abu ‘Uthman said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said words to that effect.

 

115. Every correct action is sadaqa

224. Jabir ibn ‘Abdullah reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Every correct action is sadaqa.”

225. Abu Musa reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Every Muslim must give sadaqa.” They said, “And if he does not find anything (to give)?” He replied, “Then he should work his hands, benefit himself and then give sadaqa.” They asked, “And if he is unable to or does not do it?” He replied, “Then he should help someone with a great need.” They said, “And if he does not do it?” He replied, “Then he should command the good or command the correct.” They said, “And if he does not do that?” They said, “He should refrain from evil. That is sadaqa for him.”

226. Same as 220.

227. Abu Dharr reported that it was said, “Messenger of Allah, the wealthy people have taken all the rewards. They pray as we pray. They fast as we fast, but they give sadaqa from their excess wealth.” He said, “Has Allah not given you something to give as sadaqa? Every time you praise or glorify Allah, that is sadaqa. There is sadaqa is sexual intercourse.” He was asked, “Is there sadaqa in satisfying one’s appetite?” He replied, “If he does it in a haram manner, is that not a wrong action? Similarly if he does it in a halal manner, he receives a reward.”

 

116. Removing harmful things

228. Abu Barza al-Aslami said, “I said, ‘Messenger of Allah, show me an action by which I will enter the Garden!” He said, ‘Remove harmful things from people’s path.'”

229. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “A man came across a thorn in the road and said, ‘I will remove this thorn so that it does not harm a Muslim man.’ For that reason he was forgiven.”

230. Abu Dharr reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “I was shown the actions of my Community both good and evil and I found that one of their good actions is removing harmful things from the road, I found that one of the evil actions was spit in the mosque which is not buried.”

 

117. Correct Words

231. ‘Abdullah ibn al-Khatami reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Every act of kindness is sadaqa.”

232. Anas said, “When the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was given something, he used to say, ‘Take it to so-and-so. She was a friend of Khadija’s. Take it to the house of so-and-so. She loved Khadija.”

233. Same as 231, but from Hudhayfa.

 

118. Going out to a vegetable garden and carrying things in a sack on one’s shoulder to one’s family

234. ‘Amr ibn Qurra al-Kindi said, “My father offered his sister in marriage to Salman. He refused and then married a mawla of his called Buqayra. Abu Qurra heard that there were bad feelings between Hudhayfa and Salman. He went to talk to him (Salman) about this. He was told that he was in a vegetable garden which belonged to him and went and met him there. Salman had a sack of vegetables. He put his stick in the knot of the sack and put it on his shoulder. Abu Qurra asked, ‘Abu ‘Abdullah, what is the trouble between you and Hudhayfa?’ Salman replied, ‘Man is prone to be impetuous.’ (17:11)

“They went to Salman’s house. Salman went into his house and said, ‘Peace be upon you.’ Then he gave Abu Qurra permission to enter and he came in. There was a fibre mat placed over the doorway and there were some bricks by his head and a saddle. He said, ‘Sit on the rug of your mawla which she has put out for herself.’ Then he began to speak to him. He said, ‘Hudhayfa has related certain things which the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said in anger to some people. I began to be questioned about them and I said, “Hudhayfa knows best what he says, but I dislike for there to be rancour between people.” Hudhayfa was brought and it was said to him, “Salman neither confirms nor denies what you say.”‘

“Salman said, ‘Hudhayfa came to me and said, “Salman, son of Salman’s mother!” I said, “Hudhayfa, son of Hudhayfa’s mother! You must stop this or I will write to ‘Umar about you!” After I had alarmed him by speaking of ‘Umar, he left me. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “I am one of the children of Adam. Whatever salve of my community I curse or abuse when he does not deserve it, Make that a prayer a blessing for him.”‘”

235. Ibn ‘Abbas said, ” ‘Umar said, ‘Let us go forth to the land of our people.’ Ubayy ibn Ka’b and I were at the back of the people. A cloud gathered. Ubayy said, ‘O Allah, remove its harm from us!’ We met the people and their mounts were wet. They said, ‘What fell on us did not fall on you!’ I said, ‘He asked Allah Almighty to remove its harm from us.’ ‘Umar said, ‘Why didn’t you include us in your supplication?'”

 

119. Going out to an estate

236. Abu Salama said, “We went to Abu Sa’id al-Khudri with a friend. I said, ‘Will you go with us to the date palms?’ He went out wearing a black-bordered cloak of his.”

237. Umm Musa said, “I heard ‘Ali say that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, commanded ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ud to climb a tree and bring him something from it. His Companions looked at ‘Abdullah’s thigh and laughed at its thinness. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘Why are you laughing? ‘Abdullah’s foot is heavier in the balance than the mountain of Uhud.'”

 

XII. Dealing with people cheerfully

 

120. A Muslim is the mirror of his brother

238. Abu Hurayra said, “A believer is the mirror of his brother. When he sees a fault in it, he should correct it.”

239. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “A believer is the mirror of his brother. A believer is the brother of another believer. He protects him against loss and defends him behind his back.”

240. Al-Mustawrid reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “If anyone eats a meal at the expense of a Muslim’s honour, Allah will feed him a like amount of Hellfire. If anyone clothes himself with a garment at the expense of a Muslim’s honour, Allah will clothe him with a like amount of Hellfire. If anyone achieves a position of showing-off and hypocrisy at the expense of a Muslim’s honour, Allah will put him in a position of showing-off and hypocrisy on the Day of Rising.

 

121. Playing and joking which is not permitted

241. ‘Abdullah ibn as-Sa’ib reported that his grandfather said, “I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, ‘None of you should take the goods of his companion, either in jest or seriously. When one of you takes his companion’s staff, he should return it to him.'”

 

122. The person who guides to good

242. Abu Mas’ud al-Ansari said, “A man came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, ‘My camel has become exhausted, so give me a mount.’ He replied, ‘I do not have any.But go to so-and-so and perhaps he will give you one.’ He went to that man and he gave him a mount. Then he went back to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and told him. He said, ‘Whoever guides to good has the like of the reward of the person who actually does it.'”

 

123. Excusing and pardoning people

243. Anas reported that a Jewish woman brought the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, poisoned sheep. He ate from it and she was brought. It was asked, “Should we not kill her?” “No,” he replied. He said, “I continued to recognise the poison in the sighs of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.”

244. ‘Abdullah ibn az-Zubayr said on the minbar, “Make allowances for people and command what is right and turn away from the ignorant.” (7:199) He said, “By Allah, we are only commanded by this ayat to accept people’s character. By Allah, I will accept people’s character as long as I am with them.”

245. Ibn ‘Abbas reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Teach and make things easy and not difficult. When one of you is angry, he should be silent.”

 

124. Cheerfulness towards people

246. ‘Ata’ ibn Yasar said, “I met ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr ibn al-‘As and I said, ‘Tell me about the description of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in the Torah.’ ‘Yes,’ he said, ‘By Allah, he is described in the Torah partly as he is described in the Qur’an: “O Prophet, We have sent you as a witness, a bearer of good news and a warner and a protection to the unlettered. You are My slave and Messenger. I have called you the trusty one who is neither coarse nor harsh nor loud in the markets. Allah Almighty will not take him until He has made the crooked community straight by him so that they say, “There is no god but Allah,” and by it they will open blind eyes, deaf ears and covered hearts.'”

247. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Ata’ said, “This ayat which is in the Qur’an, ‘O Prophet, We have sent you as a witness, a bringer of good news and a warner’ (33:45) is found in the Torah in a similar form.”

248. Mu’awiya said, “I heard some words from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, by which Allah helped me.” Jubayr ibn Nufayr said, “I heard him say that he heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, “If you openly show your suspicions of people, you will corrupt them.’ Therefore I do not show my suspicions of people openly so that I will not corrupt them.”

249. Abu Hurayra said, “These two wars of mine have heard and these two eyes of mine have seen the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, take the palms of al-Hasan or al-Husayn in both his hands. His feet were on the feet of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘Climb up.’ The boy climbed until his feet reached the chest of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and hen the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘Open your mouth.’ Then he kissed him and said, ‘O Allah, love him for I love him!'”

 

125. Smiling

250. Jarir said, “Since the time I became Muslim, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, never saw me without smiling at me.” The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “A man from the best of Dhu Yaman will enter by this door whose face has been touched by an angel.” Then Jarir came in.

251. ‘A’isha said, “I never saw the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, laugh until I could see his uvula. He used to smile, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.” She said, “When he saw a cloud or wind, distress could be seen in his face.” She said, “Messenger of Allah, when people see a cloud, they rejoice, hoping that there will be rain in it. Yet when you see it, I see distress in your face.” He replied, “‘A’isha, what will assure me that there is no painful punishment in it? People have been punished by wind. Some people saw the punishment and stated, ‘This is a rain cloud coming to us.'”

 

126. Laughter

252. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Laugh little. Much laughter kills the heart.”

253. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Do not laugh a lot. Much laughter kills the heart.”

254. Abu Hurayra said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went out to a group of his Companions who were laughing and talking. He said, ‘By the One in whose hand my soul is, if you knew what I knew, you would laugh little and weep much.’ Then he left and the people were weeping. Then Allah Almighty revealed to him, ‘Muhammad! Why did you make My slaves despair?’ The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Give good news, guide people and draw near to one another.'”

 

127.When he faced someone, he faced him completely, and when he turned away, he turned away completely

255. Abu Hurayra said, “When he faced someone, he faced him completely. When he turned away, he turned away completely. I have never seen anyone like him and I will never see anyone like them.”

