Fiqh of Ramadhan (Fast, Taraweeh, Lailatul Qad’r, Ai’tekaaf, Sadaqa Fitr)

The fasting in Ramadhan is Fard on every sane, baligh (mature) man or woman. To deny fasting as being Fard is Kuf’r, and not to fast without a valid excuse (acceptable in Shariah) is a sin and Fis’q.

  • A traveller (while travelling) and an ill person (during illness) has the permission not to fast, but he/she will have to make up the missed fasts

  • Even in the state of travelling, if it is NOT hard, cumbersome, and difficult then it is better to fast.

  • If a person is too old to fast (i.e. too weak), or an ill person who cannot fast and the prognosis for recovery is slim then fidya has to be paid for the missed fasts.

  • The fidya for one missed fast is to give food to a poor person in the morning and the evening (to his/her fill), or to pay money equal to Sadaqatul Fitr (cash value of approximately 1.75 Kg of wheat) to a poor person.

  • Even after paying the fidya, if the person recovers sufficiently then the fasts have to be made up.

  • If the fidya couldn’t be paid in the lifetime then make a will, and the heirs should fulfil the conditions of the will.

  • If there is a chance of endangering the life of the child for a pregnant woman, then it would be permissible for her NOT to fast, but to complete them later.

  • Similarly if there has a chance of endangering the life of a child for a mother (providing milk for the child), then it would be permissible for her NOT to fast, but to complete them later.

  • It is NOT permissible for a woman to fast during periods of impurity, she should complete them later.

  • Just like all other forms of worship making an intention is necessary for fasting. Intention is made in the heart, it is NOT necessary to utter the words from the mouth, but it is a better to utter the intention.

  • A separate intention should be made for every fast in Ramadhan.

  • The time to make an intention is from the starting of the night till Zawal, however it is better to make intention during the night.

  • To eat Sehri is Sunnah, and to eat Sehri is equal to making intention, whether the words of intention are uttered or not.

  • Sehri cannot be eaten after Subh-Sadiq, if something is eaten after Subh-Sadiq then the fast will NOT be valid.

  • If a person eats after Subh-Sadiq thinking that he/she still has time (makes a mistake), and later learns that the time was finished; then this fast will NOT be valid and it would have to be made up later.

  • It is Sunnah and an act of Barkat to break the fast without delay after sunset.

  • Unnecessary haste should be avoided while opening the fast. If a person breaks the fast before sunset and later learns that the it was premature, then the fast in NOT valid, and it would have to completed later. But Kaffara would NOT be necessary.

  • It is Sunnah to open the fast with dates, otherwise substances like milk are preferred.

  • Duas are accepted at Iftar, therefore Duas should be made before or after Iftar (when a person is done with all other affairs, and with piece of mind).

  • The reward of helping some one to open fast is the same as fasting itself. And to feed a fasting person (with food) is even more virtuous, such a person is promised Jannah and he will be given water from Kauthar.

  • It is Mustahab (desirable) to be clean (Paak) and engaged in Tilawat-e-Qur’an, Dhik’r, giving charity, teaching and learning during the fast.

     

THINGS WHICH BREAK THE FAST, AND QADDA AND KUFFARA BOTH HAVE TO PERFORMED:

  • To intentionally use something which is used as food or medicine.

  • To intentionally have sex with a woman, even though ejaculation has NOT occurred.

  • If someone applied oil in their hair, or Surma in their eyes and think that the fast is broken, therefore intentionally eats or drinks

    KAFFARA: is to fast continuously for two months. One cannot fast off and on. If due to sickness or some other reason this continuity is broken, then the two month fasting will have to start again. If a person doesn’t have the capability to fast for two months continuously, then 60 poor people would have to feed for one morning or evening (to their fill) or the an amount euqal to Sadaqutul-Fitr would have to be paid to 60 poor people.

     

THINGS WHICH BREAK THE FAST, BUT ONLY QADDA HAS TO BE PERFORMED:

  • If some medicine or oil is put in the ear or the nose.

  • If a person intentionally vomits equal to a mouthful.

  • If a person intentionally eats or drinks something which is normally NOT used for consumption, i.e. a piece of metal, rock etc.

  • If some one is coerced into putting something in the mouth, and it goes down the throat.

  • If some one intentionally swallows a little bit of vomit.

  • If fibres of meat etc. (equal to or bigger then the size of a chick-pea) stuck in between the teeth and it goes down the throat.

  • If someone takes out the fibres of meat etc. stuck in between the teeth, and then puts it back in the mouth and swallows it (irregardless of the size).

  • If a fly, excessive dirt, the smoke from a Loban or incense is taken in intentionally.

  • If ejaculation occurs while engaged in kissing or foreplay.

  • If the teeth bleed, and the blood is swallowed along with the spit (only if the blood is more then the spit).