 

XIII. Consulation

 

128. Someone who is consulted is in a position of trust

256. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, asked Abu’lHaytham, “Do you have a servant?” “No,” he replied. He said, “Come to us when we get some captives.” The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was brought only two captives.

Abu’l-Haytham came to him and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Choose between them.” “Choose for me, Messenger of Allah,” he replied. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The person who is consulted is in a position of trust. Take this one. I have seen him pray. Treat him well.” Abu’l-Haytham’s wife said, “You will not live up to the words of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, about him until you set him free.” “He is free,” he stated.

The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Allah did not sent Prophet or kahlif but that he has two confidants: a confidant who commands him to do what is correct and forbids what is bad, and a confidant who will not fall short in corrupting you. Anyone who is protected from the evil confidant has been protected.”

 

129. Consultation

257. ‘Amir ibn Dinar said, “Ibn ‘Abbas recited (this ayat), ‘Consult with them about the matter.’ (3:159)”

258. Al-Hasan said, “People never seek advice without being guided to the best possibility available to them.” Then he recited, “and manage their affairs by mutual consultation.” (42:38)

 

130. The wrong action of someone who gives his brother misguided advice

259. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Anyone who attributes words to me which I did noy say should take his seat in the Fire. Anyone who gives his Muslim brother misguided advice when he consults has betrayed him. If anyone gives a fatwa which is not firm, the wrong action of that rests on the one who gave the fatwa.”

 

XIV. Dealings with people and good character

 

131. Love between people

260. Abu Hurayra that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “By the One in whose hand my soul is, you will not enter the Garden until you submit. You will not submit until you love one another. Extend the greeting to one another and you will love one another. Beware of hatred, for it is the razor. I do not tell you that it shaves the hair, but it shaves away the deen.”

 

132. Friendship

261. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr ibn al-‘As reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The souls of two believers should meet in the course of a day even if they do not actually see each other.”

262. ‘Umayr ibn Ishaq said, “We used to say that the first thing to be removed from people would be friendship.”

 

133. Joking

264. Anas ibn Malik said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came upon a group of women which included Umm Sulayman. He said, ‘Anjasha!* Be gentle when you drive the glass vessels!”

Abu Qilaba said about this, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used an expression which some of you use in jest. He said, ‘When you drive the glass vessels!'”

[*Anjasha was a singer of camel-songs who drove the camels along. ‘Glass vessels’ refers to the women on the camels.]

265. Abu Hurayra reported that the people said, “Messenger of Allah, you joke with us!” He replied, “But I only speak the truth.”

266. Bakr ibn ‘Abdullah reported that the Companions of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to throw melons at one another. He said, “If these were real, they would be men.”

267. Ibn Abi Mulayka said, “‘A’isha was joking with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. Her slavegirl said, ‘Messenger of Allah, some of the women who make jokers in this quarter are from Kinana!’ The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘Rather some of our jokesters in this quarter.'”

268. Anas ibn Malik said, “A man came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, to ask him for a mount. He said, ‘I will give you a she-camel’s foal to ride.’ He exclaimed, ‘Messenger of Allah, what can I do with a she-camel’s foal?’ The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘Are camels born from anything other than she-camels?'”

 

134. Joking with a child

269. Anas ibn Malik said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to mix with us to the extent of asking a younger brother of mine, ‘Abu ‘Umayr! What has happened to the little sparrow?'”

270. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, took al-Hasan or al-Husayn by the hand and then put his feet on top of his own feet and said, “Climb up.”

 

135. Good character

270. (sic) Abu’d-Darda’ reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “There is nothing which weighs heavier in the balance than good character.”

271. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was neither coarse nor loud. He used to say, “The best of you is the one who has the best character.”

272. ‘Amr ibn Shu’ayb reported from his grandfather that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Shall I tell you about who among you I love the most and the one who will be seated closest to me on the Day of Rising?” The people were silent, so he repeated that two or three times. Then the people said, “Yes, Messenger of Allah.” He said, “The one among you with the best character.”

273. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “I was sent to perfect good character.”

274. ‘A’isha said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was never given a choice between two things but that he chose the easier of the two as long as it was not a wrong action. If it was a wrong action. then he was the last person to do it. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, never took revenge on his own behalf. But when the respect of Allah Almighty was violated, he would take revenge on behalf of Allah Almighty.”

275. ‘Abdullah said, “Allah Almighty shared out your character between you as He divided your provision between you. Allah Almighty bestows wealth on those He loves and those He does not love. He only gives faith to those He loves. Whoever is stingy about spending his wealth and fears to fight the enemy and is in terror of enduring the night should repeat frequently. ‘There is no god but Allah. Glory be to Allah. Praise be to Allah, and Allah is greater.”

 

136. The generosity of the self

276. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Wealth does not mean having a lot of property. Wealth means having self-contentment.”

277. Anas said, “I served the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, for twenty years. He never said ‘uff’ to me and he never said about anything I had not done, ‘Why didn’t you do it?’ or about something I had done. ‘Why did you do that?'”

278. Anas ibn Malik said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was merciful. No one came to him but that he promised himself something and carried out that promise if he had anything to give. The iqama for the prayer had been given when a bedouin came and took hold of his garment and stated, ‘I am still not satisfied.’ The Bedouin alarmed the Prophet’s wives. The Prophet went with him until the man had received what he wanted. Then he returned and prayed.”

279. Jabir said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was never asked for anything to which he said, ‘No.'”

280. ‘Abdullah ibn az-Zubayr said, “I have never seen two women more generous than ‘A’isha and Asma’. Their generosity was different. ‘A’isha used to gather things and after they had been collected together, she would share them out. Asma’ would not keep anything for the next day.”

 

137. Avarice

281. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The dust of the path of Allah and the smoke of Hellfire are never joined together in the heart of a slave. Belief and avarice are never joined together in the heart of a slave.”

282. Abu Sa’id al-Khudri reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Two qualities are not found together in a believer: miserliness and ill-temper.”

283. ‘Abdullah ibn Rabi’a said, “We used to sit with ‘Abdullah and they mentioned a man together with aspects of his character. ‘Abdullah said, ‘What would you think if you cut off his head? Would you be able to put it back on again?’ ‘No,’ they replied. He said, ‘And his hand?’ ‘No,’ they said. ‘And his foot?’ they said. ‘No,’ he said. He said, ‘You cannot change his character until you change his physical form. The drop remains in the womb for forty nights and then the blood congeals and then it becomes a blood clot and then a lump of flesh and then Prophet sends an angles and he records his provision, his character, and whether or not he will be happy or miserable (in the Next World).'”

 

138. Good character when people have understanding

284. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “A man who is known for his good character has the same degree as someone who stands at night in prayer.”

285. Abu Hurayra said, “I heard Abu’l-Qasim say, ‘The best of you in Islam is the best of you in character when they possess understanding (of the deen).”

286. Thabit ibn ‘Ubayd said, “I have not seen anyone more serious when he sits with the people nor more jocular in his house than Zayd ibn Thabit.”

287. Ibn ‘Abbas said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was asked, ‘Which religion does Allah Almighty love the most?’ He replied, ‘The simple Hanifiyya one.'”

288. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr said, “There are four qualities such that if you were to be given them, you will not be harmed even if the world were to be taken away from you. They are: good character, restraint in food, truthful words, and upholding a trust.”

289. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Do you know what it is that makes most people enter the Fire?” “Allah and His Messenger know best,” they said. He said, “The two empty ones: the genitals and the mouth. Do you know what it is that makes most people enter the Garden? Taqwa of Allah and good character.”

290. Umm ad-Darda’ said, “Abu’d-Darda’ stood up in the night to pray. He was weeping and said, ‘O Allah! You made my physical form good, so make my character good!’ until morning. I said, ‘Abu’d- Darda’, your only supplication for the entire night was for good character!’ He replied, ‘Umm ad-Darda’, the Muslim makes his character good with the result that his good character takes him into the Garden. He makes his character bad with the result that his bad character takes him into the Fire. The Muslim is forgiven while he is asleep.’ I asked, ‘Abu’d-Darda’, how can be forgiven while he is asleep?’ He said, ‘His brother arises in the night and performs the night prayers and makes supplication to Allah Almighty and is answered. He makes supplication for Muslim brother and his request is answered.'”

291. Usama ibn Sharik said, “I was with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, when some bedouins came. There were many people on all sides. The people were silent and no one spoke except them. They said, ‘Messenger of Allah! We experience difficulty in such-and-such and such-and-such’ and it was in things which are not harmful to people. He said, ‘Servants of Allah! Allah has removed difficulty except in a case where a man slanders someone unjustly that is the one who is in difficulty and destroyed.’ They said, ‘Messenger of Allah, can we make use of medical treatment?’ ‘Yes, servants of Allah,’ he replied, ‘you can make use of medical treatment. Allah Almighty did not create an illness but that He made a cure for it except for one disease.’ They asked, ‘And what is that, Messenger of Allah?’ ‘Old age,’ he replied. They said, ‘Messenger of Allah, what is the best thing that a man can be given?’ ‘Good character,’ he replied.'”

292. Ibn ‘Abbas said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was the most generous of people in giving charity. He was even more generous in Ramadan when Jibril, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to meet him. Every night of Ramadan Jibril used to come to him and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, would read the Qur’an to him. When Jibril came to him, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was more generous in giving charity than the blowing wind.”

293. Abu Mas’ud al-Ansari reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Before your time a man was called to account and it was found that the only good thing he had done was that he was easy in his business dealings with people. He used to order his slaves to go easy with people who were in difficulty. Allah Almighty said, ‘We are more entitled to do that than he is, so forgive him.'”

294. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “What is the most frequent reason for someone entering the Garden?” He said, “Taqwa and good character. He was asked, “What is the most frequent reason for people entering the Fire?” He replied, “The two empty ones: the mouth and the genitals.”

295. It is reported Nawwas ibn Sam’an asked the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, about dutifulness and wrong action. He said, “Dutifulness is good character and wrong action is that which works on yourself and which you dislike for other people to become aware of.”

 

139. Miserliness

296. Jabir reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Who is your master, Banu Salama?” Jabir said, “We replied, ‘Judd ibn Qays, although we think that he is a miser.’ He said, ‘What illness is worse than miserliness? Your master is ‘Amr ibn al-Jamuh.'”

‘Amr had been in charge of their idols during the Jahiliyya. He gave a wedding feast for the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, when he got married.

297. Warrad, the scribe of al-Mughira ibn Shu’ba, said, “Mu’awiya wrote to al-Mughira ibn Shu’ba, saying, ‘Write down for me something which you heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.’ Al-Mughira wrote to him, ‘ The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to forbid gossip, wasting money, asking too many questions, refusing to give, disobedience to parents and burying daughters alive.”

298. Jabir said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was never asked for anything to which he said, ‘No,'”

 

140. Sound property for a sound man

299. ‘Amr ibn al-‘As said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, sent for me. He commanded me to put on my clothes and arms and come to him. I did that and came to him while he was doing wudu’. He looked at me and then lowered his eyes. then he said, ”Amr, I want to put you in charge of an army and Allah will give you booty. I will give you a correct portion of the spoils.’ I said, ‘I did not become Muslim out of the desire for property. I became Muslim out of the desire for Islam and so that I would be with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.’ He said, ”Amr! Sound property is very excellent for a sound man!'”

 

141. The person who is secure in his property

300. Mihsan al-Ansari reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “When someone is secure in his property, healthy in his body and has his food for the day, it is as if he owned the entire world.”

 

142. Cheerfulness

301. Mu’adh ibn ‘Abdullah ibn Khubayb al-Juhani related from his father that his uncle said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came out to them with the traces of ghusl on him. He was cheerful. We thought that he was with his wives. We said, ‘Messenger of Allah, we see that you are cheerful.’ He said, ‘Yes, and praise be to Allah!’ Then wealth was mentioned that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘There is no harm in wealth for someone who has taqwa, but health for the person who has taqwa is even better than wealth. Cheerfulness is a blessing.'”

302. An-Nawwas ibn Sam’an al-Ansari reported that he asked the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, about dutifulness and wrong action. He said, “Dutifulness is good character and wrong action is what works on yourself and which you dislike for other people to become aware of.”

303. Anas reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was the best of people, the most generous of people and most courageous of people. One night the people of Madina were alarmed by a noise and the people went towards its source. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, met them, having already reached the source of the noise before them and he was saying, “Do not be alarmed. Do not be alarmed.” He was riding a horse belonging to Abu Talha without a saddle and a sword was hung around his neck. He said, “I found it (the horse) like a great river” or it was a great river (meaning its speed).

304. Jabir reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Every act of kindness is sadaqa. Part of kindness is that you offer your brother a cheerful face and you pour some of your bucket into his water vessel.”

 

143.What is necessary in helping someone in distress

305. Abu Dharr reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was asked, “Which is the best action?” He replied, “Belief in Allah and jihad in His Way.” He was asked, “Which slaves are best?” He replied, “The highest in price and the most precious to their people.” He said, “What do you think I should do if I am unable to fight?” He said, “Help someone in trouble or work for someone who does not work.” He said, “What do you think that I should do if I am too weak (to

act accordingly)?” He said, “Spare people your evil. That is a sadaqa which you bestow on yourself.”

306. Sa’id ibn Abi Burda related from his grandfather that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Every Muslim owes sadaqa.” He said, “What do you think he should do if he cannot find anything to give?” He replied, “He should find work and thus benefit himself and be able to give

sadaqa.” He said, “What do you think he should do if he cannot or does not do that?” He said, “He should help someone with a great need.” He said, “What do you think he should do if he cannot or does not do that?” He replied, “He should command the good.” He asked, “What do you think he should do if he cannot or does not do that?” He replied, “He should refrain from evil. That is sadaqa for him.”

 

144. The person who makes supplication to Allah to make his character good

307. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to supplicate, “Oh Allah, I ask You for health, restraint, trustworthiness, good character and contentment with the decree.”

308. Yazid ibn Yabnus said, “We went to ‘A’isha and said, ‘Umm al-Mu’minin, what was the character of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, like?’ She replied, ‘His character was the Qur’an. Can you recite the sura entitled “The Believers”?’ She said, ‘Recite: “It is the believers who are successful: those who are humble in their prayer; those who turn away from worthless talk; those who actively pay zakat; those who guard their private parts.” (23:1-5)’ She said, ‘That was the character of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.'”

 

XV. Cursing and Defamation

 

245. The believer is not a defamer

309. Salim ibn ‘Abdullah said, “I never heard ‘Abdullah ever curse anything.” Salim mentioned that ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr said, “It is not fitting for a believer to be a curser.”

310. Jabir ibn ‘Abdullah reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Allah does not love the loud and coarse nor the one who shouts in the markets.”

311. ‘A’isha reported that some Jews came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, “Poison (‘sam’ instead of ‘salam’) be upon you.” ‘A’isha said, “And upon you and may the curse of Allah and the anger of Allah be upon you!” The Prophet said, “Easy, ‘A’isha, you must be gentle. Beware of harshness and coarseness.” She asked, “Didn’t you hear what they said?” He said, “Didn’t you hear what I said? I repeated it to them and what I said about them will be accepted and what they said about me will not be accepted.”

312. ‘Abdullah reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “A believer is not a defamer nor a curser nor coarse nor obscene.”

313. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “A person who is two-faced cannot be trusted.”

314. ‘Abdullah said, “The most blameworthy thing in a believer’s character is coarseness.”

315. ‘Ubayd al-Kindi al-Kufi reported that he heard ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib said, “The cursers are cursed.”

The transmitter, Marwan ibn Mu’awiya, said that he means those who curse other people.

 

246. Someone who curses

316. Abu’d-Darda’ reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Those who curse will be neither witnesses nor intercessors on the Day of Rising.”

317. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The true person must not be a curser.”

318. Hudhayfa said, “People do not cure one another without that curse coming true.”

 

247. The person who curses his slave and then frees him

319. ‘A’isha reported that Abu Bakr cursed one of his slaves and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Abu Bakr! The cursers and the true! No, by the Lord of the Ka’ba,” and he repeated that two or three times. That very same day Abu Bakr freed one of his slaves. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came and said, “Do not do that again (i.e. curse someone).”

 

248. Cursing one another with the curse of Allah, with the anger of Allah, and with the Fire

320. Samura reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Do not curse one another with the curse of Allah, not the anger of Allah nor with the Fire.”

 

249. Cursing an unbeliever

321. Abu Hurayra said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was asked, “Messenger of Allah, invoke a curse for us against the idolaters.’ He replied, ‘I was not sent as a curser. I was sent as a mercy.'”

 

250. Slander

322. Himam said, “We were with Hudhayfa when he was told, ‘A man has a hadith going back to ‘Uthman.’ Hudhayfa said, ‘I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, “A mischief-maker will not enter the Garden.”‘”

323. Asma’ bint Yazid reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Shall I tell you who is the best of you?” “Yes,,” they replied. He said, “Those who remind you of Allah when you see them.” He went on to say, “Shall I tell you who is the worst of you?” “Yes,” they replied. He said, “Those who go about slandering, causing mischief between friends in order to separate them, and desiring to lead the innocent into wrong action.”

 

251. Someone who hears about an indecency and then spreads it about

324. ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib said, “The person who says something indecent and the person who makes it known are equal as far as the wrong action is concerned.”

325. Shubayl ibn ‘Awf said, “It is said, ‘Whoever hears something indecent and then spreads it is like the one who originated it.'”

326. ‘Ata thought that an exemplary punishment should be carried out on anyone who makes adultery known. He said, “He has made indecency known.”

 

252. The fault-finder

327. Hukaym ibn Sa’d heard ‘Ali say, “Do not be hasty, spreading and divulging secrets. Ahead of you lies a severe, distressing affliction and events which would take a long time explain namely oppressive conflicts.”

328. Ibn ‘Abbas said, “When you want to mention your companion’s faults, remember your own faults.”

329. Ibn ‘Abbas spoke about the words of Allah Almighty, “Do not find fault with one another” (49:11) and he said that these words mean, “Do not attack one another.”

330. Ad-Dahhak said, “It was about us (the Banu Salima) that these words were revealed, ‘Do not find fault with one another’ (49:11)” He went on to say, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came to us and there was not a man among us who did not have two names. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, began to say, ‘O so-and-so!’ and they said, ‘Messenger of Allah! That will make him angry!'”

331. ‘Ikrima was heard to say, “I do not know which o f them, either Ibn ‘Abbas or Ibn ‘Umar, was giving his companions food, and a slavegirl was working in their presence. One of them said to her, ‘Harlot!’ He said, ‘Easy! If she does not exact the hadd punishment (i.e. for slander) from you in this world, she will take it from you in the Next World.’ The man said, ‘And what do you think if it (what I said) is the truth?’ He replied, ‘Allah does not love anyone who greatly exceeds the sounds in speaking of indecencies.”

332. ‘Abdullah reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said. “The believer is neither a defamer nor a curser nor outrageous nor obscene.”