  • If a person unintentionally eats, and then eats “intentionally” thinking that the fast has been broken.

  • If a person continues to eat Sehri thinking that Subh-Sadiq has NOT occurred, but later on finds out that Sehri was taken after Subh-Saidq.

  • If due to clouds, mist etc. a person breaks his fast, but later on finds out that the sun was NOT set.

THINGS, WHICH ARE MAKROOH DURING FASTING:

  • To taste something (with the condition that the taste doesn’t go down the throat). However if the wife or the servant of a person with bad manners and a short temper does this, then it will NOT be Makrooh.

  • To chew something without the need or necessity. However if food is given (after chewing) to a small child which the child will not be able to eat otherwise is NOT Makrooh.

  • To perform a task which will sufficiently weaken a person to the point that the fast may have to be broken.

  • To gargle or to take the water really high up in the nose.

  • To collect spit in the mouth unnecessarily.

  • To stay Napaak (impure) for the whole day.

  • To use Toothpaste (or Manjan), with the condition that the taste doesn’t go down the throat. If the taste goes down the throat then the fast will be broken.

THINGS, WHICH DON’T BREAK THE FAST:

 

  • To eat or drink in forgetfulness, whether once or numerous times.

  • If a person sees another individual eating and he is too weak to bear fasting then such an individual shouldn’t be reminded. However if the individual is strong and healthy then it is Waajib to remind him of fasting.

  • To use Surma, oil in the hair or to smell fragrances.

  • To have a nocturnal emission (wet-dream).

  • If a fly, excessive dirt, the smoke from a Loban or incense, or spit, or vomit (less then a mouthful), is taken in unintentionally. Also to use Miswak (wet or dry), or to pour water in the ear unintentionally.

  • If a person after eating Paan, washes his mouth thoroughly and gargles, but there is some tint of redness in the spit.

MASAIL’ OF TARAVEEH:

  • To pray twenty Rakaats of Taraveeh is Sunnah-Moa’kidah. This is the ijmah of the Sahaba. A person NOT performing this; is Tarik-e-Sunnah (one who has left the Sunnah) and should be scolded.

  • Taraveeh starts after Esha, it is NOT correct to pray or lead Taraveeh before Esha.

  • If the news of moon sighting is reached after Esha and Wit’r have been prayed, then Taraveeh still needs to be prayed.

  • During the sitting after the four Rakaats of Taraveeh, anything can be read (i.e. Tasbeeh, Durud, Dua etc.) or a person can keep quiet. It is NOT correct to set something for this purpose.

  • Taraveeh is Sunnah-al-Kiffayah, i.e. at least someone from the neighbourhood has to perform Taraveeh otherwise the whole neighbourhood will be sinful.

  • It is NOT necessary to keep making intentions after every two Rakaats of Taraveeh, as a matter of fact according to traditions it is better to make one intention for all twenty Rakaats.

  • The leading of Taraveeh by a Hafiz who is Na-Baligh (under the age of fifteen) is NOT correct.

  • A person who misses his Esha Jamaat, or performs Esha at home can still join the Taraveeh.

  • If a qari misses a verse or two, then these missed verses should be recited and the verses after the missed verses should be reread for the sake of continuity.

  • A Na-Baligh (under the age of fifteen) Hafiz can correct the Imam.

  • It is NOT correct to have the Taraveeh lead by an Imam who shaves or trims his beard (less then a fist).

  • Certain individuals stay seated and then get up and join the Taraveeh when the Imam is about to go into Ruku, such acts without a valid excuse are Makrooh.

  • It is HARAM to recite the Qur’an after obtaining wages. There will be NO reward, whether the wages are pre-set or NOT, conditional or NOT.

  • Some women don’t perform Taraveeh, it is Sunnah-Moa’kidah for both men and women.

     

THE VIRTUES OF SHAB-E-QAD’R (NIGHT OF POWER):

Surely, We sent it down during the Night of Decree.

And what shall make thee know what the Night of Decree is ?

The Night of Decree is better than a thousand months.

Therein descend angels and the Spirit by the command of their Lord with

Divine decree concerning every matter.

It is all peace till the rising of the dawn.