 

XVI. Praising People

 

153.What has come about praising people

333. Abu Bakr reported that a man was mentioned in the presence of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and someone praised him. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Woe to you! You have cut off the head of your companion!” and he repeated that several times. He went on, “If one of you must praise someone, he should say, ‘I consider that so-and-so is such-and-such.’ Allah is the One who will take account of him if he thinks that he is indeed like that, No one can appropriate Allah’s right to attest to someone’s character.”

334. Abu Musa reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, heard a man praise another man and he was using exaggeration in his praise of him. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “You have destroyed or broken the man’s back.”

335. Ibrahim at-Taymi reported that his father said, “We were sitting with ‘Umar and one man praised another man to his face.” He said, “You have wounded the man. May Allah wound you.”

336. Zayd ibn Aslam reported that his father heard ‘Umar state, “Praise is slaughter.” The transmitter added, “He meant when it is accepted.”

 

154. Someone who praises his companion when he feels safe about him*

[* He is certain that his praise will nor produce pride or vanity.]

337. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The best of men is Abu Bakr. The best of men is ‘Umar. The best of men is Abu ‘Ubayda. The best of men is Usayd ibn Hudayr. The best of men is Thabit ibn Qays ibn Shammas. The best of men is Mu’adh ibn ‘Amr ibn al-Jamuh. The best of men is Mu’adh ibn Jabal.” Then he said, “The worst of men is so-andso. The worst of men is so-and-so,” until he had named seven men.

338. ‘A’isha said, “A man asked permission to come to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and the Messenger of Allah said, ‘He is an evil son of his tribe.’ When the man came in, the Prophet was courteous and cheerful towards him. When that man left, another man asked permission to come in. He said, ‘He is an excellent son of his tribe.’ When he came in, he was not cheerful towards him as he had been cheerful towards the other man. When he left, I said, ‘Messenger of Allah, you said what you said about so-and-so and yet you were courteous to him. You said what you said about so-and-so and I did not see you do the same.’ He said, ”A’isha, the worst of people are those who are feared on account of their bad language.'”

 

155. Throwing dust in the faces of those who praise people

339. Abu Ma’mar said, “A man began to praise one of the amirs. Al-Miqdad began to throw dirt in his face and said, ‘The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, commanded us to throw dust into the faces of those who praise people.'”

340. ‘Ata’ ibn Abi Rabah reported that a man was praising another man in the presence of Ibn ‘Umar. Ibn ‘Umar began to throw dust towards his mouth. He said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘When you see those who praise people, throw dust in their faces.'”

341. Raja’ said. “One day Mihjan and I went to the mosque of the people of Basra. Burayda al-Aslami was sitting there by one of the mosque doors. Inside the mosque there was a man called Sabka who used to make the prayers long. We came to the mosque door which had a fringed woollen cloth over it. Now Burayda was someone who made jokes.

He said, ‘Mihjan, don’t you pray as Sabka prays?’ Mihjan did not answer and went back. Mihjan said, ‘The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, once took me by the hand and we went together to the top of Uhud. He looked down on Madina and said, “Woe to a town whose people will abandon it when it becomes very prosperous. Then the Dajjal will come to it and find two angels at each of its gates, so he will not enter it.” Then he went down until we reached the mosque and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, saw a man praying, prostrating and bowing. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, asked me, “Who is this?” and I began to praise him, saying, “Messenger of Allah, this is so-and-so and so-and-so.” “Stop!” he said, “Do not let him hear or you will destroy him.”‘”

Raja’ continued, “He began to walk until he reached his rooms and then he began to shake the dust off his hands and said, ‘The best part of your deen is the easiest of it.’ and he repeated that three times.”

 

156. The person who praises in poetry

342. Al-Aswad ibn Suray’ said, “I came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, ‘Messenger of Allah, I have praised Allah and you in poems of praise and eulogies.’ He said, ‘As far as your Lord is concerned, He must be praised,’ and so I began to recite them. Then a tall bald man asked for permission to enter. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, told me, ‘Be silent.’ The man came in and spoke for a time and then left. Then I recited again. Then the other man came back and he made be silent again. Then the man left again. That happened two or three times. I asked, ‘Who is this man for whom I must be silent?’ He replied, ‘This is a man who does not like vain things.'”

[It is said that it was ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab]

 

157. Giving to a poet when you fear his evil

343. Abu Nujayd said, “A poet came to ‘Imran ibn Husayn and ‘Imran gave him something. ‘Imran was asked, ‘You give to a poet?’ He said, ‘I am preserving my reputation (from his satire).'”

 

XVII. Visiting and Guests

158. Do not honour your guest in a way which will be burdensome for him

344. Ibn ‘Awn reported, “They used to say, ‘Do not honour your guest in a way which will be burdensome for him.'”

 

159. Visiting

345. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “When a man visits his brothers, Prophet tells him, ‘You have been good and your evening will be good and you can take your place in the Garden.'”

346. Umm ad-Darda’ said, “Salman came from al-Mada’in (Ctesiphon) to Syria to visit us on foot wearing a shirt (kisa’) and trousers.” Shawdhab said, “Salman was seen wearing a short with all his hair shaved off and his large ears showing. He was told, ‘You have made yourself ugly.’ He replied, “The real good is the good of the Next World.'”

 

160. Someone who visits people and eats with them

347. Anas ibn Malik reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, visited one of the houses of the Ansar and ate some food with them. When he left, he asked for a place in the house and some water was sprinkled on a carpet for him. He prayed on it and made supplication for them.

348. ‘Abdullah, the client of Asma’, said, “Asma’ sent me a black wool shirt which had a brocade border a span wide on its sleeves. She said, ‘This is the of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. He used to wear it for delegations and on Jumu’a.”

349. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar said, “‘Umar found a silk robe and brought it to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, ‘Buy this and wear it on Jumbo’s and when delegations come to you.’ The Prophet, peace be upon him, replied, ‘Only someone who has no portion in the Next World wears this.’ Then the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was brought some robes and sent one robe to ‘Umar, one to Usama, and one to ‘Ali. ‘Umar said, ‘Messenger of Allah! You have sent this to me when I heard you say what you said about it.’ The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘You can sell it or take care of your needs with it.'”

 

161. The Excellence of Visiting

350. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “A man visited a brother of his in a village, so Allah put an angel in wait for him on the road. He asked, ‘Where are you going?’ He replied, ‘To a brother of mine in this village.’ He said, ‘Is he responsible for some blessing you have?’ He said, ‘No, I love him for Allah.’ He said, ‘I am a messenger of Allah to you. Allah loves you as you love him.'”

 

162.When a man loves people and cannot join them

351. Abu Dharr said, “I asked, ‘Messenger of Allah, what if a man loves a people but cannot join them?’ He replied, ‘Abu Dharr, you are with the one you love.’ I said, ‘I love Allah and His Messenger.’ He said, ‘Abu Dharr, you are with the one you love.'”

352. Anas reported that a man asked the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, “Prophet of Allah, when will the Final Hour come?” He said, “Have you not made preparation for it?” He replied, ” I am not prepared for a terrible event , but I love Allah and His Messenger.” He said, “A man is with the one he loves.”

Anas remarked, “I never saw the Muslims rejoice, except for the day that they became Muslim, more than they rejoiced on that day.”

 

XVIII. The Elderly

163. The excellence of the older person

353. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Anyone who does not show mercy to our children nor acknowledge the right of our old people is not one of us.”

354. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr ibn al-‘As reported that it reached him that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Anyone who does not show mercy to our children nor acknowledge the right of our old people is not one of us.”

355. The same from ‘Amr ibn Shu’ayb.

356. The same from Abu Umama.

 

164. Respect for the Old

357. Al-Ash’ari said, “Part of respect for Allah is to show respect to an old Muslim and to someone who knows the Qur’an, as long as he does not go to excess in it nor turn away from it, and to respect a just ruler.”

358. Same as 354.

 

165. The old person should be the first to speak and ask

359. Rafi’ ibn Khudayj and Sahl ibn Abi Hathama reported that ‘Abdullah ibn Sahl and Muhayyisa ibn Mas’ud came to Khaybar and parted when they were among the palm trees. ‘Abdullah ibn Sahl was murdered. ‘Abdu’r-Rahman ibn Sahl and Huwayyisa and Muhayyisa, the sons of Mas’ud came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and spoke to him about their (murdered) companion. ‘Abdu’r-Rahman, the youngest of those present, began to speak, but the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Let the oldest speak first.” (or “Exalt the eldest.”) They spoke about their companion and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, asked, “Will fifty of you take an oath that you are entitled to the blood-money of your murdered man?” They replied, “Messenger of Allah, this is something which we did not see.” He said, “Then will the Jews exonerate themselves by the oaths of fifty of them?” They protested, “Messenger of Allah, they are unbelievers!” So the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, himself paid his blood money.”

 

166.When an older person does not speak, can the youngest speak then?

360. Ibn ‘Umar said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘Tell me which tree is like the Muslim? It gives fruits at all times by the permission of its Lord and its leaves do not fall.’ It occurred to me that it was the palm tree, but I did not want to speak as Abu Bakr and ‘Umar, may Allah be pleased with them, were both present. When they did not speak, the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘It is the palm tree.’ When I left with my father, I said, ‘Father, I thought that it was the palm,.’ He asked, ‘What kept you from saying that? If you had said so, I would have preferred that to such-and-such.’ I said, ‘What kept me from doing so was that I did not see you or Abu Bakr speak, so I did not like to speak out.'”

 

167. Making the old leaders

361. Hakim ibn Qays ibn ‘Asim reported that then his father was dying. he enjoined his sons: “Fear Allah and make the oldest among you your leaders. When people make the oldest among them their leaders, they follow their fathers. When they make the youngest among them their leaders, that lowers them in the sight of their peers. You must have wealth and use it well. It is an impetus for the generous and it will make you independent of critics. Beware of asking people. It is a man’s last source of earning. When I die, do not wail. There was no wailing for the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. When I die, bury me in land where the Bakr ibn Wa’il will not know where I am died. I used to waylay on the roads in the time of the Jahiliyya.”

 

XIX. Children

168. Fruits are given to the youngest of children

362. Abu Hurayra said, “When the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was brought new dates, he said, ‘O Allah! Bless us in our city and in our mudd and sa’, blessing upon blessing.’ Then he would give one to the youngest of the children with him.”

 

169. Mercy towards children

363. ‘Amr ibn Shu’ayb reported from his grandfather that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Anyone who does not show mercy to our children nor acknowledge the right of our old people is not one of us.”

 

170. Embracing children

364. Ya’la ibn Murra said, “We went out with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and we were invited to eat. Husayn was playing in the road and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, raced the people and then spread out his arms. The boy began to run this way and that and the Prophet made him laugh until he caught hold of him. He put one of his hands under his chin and the other on his head and then embraced him. Then the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘Husayn is from me and I am from Husayn. Allah loves anyone who loves Husayn. Al-Husayn is one of my distinguished descendants.'”

 

171. A man kissing a small girl

365. Bukayr reported that he saw ‘Abdullah ibn Ja’far kissing Zaynab, the daughter of ‘Umar ibn Abi Salama when she was about two years old.

366. Al-Hasan said, “If you avoid looking at the hair of anyone in your family except your wife or a little girl, then do so.”

 

172. Stroking a child’s head

367. Yusuf ibn ‘Abdullah ibn Sallam said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, named me Yusuf and let me sit in his room and stroked my head.”

368. ‘A’isha said, “I used to play with dolls in the presence of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and my friends would play with me. When the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, entered, they would hide from him and he would call them to join me and they would play with me.”

 

173. A man saying, “My son” to a child

369. Abu’l-‘Ajlan al-Muharibi said, “While I was in the army of Ibn az-Zubayr, a cousin of mine died and bequeathed one of his camels to be used in the Cause of Allah. I told his son, ‘Give me the camel since I was in the army of Ibn az-Zubayr.’ He replied, ‘Let us go to Ibn ‘Umar and ask him about the matter.’ We went to Ibn ‘Umar and he said, ‘Abu ‘Abdu’r-Rahman, my father died and bequeathed one of his camels to be used in the Cause of Allah. This is my cousin who is in the army of Ibn az-Zubayr. Shall I give him the camel?’ Ibn ‘Umar replied, ‘My son, the Cause of Allah includes every good action. if you father left his camel to be devoted to the Cause of Allah, I see that there are Muslim people who are carrying out expeditions against the idolaters, so give the camel to them. This man (Abu’l-‘Ajlan) and his companions are sons of a people who wish to use the seal (i.e. the seal authority, meaning to rule the people.).'”

370. Jarir reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Allah Almighty will not show mercy to the person who does not show mercy to other people.”

371. ‘Umar was heard to say, “Anyone who does not show mercy will not be shown mercy. Anyone who does not forgive will not be forgiven. Anyone who does not pardon will not be pardoned or protected.”

 

XX. Mercy

 

174. The Most Merciful of those in the earth

372. ‘Umar was heard to say, “Anyone who does not show mercy will not be shown mercy. Anyone who does not forgive will not be forgiven. Anyone who does not turn in repentance will not be turned to nor will he be protected or guarded.”

373. Mu’awiya ibn Qurra reported that his father said, “A man said, ‘Messenger of Allah, I was going to slaughter a sheep and then I felt sorry for it (or ‘sorry for the sheep I was going to slaughter’).’ He said twice, ‘Since you showed mercy to the sheep, Allah will show mercy to you.'”

374. Abu Hurayra said, “I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, the truthful confirmed one, Abu’l-Qasim, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, ‘Mercy is only removed from the one who is destined for wretchedness.”

375. Jarir reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Allah will not show mercy to a person who does not show mercy to other people.”

 

175. Mercy towards the family

376. Anas ibn Malik said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was the most merciful of people towards members of his family. He had his son (Ibrahim) suckled in part of Madina and the husband of his wet-nurse was a blacksmith. We used to go to him and the house would be full of smoke from the bellows. He would kiss the child and take him in his lap.”

377. Abu Hurayra said, “A man came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, with a child which he began to embrace. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said. ‘Do you show mercy towards me?’ ‘Yes,’ the man replied. He said, ‘Allah is more merciful towards you than you are towards this child. He is the Most Merciful of the merciful.;:

 

176. Mercy to animals

378. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “One day a man became very thirsty while walking down the road. He came across a well, went down into it, and drank and then climbed out. In front of him he found a dog panting, eating the dust out of thirst. The man said, ‘This dog is as thirsty as I was.’ He went back down into the well and filled his show, putting it into his mouth (in order to climb back up) and then gave the dog water. Therefore Allah thanked him and forgave him.” They said, “Messenger of Allah, will we have a reward on account of animals?” He said, “There is a reward on account of every living thing.”

379. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “A woman punished her cat by imprisoning it until it died of hunger and because of it, she entered the Fire. It was said and Allah knows best: ‘You did not feed it nor give it water when you imprisoned it nor did you release it and let it eat from the plants of the earth.”

380. ‘Abdullah ibn al-‘As reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Show mercy and you will be shown mercy. Forgive and Allah will forgive you. Woe to the vessels that catch words (i.e. the ears). Woe to those who persist and consciously continue in what they are doing.”

381. Abu Umama that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Anyone who shows mercy, even to an animal meant for slaughtering, will be shown mercy by Allah on the Day of Rising.”

 

177. Taking an egg from a small bird

382. ‘Abdullah reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, stopped in a place and then someone took a bird’s eggs and the bird began to beat its wings around the head of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. He asked, “Which of you has taken its eggs?” A man said, “Messenger of Allah, I have taken its eggs.” The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Return them out off mercy to the bird.”

 

178. Birds in cages

383. Hisham ibn ‘Urwa reported that Ibn az-Zubayr was in Makka and the Companions of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, were carrying birds in cages.

384. Anas said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came in and saw a son of Abu Talha’s called Abu ‘Umayr. He had a sparrow which he used to play with.” He said, “Abu ‘Umayr, what happened to (or where is) the little sparrow?'”

 

XXI. Social Behaviour

 

179. Relating good things between people

385. Umm Kulthum, the daughter of ‘Uqba ibn Abi Mu’ayt, reported that she heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, “Someone who makes peace between people by saying something good or relates something good is not a liar.”

She said, “I did not hear him make an allowance for any lie that people utilise except in three cases: making peace between people, a man speaking to his wife, and a woman speaking to her husband.”

 

180. A liar is not behaving correctly

386. ‘Abdullah reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “You must be truthful. Truthfulness leads to dutifulness and dutifulness leads to the Garden. A man continues to tell the truth until he is written as a siddiq with Allah. Beware of lying. Lying leads to deviance and deviance leads to the Fire. A man continues to lie until he is written as a liar with Allah.”

387. ‘Abdullah said, “Lying is not correct, neither in seriousness nor in seriousness nor in jest. None of you should promise his child something and then not give it to him.”

 

181. Someone who is patient when people injure him

388. Ibn ‘Umar reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The believer who mixes with people and endures their injury is better than the person who does not mix with people nor endure their injury.”

 

182. Enduring injury

389. Abu Musa reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “No one nothing is more patient in enduring an injury which he hears than Allah Almighty. They claim that He has a son, and yet He still cures them and provides for them.”

390. ‘Abdullah said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, swore an oath like one of the oaths that people swear and a man of the Ansar said, ‘By Allah, it is not an oath by which the Face of Allah Almighty is desired.” I said, ‘I will tell the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. I went to him while he was with his Companions and I spoke to him in confidence. It clearly affected him greatly, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and his face changed colour so that I wished that I had not told him. Then he said, ‘Musa was injured with greater than that and he endured it.'”

 

183. Improving a state of friendship

391. Abu’d-Darda’ reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Shall I tell you a degree better than prayer, fasting and sadaqa?” “Yes,” they replied. He went to say, Improving a state of friendship. Causing discord in a state of friendship is what shaves things away.”

392. Regarding the ayat, “Fear Allah and put things right between you,” (8:1), Ibn ‘Abbas said, “This is an injunction from Allah to the believers to fear Allah and to put things right between them.”

 

184. When you lie to a man and he believes you

393. Sufyan ibn Usayd al-Hadrami reported that he heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, “It is great treachery to tell something to your brother so that he believes you when you are lying to him.”

 

185. Do not make a promise to your brother and then break it

394. Ibn ‘Abbas reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Do not dispute with your brother. Do not make dun of him. Do not make a promise to him and then break it.”

 

186. Attacking Lineage

395. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “There are two courses that my Community will not abandon: wailing and attacking a person’s lineage.”

 

187. A man’s love for his people

396. A woman called Fusayla said that she heard her father say, “I asked, ‘Messenger of Allah, is it part of disobedience for a man to help his people in something which is unjust?’ ‘Yes,’ he replied.”