Abu Huraira (RA) narrates that Nabi Kareem (pbuh) said, “A person who stands (for worship) on the night of Lailatul Qad’r with Eeman and the intention for reward will have all of sins expiated. (Bukhari and Muslim)
Anas (RA) narrates that Nabi Kareem (pbuh) said, “A month has come upon you which has a night which is better then a thousand months. And whosoever is deprived of this night is indeed deprived of all which is good. And no one is deprived this goodness, except the one who is really unfortunate. (Mishkat) 

Aisha (RA) asked Nabi Kareem (pbuh), “if I were to find Lailatul Qad’r which dua should I make?” Nabi Kareem (pbuh) replied, “Make this dua”

“O Allah! You are the Most Forgiving, you love forgiveness, so forgive me”

AA’MAL OF SHAB-E-QAD’R (NIGHT OF POWER):

The Hukum of Qiyam (standing) is mentioned in the Hadeeth. Therefore it is better if the whole night is spent in Nawafil prayers, and Qur’an is read in these Nawafil prayers. If a person gets tired while performing Nawafil then Qur’an (outside of prayer) should be recited, the Kalima, Durood, Astaghfar, Subhanullah, Alhumdolillah, AllahuAkbar, Third Kalima, Munajat-e-Maqbool, Dalail-e-Khairat, Hisn-eHaseen and other duas should also be recited. Special duas should be made for one’s self, family and others with deep devotion. The dua mentioned in the Hadeeth should be recited in abundance. Try not to waste a moment of this night in idle talk, or vain pursuits. The whole night should be spent in the Masjid with the intention of Ai’tekaaf. It is better if Salat-ul-Tasbeeh is also read in this night. Since there is NO determined night for Shab-e-Qad’r (Night Of Power), and it mentioned to be in the odd numbered nights of the last ten days of Ramadhan, these Aa’mal should be carried out in all of the odd numbered nights.

AI’TEKAAF:

  • Ai’tekkaf in the last ten days of Ramadhan is Sunnah Moakkida Ala Kiffayah.

  • If someone performs Ai’tekaaf out of the neighbourhood then it would be sufficient otherwise the whole neighbourhood will be sinful for leaving Sunnah Moakkida.

  • It is best to perform Ai’tekaaf in Masjidul Haram, them Masjidun Nabawi, Masjidul Aqsa in the merit of reward.

  • It is permissible to perform Ai’tekaaf in the Masjid where Jummah is NOT performed, Jummah prayer should be performed in another Masjid.

  • Women should reserve a place in their home for Ai’tekaaf.

  • For sunnah Ai’tekaaf leave for the Masjid before Maghrib (sunset) on the 20th of Ramadhan and perform the intention of Ai’tekaaf before sunset.

  • Apart from the last ten days of Ramadhan, Ai’tekkaf is Mustahab (desirable) at any time. When staying (even for a little while) the intention of Ai’tekaaf can be made. This is indeed very virtuous.

  • Masjid is the area that has been designated as Masjid by the people (committee) intentionally. The residence of Imam, Wudu-khana, the place to call the Adhan is NOT part of the Masjid, therefore going to these place would break the Ai’tekaaf.

  • For doing Ghusl or answering the call of nature it is permissible to leave the premises of the Masjid and go to a nearby location (if facilities don’t exist in the Masjid). If there are no such places nearby, then would be permissible to go home, but the person should return as soon as his needs are met and talking should be kept to necessities only.

  • If there is no one to bring the food, then it would be permissible to venture outside to eat.

  • If there is no one else to cook, then it would be permissible for a women in her place Ai’tekkaf to cook.

  • If the intention was made to attend a janaza at the time of time of beginning of the Ai’tekaaf, then it would be permissible to attend it.

  • It is Mustahab to engage in Dhik’r, Durud, Tasbeeh, Tilawat, and reading of religious Books etc. Some people cover their faces and don’t talk to anyone, such behaviour sometimes becomes show and a person in Ai’tekaaf shouldn’t become completely mute and silent.

SADAQATUL-FITR:

  • Sadaqatul-Fitr Waajib on every individual who is NOT considered poor. Such individuals might NOT have Zakat Fard on them, however they may have some assets equal to the amount on which Zakat becomes Fard (whether these assets are for trade or not, or whether a year has passed or not).

  • Sadaqatul-Fitr has to be paid whether the person has fasted or not.

  • It is Waajib for the father to pay Sadaqatul-Fitr for the Na-Baligh children, if a Baligh child is insane then the father has to give Sadaqatul-Fitr.

  • It is better for Sadaqatul-Fitr to be given before the Eid prayers, however if someone gives Sadaqatul-Fitr in Ramadhan it would be valid.

  • If some one does’nt pay Sadaqatul-Fitr on Eid day, then it has to be paid some other day. Passing of Eid has no bearing on the paying of Sadaqatul-Fitr.

  • Sadaqatul-Fitr can be given to the people who are liable for Zakat. However Sadaqatul-Fitr can be given to the poor Non-Muslims but Zakat can only be given to Muslims.

  • If wheat, wheat flour or Sattu is to be given for Sadaqatul-Fitr, then approximately two kilograms should be given. Four kilograms of barley or barley flour should be given .Any other grain should be given in the amount of approximately two kilograms (in value, not in weight).

  • It is better to pay in cash value rather then wheat, barley or other grains. 


    By Maulana Muhammad Abdur-Rahman Abid

     

Advertisements

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s