XXII. Separation

 

188. Separating oneself from people

397. ‘Awf ibn al-Harith ibn at-Tufayl, the nephew of ‘A’isha, reported that ‘A’isha was told that ‘Abdullah ibn az-Zubayr had said about something which ‘A’isha was selling or giving away as a gift, “By Allah, if she does not stop, I will debar her from disposing of her property!” She asked, “Is that truly so?” “Yes,” they replied. ‘A’isha exclaimed, “I vow to Allah that I will never again speak a single word to Ibn az-Zubayr!”

Ibn az-Zubayr sought intercession through the Muhajirun with her when she had kept apart from him for a long a time. She stated, “By Allah, I will not let anyone intercede for him, and I will never break the vow which I have made!”

After that had been going on for a long time, Ibn az-Zubayr spoke to al-Miswar ibn Makhrama and ‘Abdu’r-Rahman ibn al-Aswad ibn Yaghuth who were from the Banu Zuhra. He told them, “I ask you by Allah to got to ‘A’isha, for it is not lawful for her to vow to cut me off.” Al-Miswar and ‘Abdu’r-Rahman took him along with their cloaks wrapped around him and asked ‘A’isha’s permission to enter and visit her. They said, “Peace be upon Allah and the mercy of Allah and His blessings! May we come in?” “Come in,” ‘A’isha replied. They asked, “All of us, Umm al-Mu’minin?” “Yes,” she answered, “you can all come in,” not realising that Ibn az-Zubayr was with them.

When they came in, Ibn az-Zubayr went into the screened-off section and embraced ‘A’isha and began to pleased with her in tears. Then al-Miswar and ‘Abdu’r-Rahman began to plead with ‘A’isha to speak to him and accept him. They said, “You know that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade cutting people off, as you know, and you know that it is not lawful for a Muslim to refuse to speak to his brother for more than three nights.” They continued to remind her and make things difficult for her until she began to remind them (of her vow) and weep, saying, “I have made a vow, and the vow is strong.” They kept at her until she spoke to Ibn az-Zubayr. Then she freed 40 slaves to atone for breaking her vow. After that whenever she remembered her vow, she would free forty slaves, and she wept until her tears made her veil wet.”

 

189. Separating oneself from Muslims

398. Anas ibn Malik reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Do not hate one another nor envy one another nor shun one another. Slaves of Allah, be brothers! It is not lawful for a Muslim to refuse to speak to his brother (Muslim) for more than three nights.”

399. Abu Ayyub, the Companion of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “It is not lawful for anyone to cut himself off from his Muslim brother for more than three nights so that when they meet, one of them turns his face away in avoidance and the other one turns his face away as well. The better of them is the one who initiates the greeting.”

400. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Do not hate one another nor contend with one another. Slaves of Allah, be brothers.”

401. Anas reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Two people do not love each other in Allah Almighty or in Islam if the first wrong action that one of them does creates a split between them.”

402. Hisham ibn ‘Amir al-Ansari, the nephew of Anas ibn Malik whose father was killed in the Battle of Uhud, that he heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, “It is not lawful for a Muslim to snub another Muslim for more than three nights. As long as they are cut off from each other, they are turning away from the Truth. The first of them to return to a proper state has his expiation for that inasmuch as he was the first to return to a proper state. if they die while they are cut off from each other, neither of them will ever enter the Garden. If one of them greets the other and he refuses to return the greeting or accept his greeting, then an angel returns the greeting to him and Shaytan answers the other.”

403. ‘A’isha mentioned that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, told her, “I can see you when you are angry or pleased.” She asked, “How do you see that, Messenger of Allah?” He replied, “When you are pleased, you say, ‘Yes, by the Lord of Muhammad.’ But when you are angry, you say, ‘No, by the Lord of Ibrahim.'” She said that she replied, “Yes, I only cut out your name.”

 

190. A person who cuts himself off from his brother for a year

404. Abu Khirash al-Aslami reported that he heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, “Whoever snubs his brother for a year has split his blood.”

405. ‘Imran ibn Abi Anas reported from a man of Aslam who was one of the Companions of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Snubbing a believer for a year is like spilling his blood.”

 

191. Those who refuse to speak to one another

406. Abu Ayyub al-Ansari reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “It is not lawful for a Muslim to refuse to speak to his (Muslim) brother for more than three days so that when they meet, one goes this way and the goes that way. The better of the two is the one who initiates the greeting.”

407. Hisham ibn ‘Amir heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, “It is not lawful for a Muslim to snub another Muslim for more than three nights. As long as they are cut off from each other, they are turning away from the Truth. The first of them to return to a proper state has his expiation for that in asmuch as he was the first to return to a proper state. If they die while they are cut off from one another, neither of them will ever enter the Garden.”

 

192. Generosity

408. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Do not hate one another and do not envy one another. Let the slaves of Allah be brothers.”

409. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “You will find that the worst of people in the sight of Allah on the Day of Rising will be the two-faced person who presents one face to a group of people and another face to a different group of people.”

410. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Beware of opinion. Opinion is the most lying form of speech. Do not try to ensnare one another (in sales) nor envy one another nor hate one another nor shun one another. Rather be the slaves of Allah and brothers.”

411. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The gates of the Garden are opened on Mondays and Thursdays. Every person who does not associate anything with Allah is forgiven except for someone who has enmity between existing between him and another man. It is said, ‘Leave these two until they make peace.'”

412. Abu’d-Darda’ said, “Shall I tell you about something better for you than sadaqa and fasting? Improving the state of friendship. Hatred is what shaves things away.”

413. Ibn ‘Abbas reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Three things are not concealed and He forgives everything else to whomever He wills: the one who dies and has not associated anything with Allah, the one who was not a sorcerer nor a follower of the sorcerers, and the one who did not have rancour towards his brother.”

 

193. The salam makes up for shunning

414. Abu Hurayra reported that he heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, “It is not lawful for a Muslim man to refuse to speak to a believer for more than three days. When three days have passed, he should meet him and greet him. If he returns the greeting, they share in the reward. If he does not return the greeting, the one who gives the greeting is innocent of having severed relations.”

 

XXII. Advice

 

194. Separating young people

415. Salim ibn ‘Abdullah reported from his father that ‘Umar used to say to his sons, “Separate in the morning and do not meet together in the same house. I fear that you might split up or that some evil may take place between you.”

 

195. Someone giving advice to his brother when he has not been asked for advice

416. Ibn ‘Umar saw a shepherd with some sheep in a bad place and saw a place which was better than it. He told him, “Woe to you, shepherd! Move them! I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, ‘Every shepherd is responsible for his flock.'”

 

196. The person who dislikes bad

417. Ibn ‘Abbas reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “We do not give a bad example. The one who takes back his gift is like the dog who returns to his own vomit.”

 

197.What was mentioned about tricks and deception

418. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The believer is guileless and generous while the corrupt is a swindler and miserly.”

 

XXIII. Defamation

 

198. Defamation

419. Ibn ‘Abbas said, “Two men defamed one another in the time of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. One of them reviled the other who remained silent. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, remained seated. Then the other man answered him back and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, got up. He was asked, “You got up?” He said, “The angels left, so I left with them. While this man was silent, the angels were answering the one who cursed him. When he answered, the angels left.”

420. Umm ad-Darda’ reported that a man came up to her and said, “A man has said bad things about you in the presence of ‘Abdu’l-Malik.’ She said, “We are suspected of something which we did not do. How often we have been praised for what we did not do!”

421. ‘Abdullah said, “When a man says to his companion, ‘You are my enemy,’ then one of them has left Islam or he is innocent of what his companion said.'” Abu Juhayfa reported that ‘Abdullah added, “Except the one who repents.”

 

199. Giving water

422. Ibn ‘Abbas said, “There are 360 joints and each of them owes sadaqa every single day. Every good word is sadaqa. A man’s helping his brother is sadaqa. A drink of water which he gives is sadaqa. Removing something harmful from the road is sadaqa.”

 

200.When two people revile one another, the responsibility for what they say rests on the first to speak

423. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “When two people revile each other, the responsibility for what they say rests on the first to speak as long as the one who wronged does not become excessive.”

424. As 423, but from Anas.

425. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Do you know what calumny is?” They said, “No, Prophet and His Messenger know best.” He said, “Telling people what other people have said in order to create dissension between them.”

426. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Allah Almighty revealed to me that you should be humble and that you should not wrong one another.”

 

201. Those who revile one another are two shaytans who accuse one another and deny one another

427. ‘Iyad ibn Himar said, “I said, ‘Messenger of Allah, there is someone who reviles me.’ The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘Those who revile one another are two shaytans who accuse one another and deny one another.'”

428. ‘Iyad ibn Himar reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Allah has revealed to me that you should be humble so that none of you will oppress anyone else and none of you will disdain another.’ I said, ‘Messenger of Allah, what do you think I should do when a man reviles me in a low assembly and then I answer him back? Do I incur any wrong action in doing that?’ He replied, ‘Two men who revile one another are two shaytans who accuse one another and deny one another.'”

428. (sic) ‘Iyad said, “I was at war with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and I gave him a she-camel before I became Muslim. He said, “I dislike the froth of the idolaters.”

 

202. Reviling a Muslim is deviant behaviour

429. Sa’id ibn Malik reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Reviling a Muslim is deviant behaviour.”

430. Anas said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was neither coarse nor a curser nor a reviler, He used to say when he wanted to censure someone, ‘What is wrong with him? May his brow be dusty!'”

431. ‘Abdullah reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Reviling a Muslim is deviant behaviour and killing him is disbelief.”

432. Abu Dharr is reported as saying that he heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, “If a man accuses another man of deviance or accuses him of disbelief, that accusation will come back on him if his companion is not as he said.”

433. Abu Dharr states that he heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, “A person who knowingly claims a father other than his own has disbelieved. A person who claims to be from a people when he is not one of them will take his place in the Fire. A person who calls a man an unbeliever or says, ‘Enemy of Allah,’ when that is not the case will have that come back on him.”

434. Sulayman ibn Surad, one of the Companions of the Prophet, said, “Two men reviled one another in the presence of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and one of them became angry. He became so angry that his face puffed out and changed colour. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘I know some words which will make what he feels depart if he says them.’ The man came to him and told him what the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had said, He said, ‘Seek refuge with Allah from the Accursed Shaytan.’ He said, ‘Do you think that there is something wrong with me? Am I mad? Leave!'”

435. ‘Abdullah said, “There is a veil from Allah Almighty between every two Muslims. When one of them says ugly words to his companion, he has rent the veil of Allah. When one of them tells the other, ‘You are an unbeliever,’ then one of them has disbelieved.”

 

203. Someone who does not say things directly to people

436. ‘A’isha said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did something and thereby created a dispensation for doing it. Some people still refrained from doing. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, heard about that and he gave a speech and praised Allah. Then he said, ‘What is wrong with people who restrain themselves from doing something which I do? By Allah, I know Allah better than they do and I fear Him more than they do!'”

437. Anas said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, rarely told a man something to his face which he disliked. One day a man came to him with a trace of yellowish scent on him. When he stood up, he said to his Companions, ‘If only he would change or remove this yellow!'”

 

204.When someone calls someone else a hypocrite without meaning it literally

438. ‘Ali said. “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, sent for me and az-Zubayr ibn al-‘Awwam while we were both on horseback and said, ‘Go to such-and-such a meadow. There is a woman there who has a letter with her from Hatib to the idolaters. Bring her to me.’ We found her rising along on one of her camels as the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had described her. We said, ‘[Give us] the letter you have with you.’ ‘I do not have any letter,’ she replied.

We searched and her camel. My companion said, ‘I do not see it.’ I said, ‘The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, does not lie. By the One in whose hand my soul is, I will strip her unless she produces it!’ She put her hand in the knot of her shawl as she was wearing a black shawl and brought it out. We went back to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. ‘Umar exclaimed, ‘He (i.e. Hatim) has betrayed Allah, His Messenger, and the believers! Let me strike off his head!’ He asked, ‘What made you do it?’ Hatim said, ‘I believe in Allah, but I want to have some authority with the people.’ He said, ;He has spoken the truth, ‘Umar. Was he not present at Badr? Perhaps Allah has looked on them and said, “Do whatever you like. The Garden is guaranteed for you.”‘ ‘Umar wept and said, ‘Allah and His Messenger know best.””

 

205. Someone says calls his brother an unbeliever

439. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “If a man says to his brother, ‘You are an unbeliever,’ it is true for one or the other of them.”

440. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “When someone says to another, ‘Unbeliever!’ then one of them is an unbeliever. If the one to whom he says it is an unbeliever, he has spoke the truth. If that is not the case, then the one who said it has brought down disbelief on himself.”

 

206. The gloating of enemies

441. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to seek refuge from an evil end and the glaoting of enemies.

 

XXIV. Extravagance in Building

207. Extravagance in Property

442. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Allah is pleased with you about three things and He is angry with you about three things. He is pleased that you worship Him, not associating anything with Him, that you all take hold of the rope of Allah and that you give good counsel to those that Allah has put in authority over you. He dislikes you engaging in chitchat, asking a lot of questions and squandering wealth.”

443. In commenting on the words of Allah Almighty, “Anything you spend will be replaced by Him. and He is the best of Providers,” (34:39) Ibn ‘Abbas said, “without extravagance or parsimony.”

 

208. Those who squander

444. Abu’l-‘Ubaydayn said, “I asked ‘Abdullah about those who squander and he said, ‘They are those who spend incorrectly.'”

445. Ibn ‘Abbas said that he said that “the squanderers” were those who wasted money incorrectly.

 

209. Improving Houses

446. Zayd ibn Aslam reported from his father that ‘Umar used to say on the minbar, “O people! Improve your homes but be careful about these house snakes [which are a form of jinn] before they make you afraid. Those among them which are Muslim will not be clear to you and, by Allah, we have not made peace with them since the time when we treated them as an enemy.”

 

210. Building expenses

447. Khabbab said, “A man is rewarded for everything except building.”

 

211. A man working with his workers

448. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr was heard to say to a nephew of his who had left al-Waht, “Are your workers at work?” “I don’t know,” he replied. He said, “If you were clever, you would work as your workers work.” Then he turned towards us and said, “When a man works with his workers in his house (and Abu ‘Asim once said, ‘in his property’), he is one of the workers of Allah Almighty.”

 

212. Making buildings tall

449. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The Final Hour will not come until people compete with one another in the height of their buildings.”

450. Al-Hasan said, “I used to go into the houses of the wives of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, during the khalifate of ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan, and I could touch their ceilings with my own hand.”

451. Da’ud ibn Qays said, “I saw that the rooms were made from the stumps of palm trees covered on the outside with smoothed hair. I think that the width of the house from the door of the room to the door of the house was about six or seven spans. The width of the room inside was ten spans. I think that the ceiling was between seven and right, or there about. I stopped at the door of ‘A’isha, which was facing the west.”

452. ‘Abdullah ar-Rumi said, “I visited Umm Talq and exclaimed, ‘How low the ceiling of your room is!’ ‘My son,’ she replied, ‘the Amir al-Mu’minin, ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, wrote to his workers telling them: “Do not make your buildings tall. That will come about in the worst of your days.”‘”

 

213. The person who builds

453. It is reported that Habba ibn Khalid and Sawa’ ibn Khalid came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, while he was repairing a wall or a building of his, and they helped him.

454. Qays ibn Abi Hazm said, “We went to visit Khubbab after he had been cauterised seven times. He said, ‘Our Companions who came before us have gone and this world did not cause the, loss. We have been struck by an affliction for which we find no place to put it down except the earth. If it were no that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade us to pray for death, we would pray for it.'”

455. He continued, “Then we came to him another time while he was building a wall and his and he said, ‘The Muslim is rewarded for everything on which he spends money except for what he spends on dust.’

456. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went by while I was repairing a hut I owned. He said, ‘What is this?’ I replied, ‘I am mending my hut, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.’ He said, ‘The business is too swift for that.'”

 

214. A spacious dwelling

457. Nafi’ ibn al-Harith reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Part of a man’s happiness is a spacious dwelling, a good neighbour, and a good mount.”

 

215. A person who has upper rooms

458. Thabit reported that he was with Anas in a corner above one of his rooms. He said, “We heard the adhan and he came down and I came down as well. He took short stops and said, ‘I was with Zayd ibn Thabit and I walked with him in this fashion. He said, “Do you know why I did it to you? The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, walked in this manner and he said, ‘Do you know why I walked with you?’ I replied, ‘Allah and His Messenger know best.’ He said, ‘So that there would be a greater number of steps in search of the prayer.'”‘”

 

216. Painting buildings

459. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The Final Hour will not come until people build houses which are like coloured garments.”

460. Warrad, the scribe of al-Mughira ibn Shu’ba, said, “Mu’awiya wrote to al-Mughira, saying, ‘Write down for me what you heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say.’

So he wrote to him, ‘The Prophet of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to say at the end of every prayer, “There is no god but Allah alone with no partner. His is the Kingdom and His is the praise and He has power over everything. O Allah, none can withhold what You give nor can anyone give what You withhold. Nor will the wealth of someone with wealth help him against You.’ He also write to him, ‘He forbade gossip, asking too many questions, and wasting money. He forbade disobeying mothers, burying daughters alive, and he forbade asking people (without real need).'”

461. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “None of you will be saved by his actions?” “Not even you, Messenger of Allah?” they asked. “Not even me,” he replied, “unless Allah covers me with mercy from Him. But act correctly and wisely and worship in the morning and evening and during part of the night. Keep to a middle path and you will arrive.”

 

XXV. Compassion

 

217. Compassion

462. ‘A’isha, the wife of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “A group of Jews came to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, “Poison (‘sam’ instead of ‘salam’) be upon you.” ‘A’isha said, “I understood it and said, ‘And poison be upon you and the curse of Allah!’ The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, ‘Easy, ‘A’isha! Allah loves compassion in everything.’ I said, ‘Didn’t you hear what they said?’ The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, replied, ‘I already said, “and upon you”.'”

463. Jarir ibn ‘Abdullah reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Whoever is denied compassion is denied good.”

464. Abu’d-Darda’ reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Whoever has been given his portion of compassion has been given his portion of good. Whoever is denied given his portion of compassion has been denied his portion of good. Good character will be the weightiest thing in the believer’s balance on the Day of Rising. Allah hates a coarse, foul-mouthed person.”

465. ‘A’isha reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Forgive rightacting people their slips.”

466. Anas reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “If there is roughness in anything it is bound to disgrace it. Allah is compassionate and loves compassion.”

467. Abu Sa’id al-Khudri said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was more modest than a virgin in her tent. When he disliked something, we recognised that in his face.”

468. Ibn ‘Abbas reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Right guidance, good behaviour and aiming for what is just and correct is a seventieth part of prophethood.”

469. ‘A’isha, may Allah be pleased with her, said, “I was on a camel which was somewhat intractable and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, remarked, ‘You must be compassionate. Whenever there is compassion in something, it adorns it, and when it is removed from something it disgraces it.”

470. Sa’id al-Maqburi reported from his father that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Beware of avarice. It destroyed those before you. They shed one another’s blood and broke off relations with their relatives. Injustice will appear as darkness on the Day of Rising.”

 

218. Compassion in livelihood

471. Kathir ibn ‘Ubayd said, “I visited ‘A’isha, the Umm al-Mu’minin, may Allah be pleased with her. She said, ‘Wait until I sew up my garment.’ So I waited and said, ‘Umm al-Mu’minin, when I go out, I will tell them that your enemy is miserliness.’ She said, ‘Look to your own business. There are no new clothes for anyone who does not wear shabby clothes.'”

 

219.What a slave is given for compassion

472. ‘Abdullah ibn Mughaffal reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Allah is compassionate and loves compassion. He gives for compassion what He goes not give for harshness.”

 

220. Calming

473. Anas ibn Malik reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Make things easy and do not make things difficult. Calm people and do not arouse their aversion.”

474. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr said, “A guest stayed among the tribe of Israel and there was a dog in the house. They said, ‘Dog, do not bark at our guest. The puppies were suckling from it. They mentioned it to one of their Prophets who said, ‘This is like a community which will come after you and whose fools will overcome its men of knowledge.”

 

221. Harshness

475. ‘A’isha said, “I was on a camel that was somewhat intractable and I began to beat it. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘You must be compassionate. Whenever there is compassion in something, it adorns it, and whenever it is removed from something it disgraces it.”

 

XXVI. Attending to this world

476. Abu Nadra said, “One of our men called Jabir or Jubayr said, ‘I went to ‘Umar while he was Khalif to ask for something which I needed. I reached Madina during the night and went straight to him. I am someone with intelligence and a ready tongue or he said speech (meaning eloquence). I had looked at this world and thought little of it. I had abandoned it as not being worth anything. At ‘Umar’s side there was a man with white hair and white clothes. When I had finished speaking, he said, “All that you have said is correct except for your attack on this world. Do you know what this world is?

This world is that in which we reach (or he said, ‘where our provision is’) the Next World. It contains our actions for which we will be rewarded in the Next World.” He said, “A man who knows this world better than I do worked in it.” I asked, “Amir al-Mu’minin, who is this man at our side?” He replied, ‘The master of the Muslims, Ubayy ibn Ka’b.'”

 

222. Putting Property in Order

478. Hanash ibn al-Harith reported that his father said, “One of our men had a mare which became pregnant which he then slaughtered, saying, ‘Will I live long enough to ride this horse?’ Then we received ‘Umar’s letter telling us to attend to the provision that Allah has given us in order to make it thrive since there is still time in the business.”

479. Anas ibn Malik reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “If the Final Hour comes while you have a palm-cutting in your hands and it is possible to plant it before the Hour comes, you should plant it.”

480. Dawud ibn Dawud said, “‘Abdullah ibn Sallam said to me, ‘If you hear that the Dajjal has come out while you are planting young palm trees, it is not too soon to put it in order, for people will still have livelihood after that.”

 

223. The supplication of the one who is wronged

481. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “There are three supplications which are answered: the supplication of the person who is wronged, the supplication of the traveller, and the supplication of a parent for his child.

 

224. Asking Allah for provision because of His words, “Provide for us and You are Best of Providers.”

482. Jabir reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, on the minbar. He looked towards the Yemen and said, “O Allah, bring their hearts,” and he looked towards Iraq and said something similar. He looked towards every horizon and said the like of that. He said, ‘O Allah, provide for us out of the legacy of the earth and bless us in our mudd and our sa’.”

 

XXVII. Injustice

 

225. Injustice is Darkness

483. Jabir ibn ‘Abdullah reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Fear injustice. Injustice will appear as darkness on the Day of Rising. Fear avarice. Avarice destroyed people before you and led them to shed one another’s blood and to make lawful what was unlawful for them.”

484. Jabir reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “During the final days of my community there will be distortion, slander and tyranny, and it will begin with people who commit injustices.”

485. Ibn ‘Umar reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Injustice will appear as darkness on the Day of Rising.”

486. Abu Sa’id reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “When the believers are saved from the Fire, they will be stopped on a bridge between the Garden and the Fire. They were be interrogated concerning the injustices which occurred between them in this

world. When they have been cleansed and they have been disciplined, then they will be given

permission to enter the Garden. By the One who holds the soul of Muhammad in His hand, one of

them is better guided in his position than he was in this world.”

487. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Beware of injustice. Injustice will appear as darkness on the Day of Rising. Beware of coarseness. Allah does not love those who are coarse and foul mouthed. Beware of avarice for it destroyed those before you. They cut off their relatives. Allah summoned them and they made lawful what was unlawful.”

488. Jabir reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Beware of injustice. Injustice will appear as darkness on the Day of Rising. Fear avarice. It destroyed those before you and caused them to shed one another’s blood and to make lawful what was unlawful.”

489. Abu’d-Duha said, “Masruq and Shutayr ibn Shakal met in the mosque. The people sitting in circles in the mosque moved towards them. Masruq said, ‘I can only think that these people are gathering around us in order to hear good from us. If you relate from ‘Abdullah, I will confirm you. If I relate from ‘Abdullah, you can confirm me.’ He said, ‘Abu ‘A’isha, relate!’ He said, ‘Did you heart ‘Abdullah say, “The eyes commit fornication. The hands commit fornication. The feet commit fornication, and then the genitals either confirm or deny that”?’ ‘Yes,’ he replied, ‘I have heard it.’ He said, ‘Did you hear ‘Abdullah say, “There is no ayat in the Qur’an which is greater in combining the halal and the haram and the command the prohibition than this ayat: ‘Allah commands to justice and doing good and giving to relatives’ (16.90)?”‘ ‘Yes,’ he replied, ‘I have heard it.’ He said, ‘Did you hear ‘Abdullah say, “There is no ayat in the Qur’an swifter in bringing relief than His words, “Whoever has taqwa of Allah He will give him a way out” (65:20?’ ‘Yes,’ he replied, ‘I have heard it.’ He said, ‘Did you hear ‘Abdullah say, “There is no ayat in the Qur’an stronger in entrusting things to Allah than His words, “My slaves, you have transgressed against yourselves, do not despair of the mercy of Allah” (39:53)?’ ‘Yes,’ he replied, ‘I heard that.'”

490. Abu Dharr reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, reported that Allah, the Blessed and Exalted, said: “My slaves! I have forbidden injustice for Myself and I have made it forbidden among you, so do not wrong one another.

“My slaves! You err by night and day and I forgive wrong actions and do not care. Ask me for forgiveness and I will forgive you.

“My slaves! All of you are hungry unless I have fed you, so ask Me to feed you, and I will feed you.

All of you are naked unless I have clothed you, so ask Me to clothe you and I will clothe you.

“My slaves! If all of you, the first of you and the last of you, the jinn among you and the men among you, were to be as godfearing as the most godfearing heart of any one of you, that would not add anything to My kingdom. If they were to be as corrupt as the most corrupt heart of any one of you, that would not decrease anything in My kingdom. If they were to join together in one place and then ask of Me, and I gave every man among them what he asked for that, that would not reduce My kingdom at all, except as the sea is decreased if a needle is dipped into it.

“My slaves! It is only your actions which I have appointed for you. Whoever finds good should praise Allah. Whoever finds other than that should only blame himself.'”

Continue to Part 3,

Source: Book of Imam Al-Bukhari, Al-Adab al-Mufrad

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Keep Away From Mutual Enmity


By Shaykh Muhammad al-Ghazali

When a quarrel intensifies, when its roots go deeper, its thorns become branches and branches increase in number, then the freshness of the fruits of faith is adversely affected. Softness, sympathy, satisfaction and peace, which are encouraged by the Islamic teachings, receive a setback. Performance of worship loses its righteousness, while the self get no benefit from it.

Many a time mutual quarrels perturb the persons who claim to be wise. When this happens, they take recourse to lowly and superficial things, and sometimes indulge in dangerous acts which only increase difficulties and bring troubles. When a man is displeased, his eyes become prejudiced and ignore the camel and object to gnat. Such eyes do not appreciate the beauty of the peacock, for they only see its ugly feet and claws. If a slight defect is present, it turns the molehill into a mountain. And sometimes the internal rancour and jealousy affect them so badly that no hesitation is felt in inventing imaginary stories. Islam disapproves of all these manifestations of ill feeling and advises to abstain from them. It declares their avoidance as the most virtuous form of worship.

The Prophet said: “Listen, may I not tell you something more important than salat, fasting and charity?” The people requested him to do so. He said: “To keep the mutual relationship on the right footing, because the defect in the mutual relationship is a thing which shaves a thing clean. I do not mean that it shaves the hair, but that it shaves (removes) the religion.” (at-Tirmidhi)

Many a time Satan is not able to persuade wise men to worship idols, but since he is very keen on misguiding and ruining men, he manages to succeed in driving them away from God, so much so that these wise men become more indifferent in respecting the rights of God than the idolaters themselves. The best method adopted by the devil for this purpose is to sow the seeds of enmity in the hearts of the people. When this enmity develops into a fire and open hostilities result, he enjoys the scene. This fire burns man’s present and future into ashes and totally destroys their relationship and virtues.

The Messenger of Allah said: “The Satan has been disappointed that he would not be worshipped in the Arabian Peninsula, but he has not been disappointed from kindling the fire of fighting among the people.” (Muslim)

It means that when wickedness takes roots in the hearts, when people start hating love and brotherhood, and when these are destroyed, people then revert to cruelty and enmity, and break all those relations and links which Allah has commanded to be kept; thus spreading corruption on this earth.